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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF TREES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN PHILIPPINES, UNIVERSITY TOWN, CATARMAN NORTHERN SAMAR

A thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the College of Science University of Eastern Philippines University Town, Catarman Northern Samar

In Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Biological Sciences (MSBio.Sci)

Florencio Peru Mahinay

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Recent thrust on biodiversity conservation necessitates a comprehensive knowledge on the flora, their distribution and abundance which are important prerequisites for management of protected areas and reserve forests. Tropical forests often are referred to as one of the most species-diverse terrestrial ecosystems. Their immense biodiversity generates a variety of natural resources which help sustain the livelihood of local communities. (Mishra, 1968; Khan et al., 1977; Kumar et al., 2002) However, many tropical forests are under great anthropogenic pressure and require management intervention to maintain the overall biodiversity, productivity and sustainability Kumar et al., (2002). Understanding species diversity and distribution patterns is important for helping managers evaluate the complexity and resources of these forests. Trees form the major structural and functional basis of tropical forest ecosystems and can serve as robust indicators of changes and stressors at the landscape scale. (Mishra, 1968). University of Eastern Philippines (U.E.P) is the only State University in the province of Northern Samar. It was created by virtue of Republic Act 4136 (R.A. 4136). It is located in the Northeastern part of Catarman, Northern Samar. This institution has a total land area of 419 hectares which was a diversity of resources of Flora particularly trees species several decades. At present the rich and bounty resources of this university turn to scare due to physical and structural development. Various species of trees species vanished and the green and healthy environment was adversely affected.

The land utilization record of the university indicated that 22.9 percent or 95.95 hectares of land were forest reserve and water shed areas 16.8 percept or 70.35 hectares coconut land and 14 percent or 58.7 hectares Riceland, 11.5 percent utilized as built areas and 9 percent for experimental areas. However, from the period the university was established until today, no studies have been conducted to determine the species diversity and distribution patterns of trees. Hence this study.

Statement of the Problem This study will focus on tree species composition and population structure which will be useful as a source of ecological information, analyzing distribution and abundance pattern of tree species and the researcher will present empirical data on diversity of tree species in the in the University of Eastern Philippines. Specifically this study will attempts to:

1). What are the different species of trees growing in the University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman Northern Samar? 2). What are the community structure of trees species in terms of density, frequency, dominance and importance value. 3. What are the environmental parameters in terms of soil and water salinity, soil and water temperature, soil and water pH, type of substrate? 4). What are the distribution pattern of species of trees in the study area? 5). What is the species diversity index of trees species in the study area?

Objectives of the Study This thesis proposal on the species diversity and distribution patterns of trees species will be conducted in the University of Eastern Philippines. Specifically this study will aim to:

1). Identify the trees species in the sampling sites. 2). Determine the community structure of trees species in terms of density, frequency, dominance and importance value. 3). Determine the environmental parameters in terms of soil and water salinity, soil and water temperature, soil and water pH, type of substrate. 4). Identify the distribution pattern of species of trees in the study area. 5). Measure the species diversity index of trees using the Shannon-Weiner function.

Significance of the Study This study will be conducted to know and identify the species diversity and distribution patterns of trees growing in the University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman Northern Samar. The findings of this study will be significant in providing information to students, teachers, to the people living in the community and to the researchers who wanted to know and study the species diversity and distribution patterns of trees species in the University of Eastern Philippines. This will serve as a reference to any one who wanted to conduct a similar research study.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of this thesis proposal will be on the species diversity and distribution patterns of tree species which will be conducted in the University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman Northern Samar. This will focus in achieving the set of objectives of the study. Other factors which are not included on the set of objectives of the study will not be included. The entire area of the University of Eastern Philippines will be divided into four sampling sites namely; Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, and Zone IV. Zone I will be comprises the area from the white beach (Boundary of the municipality of Mondragon) up to sunrise village. Zone II, will be comprises the seaside areas in the north and along the national highway toward the boundary of Cawayan. Zone III will be comprises the hillside, bukid tabor, the scout city and the forest reserved to the south and Zone IV will include the campus area which will be comprises the school and academic sites. Only tree species in public places, along the roads and on wayside will be included in the survey. Tress species within the residential areas will not be included. Photo documentation will be done to facilitate plant identification. Actual survey will be conducted on December 2011 to February 2012. It is limited only to the identified sites for reasons of accessibility, time and financial constraints.

Definition of Terms The following terms will be defined theoretically and operationally for purposes of clearer understanding of important terms in this study.

Clumped distribution is the most common type of dispersion found in nature. In clumped distribution, the distance between neighboring individuals is minimized. This type of distribution is found in environments that are characterized by patchy resources. Clumped distribution is the most common type of dispersion found in nature because animals need certain resources to survive, and when these resources become rare during certain parts of the year animals tend to clump together around these crucial resources. Individuals might be clustered together in an area due to social factors such as selfish herds and family groups. Organisms that usually serve as prey form clumped distributions in areas where they can hide and detect predators easily (Creel et.al, 1995; and Purvis, et.al., 2000). In this study, the same definition will be used. Collection, as used in this study, this will refer to the act of gathering trees species present in the study area, particularly representative samples of the trees species. Density refers to the number of individual of species occurs in an area sampled (Smith, 1986). In this study this will refer to the number of individual trees sampled in a 4,000 square meter area. Diversity refers to a variety, kind or species of plant or animals in an area. In this study, this will refer to the different trees species in the study area. Frequency refers to the number of sampled species occur in a transect intervals (Smith, 1986). In this study this