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Automotivedesign Automotive design

Chassis*design
*pronounced:chase singular chasez plural

Introduction
Loads due to normal running conditions: Loadsduetonormalrunningconditions:
Vehicletransverseonunevenground. Manoeuverperformedbydriver. p y

Fivebasicloadcases:
Bending case Bendingcase Torsioncase Combinedbendingandtorsion g Lateralloading Foreandaftloading g

Bending
Occupants

Payload Fueltank

Duetoloadingin vertical(XZ)plane. Duetoweightof componentsalong components along thevehicleframe. Staticconditionvehicle structurecanbetreated as2Dbeam. Unsprung mass

Engine

Wheels/ braking b ki

Suspension

Vehicleisapproximatelysymmetricinxyplane. pp y y yp Componentsliebelowchassis Do not impose loads in static condition Donotimposeloadsinstaticcondition.

Bendingmoment/Shearforcediagramofatypical passengervehicle hi l

Bending
Dynamicloading:
Inertiaofthestructurecontributesintotalloading Alwayshigherthanstaticloading Roadvehicles:2.5to3timesstaticloads Offroadvehicles:4timesstaticloads
m g

E Example: l
Staticloads
Vehicleatrest. Movingataconstantvelocityonaevenroad. Moving at a constant velocity on a even road. Canbesolvedusingstaticequilibriumbalance. Resultsinsetofalgebraicequations.

Dynamicloads
V hi l Vehiclemovingonabumpyroadevenatconstantvelocity. i b d t t t l it Canbesolvedusingdynamicequilibriumbalance. Generallyresultsindifferentialequations.
m g

m a

Torsion
Whenvehicletraverseonan unevenroad. d Frontandrearaxles experiencesamoment. Pure simple torsion: Puresimpletorsion:
Torqueisappliedtooneaxle andreactedbyotheraxle. Frontaxle:anticlockwise torque(frontview) Rearaxle:balanceswith clockwisetorque Resultsinatorsionmoment Results in a torsion moment aboutx axis.
Rearaxle l

Frontaxle

Inrealitytorsionisalways accompaniedbybendingdue togravity. t it

Torsion
Rearaxle l

Frontaxle

Combinedbendingandtorsion Combined bending and torsion


Bendingandtorsionalloadsaresuper imposed.
Loadingsareassumedtobelinear

Onewheelofthelightlyloadedaxleisraised onabumpresultintheotherwheelgooff ground. Allloadsoflighteraxleisappliedtoone All loads of lighter axle is applied to one wheel. Duetonatureofresultingloads,loading symmetrywrt xzplaneislost. RR canbedeterminedfrommoment balance. balance RRstabilizesthestructurebyincreasingthe reactionforceonthesidewherethewheelis offground. Themarked
Sideisoffground Sidetakesallloadoffrontaxle Sidesreactionforceincreases Sidesreactionforcedecreases

Bending g

Torsion

tobalancethemoment.

Combinedbendingandtorsion

Lateralloading Lateral loading

Lateralloading Lateral loading


Foramoderncart=1.45mandh =0.51m. 0 51 m Criticallateralacceleration=1.42 g y Inrealitysideforceslimitlateral accelerationislimitedwithin0.75 g. Kerb bumpingcauseshighloads andresultsinrollover. and results in rollover Widthofcarandreinforcements providessufficientbending stiffnesstowithstandlateral forces. forces Lateralshockloadsassumedto betwicethestaticverticalloads onwheels.

Longitudinalloading Longitudinal loading


Whenvehicleacceleratesand deceleratesinertiaforceswere d l t i ti f generated. Acceleration Weight transferredfromfronttoback. transferred from front to back
Reactionforceonfrontwheelis givenby(takingmomentabt RR)

Deceleration Weight transferredfrombacktofront.


Reaction force on front wheel is Reactionforceonfrontwheelis givenby

Longitudinalloading Longitudinal loading


Limitingtractiveand g brakingforcesare decidedbycoefficient offrictionb/wtiresand of friction b/w tires and roadsurfaces Tractive and braking andbraking forcesaddsbending throughsuspension. Inertiaforcesadds additionalbending.

Asymmetricloading Asymmetric loading


Resultswhenonewheelstrikesa raisedobjectsordropsintoapit. Resolvedasverticalandhorizontalloads. Magnitude of force depends on Magnitudeofforcedependson
Speedofvehicle Suspensionstiffness Wheelmass Wheel mass Bodymass

Raised object`

Appliedloadisashockwave
Whichhasverylesstimeduration h hh l d Hencethereisnochangeinvehiclespeed Actsthroughthecenterofthewheel.

Asymmetricloading Asymmetric loading


Resolvedverticalforcecauses:
Additionalaxleload VerticalinertialoadthroughCG Torsionmoment

tomaintaindynamicequilibrium. to maintain dynamic equilibrium Resolvedhorizontalforce causes:


Bending in xz plane Bendinginx zplane Horizontalinertialoadthrough CG Momentaboutzaxis

tomaintaindynamicequilibrium. Totalloadingisthe superpositionofallfourloads.

Allowablestress Allowable stress


Vehiclestructureisnotfullyrigid y g Internalresistanceorstressisinducedtobalance externalforces Stressshouldbekepttoacceptablelimits
StressduetostaticloadXdynamicfactoryieldstress
Should not exceed 67% of yield stress Shouldnotexceed67%ofyieldstress.

Safetyfactoragainstyieldis1.5 Fatigueanalysisisneeded g y
Atplacesofstressconcentration Eg.Suspensionmountingpoints,seatmounting points. points

Bendingstiffness Bending stiffness


Important in structural stiffness Importantinstructuralstiffness Sometimesstiffnessismoreimportantthan strength Determinedbyacceptablelimitsofdeflection ofthesideframedoormechanisms. of the side frame door mechanisms.
Excessivedeflectionwillnotshutdoorproperly

Local stiffness of floor is important Localstiffnessoffloorisimportant


Stiffenedbyswagespressedintopanels Second moment of area should be increased Secondmomentofareashouldbeincreased

Bendingstiffness Bending stiffness


Thin panels separated by honeycomb Thinpanelsseparatedbyhoneycomb structurereducedvibration Local stiffness has to be increased at: Localstiffnesshastobeincreasedat:
Door B Bonnet Suspensionattachpoints Seatingmountingpoints Achievedbyreinforcementplatesandbrackets.

Torsionalstiffness Torsional stiffness


Allowabletorsionforamediumsizedcar:8000to10000N m/deg / Measuredoverthewheelbase When torsion stiffness is low: Whentorsionstiffnessislow:
Structuremove upanddown and/orwhip Whenparkedonunevengrounddoorsfailtoclose Doors fail to close while jacking if jack points are at a corner Doorsfailtoclosewhilejackingifjackpointsareatacorner

Torsionstiffnessisinfluencedbywindscreens TSreducesby40%whenwindscreensremoved Opentopcarshavepoortorsionalstiffness O h i l iff Handlingbecomesverydifficultwhentorsionalstiffnessis low.

Chassistypes Ladderframes Chassis types Ladder frames


Usedbyearlymotorcars Earlycarsbodyframedidnot contributemuchforvehicle structure.
Mostlymadeofwood whichhaslow stiffness Cross beam

Carriedallload(bendingand torsion) Advantages:


Canaccommodatelargevarietyof bodyshapesandtypes body shapes and types Usedinflatplatforms,boxvans, tankersanddetachablecontainers

Siderails

Stillusedinlightcommercial vehicleslikepickup.

Chassistypes Ladderframes Chassis types Ladder frames


Siderailsfrequentlyhaveopen channelsection Openorclosedsectioncrossbeams Goodbendingstrengthandstiffness Flangescontributelargearea momentofinertia. Flangescarryhighstresslevels Opensection:easyaccessforfixing O i f fi i bracketsandcomponents Shearcenterisoffsetfromtheweb Localtwistingofsideframeis Local twisting of side frame is avoided Loadfromvehicleisappliedonweb
Avoids holes in highly stresses flanges Avoidsholesinhighlystressesflanges

Verylowtorsionalstiffness.

Chassistypes Ladderframes Chassis types Ladder frames


Clockwisesideframebending

Torsionincrossmemberis reactedbybendingofside db b d f d frames Bendingincrossframesare reactedbytorsionofside t db t i f id frames Allmembersareloadedin torsion Opensectionsarereplaced byclosedsectionsto improvetorsionalstiffness improve torsional stiffness
Strengthofjointsbecomescritical Maxbendingoccursatjoints Attachmentofbracketsbecomes morecomplex l

Anticlockwisecrossframetorsion

Chassistypes cruciformframes Chassis types cruciform frames


Cancarrytorsionalloads,no elementsoftheframeis subjectedtotorsionalmoment. Madeoftwostraightbeams Haveonlybendingloads Have only bending loads Hasgoodtorsionalstiffnesswhen jointincenterissatisfactorily designed Maxbendingmomentoccursin joint. Combiningladderandcruciform Combining ladder and cruciform frameprovidesgoodbendingand goodtorsionalstiffness Crossbeamsatfrontandbackat Cross beams at front and back at suspensionpointsareusedto carrylateralloads

Chassistypes Torquetubebackbone frame Backbone


Mainbackboneisaclosed boxsection Splayedbeamsatfrontand rearextenttosuspension rear extent to suspension mountingpoints Transversebeamsresist lateralloads lateral loads Backboneframe:bending andtorsion Splayedbeams:bending Transversebeams:tension orcompression or compression
Splayedbeams

Transverse beam

Chassistypes Spaceframes Chassis types Space frames


Inallframestillnowlengthinone dimensionisverylesscompared totheothertwodimensions h h di i Increasingdepthincreases bendingstrength Usedinracecars Allplanesarefullytriangulated Beamelementscarryeither y tensionorcompressiveloads. Ringframesdependsonbending ofelements
Windscreen,backlight Enginecompartment,doors Lowershearstiffness

Indiagonalbracedframes stiffnessprovidedbydiagonal element

Chassistypes Integralstructures Chassis types Integral structures


Moderncarsaremassproduced Sheetsteelpressingsandspotwelds Sh t t l i d t ld usedtoformanintegralstructure Componentshavestructuraland otherfunctions Sideframes+depth+roofgivesgood Sid f d h f i d bendingandtorsionalstiffness Geometricallyverycomplicated StressdistributionbyFEMonly Stressdistributionisfunctionof appliedloadsandrelativestiffness betweencomponents Advantages:

Stifferinbendingandtorsion Lowerweight Lesscost Quietoperation Quiet operation

StructuralanalysisbySimpleStructural Surfaces(SSS)method f ( ) h d
Manymethodstodetermine loadsandstresses Elementarymethodisbeam method,FEMisadvanced methodandSSSisintermediate DevelopedbyPawlowski in1964 Determinesloadsinmain structuralelements Elementsareassumedtoberigid initsplane p Cancarryloadsinitsplane
Tension,compression,shearand bending

Loadsnormaltoplaneand bendingoutofplaneisinvalid andnotallowed

SSSmethod Analysisofsimplevan (torsioncase) ( )

SSSmethod Analysisofsimplevan (torsioncase) ( )


Tenstructural componentsare considered If geometry is known and Ifgeometryisknownand axleloadsareknown, edgeloads(Qs)canbe determined. d d Forafullyladenvanfront axleloadislighter. axle load is lighter. BymomentbalanceRr canbedetermined.
R'r Rf * tr = * tf 2 2

SSSmethod Analysisofsimplevan (torsioncase) ( )


TheequilibriumofSSS2andSSS 3areobtainedbytaking 3 are obtained by taking momentsasRf andRr areknown. SSS2(frontcrossbeam)

P2w

Rf * tf = 0 2
R'r * tr = 0 2

SS3(Rearcrossbeam) SS 3 (Rear cross beam)

P3w

P2andP3willbeequalin magnitudeastheyactatthe widthofthevehicleandthe torqueatthefrontandrearmust torque at the front and rear must beequal.

SSSmethod Analysisofsimplevan (torsioncase) ( )


ConsideringSSS6 g Q1 toQ5 willoccur aroundperiphery Appliesopposite momenttoP2 andP3 TakingmomentatA
P 3(l1 + l 2 + l 3) Q 3(l1 + l 2 + l 3 + l 4) Q 4(h1 h 2) Q 2 h 2 P 2l1 = 0

ConsiderSSS4(frontpanel)
Q 6 h 2 Q1w = 0

ConsiderSSS5(reardoorframe)
Q 6 h1 Q 3 w = 0

ConsiderSSS8(floorpanel)
Q 6(l1 + l 2 + l 3 + l 4) Q 2 w = 0

SSSmethod Analysisofsimplevan (torsioncase) ( )

ConsiderSSS9(windscreenframe)
Q 6(h1 h 2) Q5 w = 0 sin

Consider SSS10 (Roof) ConsiderSSS 10(Roof)


Q 6l 5 Q 4 w = 0

SixunknownsQ1 toQ6 SubstituteQ2,Q3 andQ4 intheeqn ofSSS6 Q6 canbeobtainedand b bt i d d hencerestofthe unknownscanbederived

SimpleStructuralSurfaces representingasalooncarin representing a saloon car in bending


MaterialfromJ.H.Smith,2002

Passengercar Passenger car


More complex than box type van Morecomplexthanboxtypevan Detailedmodelvaryaccordingtomechanical components
Frontsuspensionsloadsappliedtofrontwingas forstrutsuspension for strut suspension Rearsuspension(trailingarmortwistbeam)loads toinnerlongitudinalmemberunderthebootfloor to inner longitudinal member under the boot floor SSSsvarieswithbodytypes

VehiclestructuresrepresentedbySSS Vehicle structures represented by SSS

Busorboxtypevehicle Bus or box type vehicle

Van Van

Passengercar P

SSS andNotSSS

Structuresthatarestructuralsurfaces Structures that are structural surfaces

ImagefromJ.C.Brown,2002

StructuresthatareNOTsimple structuralsurfaces l f

ImagefromJ.C.Brown,2002

Halfsaloonmodel Half saloon model


Limited to 5 Loads Limitedto5Loads
F1z=(radiator,bumper,battery)/2 F2 = (engine)/2 2z =(engine)/2 F3z=onefrontpassengerandseat F4z=onerearpassenger,seat,andhalffueltank t d h lf f l t k F5z=(luggage)/2

1UDL(bodyweight) (b h)

Process Process
Calculatereactionsatfrontandrearaxles Ca cu ate eact o s at o t a d ea a es (takingmomentsandverticalforceequilibrium)
Rzf/2 / Rrz/2

CalculateforcesineachoftheSSS 11equationswith11unknowns(K1, ..K10,M) canbeevaluatedfromSSS1toSSS8 Equilibriumofrightframetobeverifiedwith forcesandmoments

HalfSalooncarmodel Half Saloon car model Bending

Figure

Transverse SSS TransverseSSS representingthestrut tower ResolvingForces


K1 + K2 Rf / 2 =0 +K fz /2 0

SSS1 SSS 1

Moments
K1 =Rfz*w1/(2*(w1+w2)) /( (

Figure

SSS2 Upper front longitudinal Upperfrontlongitudinal ResolvingForces


K1 K3 u(l1 +l3) 0 K (l )=0

Moments
K1l3 u*((l1+l3)2/2) M =0 /2)M=0

Figure

SSS3
Lower front longitudinal Lowerfrontlongitudinal ResolvingForces
F1z +F2z +K5 K2 K4 =0 F K 0

Figure

SSS4
engine fire wall enginefirewall ResolvingForcesandby symmetry y y
K5 K6 =0

Figure

SSS5 SSS 5

Floor Cross beam (Front) FloorCrossbeam(Front) Resolvingforcesandbysymmetry


K7K4F3z =0 K F

Figure

SSS6 SSS 6

Longitudinalunderboot Resolvingforces K9+K8 Rrz /2+F5z=0 Moments: K9 =(Rrz*l6/2 F5l10)/(l5+l6)

Figure

SSS7 SSS 7

Floor cross beam (rear) Floorcrossbeam(rear) Resolvingforcesandbysymmetry


K9K11F4z =0 K F

Figure

SSS8 SSS 8
Rear Panel RearPanel Resolvingforcesandby symmetry y y
K10K8 =0

Figure

SSS9 SSS 9

Righthandsideframe Resolving forces Resolvingforces


K6 K7 +K11 +K10 u*(L+l6 l3)=0

Moments about A MomentsaboutA


K10*(L+l6 l3)+K11*(L l3 l5)K7*(l4 l3)u*(L+l6 l3)2/2=0

Conclusion
SSSs 1 to 9 are subject to loads SSSs1to9aresubjecttoloads Therearboottopframe,rearscreen,roof, windscreen,floorpanelandbootfloorhave windscreen floor panel and boot floor have noloadsappliedtothem Th id f Thesideframe carriesthemajorloadsandis i h j l d di themainstructuralmember fordetermining thebendingstiffness andstrength ofthecar. h b di iff d h f h

SSSrepresentationofasalooncarin torsion
Front axle is assumed to Frontaxleisassumedto belighterthanrear. Maximumtorquethat q canbeappliedis: Rfz andRrz arereaction loadsatsuspension mountingpoints Rrz canbeobtained.
Rfz R ' rz * tf = * tr 2 2

SSS1(Struttower)
The ar's ali nment and str t ral Thecar'salignmentandstructural rigiditydependsonthestruttower.

Resolvingforces:
Forcesarenotbalanced.

Momentbalance

Rfz P1+P2 =0 2

Takingmomentaboutthemedial edge

P1 =

Rffz w2 * 2 (w2 +w) 1

P1and P2 can be determined from andP canbedeterminedfrom theaboveequations. Asthisisahalfmodel,loadsonthe leftstruttower(SSS1)willbe equalbutoppositeindirection lb i i di i

SSS2(Upperfrontlongitudinal)
LoadP1 fromstruttoweristransmitted.

Forcebalance
P3 P1 = 0 Momentbalance
P1 isequaltoP3 createsamomentin clockwisedirection moment Mbalances momentM balances Momenttakenwrt rear edge g

M'Pl3 =0 1

SSS2haveequalbutopposite loads. loads P3andMcanbefound.

SSS3(Lowerfrontlongitudinal)
P2 fromstruttoweristransmitted

Forcebalance:
P2 +P4 P5 =0 Momentbalance:
Takenwrt rearedge k d

p2l4 P5 = (l4 l5)

SSS3haveequaland oppositeloads. opposite loads P4andP5canbe found.

SSS5(Floorcross beam)
Momentbalance:

P4(tf 2w2) P7w=0

SSS6(Longitudinalunderbootfloor)
Forcebalance:

R ' rz P9 + P8 =0 2 Momentbalance:
R ' rz * l 6 P 9 will SSS 6willhaveequaland SSS6 = have equal and 2 * (l 6 oppositeloading + l 5 ) P7,P8 andP9 canbefound.

SSS4(Enginefirewall)
Momentbalance:

SSS7(rearfloorcrossbeam)
Momentbalance:

P5(tf 2w2) Qh1Q2w=0 1

SSSr Qh2 flQw=0 b ) SSS8((rearfloorcrossbeam) 81 Pt 9 3


Momentbalance:

SSS10(rearfloorcrossbeam)
r Q 1( h 3 h P 8 tMomentbalance:2 ) Q 4 w = 0

Q 1( h h 1) Q 6w = 0 cos

SSS12(Roofpanel)
Momentbalance:

SSS13(Backlightframe)
Momentbalance:

Ql8 Q7w=0 1

QSSS 14 (T) k tQ 8f w = SSS14(Trunktopframe)) 1( h h 3


cos Momentbalance:

SSS15(rearfloorcrossbeam)
Momentbalance: Ql7 Qw=0 1 9

Q 1( l 5

l 6) Q

10

w = 0

SSS16(Mainfloor)
Momentbalance:

Q1 (SSS11 SSS16arein = 0 L l 5 l 3) Q 11w

complimentaryshear SSS9(sideframe)
MomentaboutA:

Q4(L+l6 l3) +Q3(Ll5 l3) +P7(l4 l3) +M'+Q6(l9cos) Q7(hh1) 11 equations and 11 unknowns 11equationsand11unknowns Qcoc1 ..Q116 l7 l3) Q8sin(h3 h1) 8 Q(L+l .Canbesolved. Q9(h3 h1) Q10(h1h2) Q11(h1) =0

Examinationoffigurereveals:
Shearforceisappliedtoallpanels Includingwindscreenframe,backlight g , g frame,trunkframe,rearpanel,floor panelandtrunkfloorpanel Shouldhavegoodshearstiffness Floorpanelrequiresswagingto preventbuckling. Windscreenframeandbacklightframe mustbeconstructedwithstiffcorner must be constructed with stiff corner joints Thisensuresshearistransferredto roof. Inotherwordstheseframesmustnot shear. Asinglepoorframestiffnesswillresult inpoorvehicletorsional in poor vehicle torsional stiffness

Examinationoffigurereveals:
Windscreenframeandbacklightframe arestiffenedbyglass,whichactsas shearpanel shear panel Glassesarebondedtoframes Thisensuresglassisretainedinfrontal impacts p Glassissubjectedtoshearstress Ifsurroundingframesarelessstiff glassmaycrack Rearpanelandtrunktopframeare subjectedtoshear. These2componentsarenotvery goodSSSsduetolargediscontinuity good SSSs due to large discontinuity causedbytrunklid. Overcomebyhighsillorliftover Thismakespooraccessforloading luggage

Examinationoffigurereveals:
Siderearpanelswhichhousesrear lightsaremadewidelikethesidesof thetrunktopframe. Abetterstructurewillincorporatea panelorcrossbraceintheplaneof rearsearback. rear sear back Mostofthemoderncardonothave thisascustomerspreferfoldingseats.

Computationalmethods Computational methods


Structuralanalysisisnowfundamentalin vehicledesignprocess vehicle design process Finiteelementmethod(FEM)isa promisingtoolinstructuralanalysis Vehiclestructuresaredividedintosmall elements FiniteelementsdeformswhileinSSS structuresareassumedtoberigid Staticand/ordynamicequilibrium equationsalongwithmaterialconstitutive equations along with material constitutive equationsaresolvedusinglinearalgebra ComplexityofFEMincreasedasdetailof vehiclemodelincreases Beamelementsrepresentsills,window Beam elements represent sills window pillars,enginerailsandfloorcrossbeams Floor,roof,bulkheadscanbemodeledby equivalentbeamsthathavestiffness equivalenttoshearpanels equivalent to shear panels

Computationalmethods Computational methods


Recentmodelsuseplate andshellelementsto d h ll l accuratelyrepresentsheet metalcomponents N b Numberofloadsand fl d d numberofelementsresults inaverylargedataset. Long model preparation Longmodelpreparation timeandlongcomputer solvingtime Initial loading to FEM can be InitialloadingtoFEMcanbe derivedusingrigidbody methodslikeSSS.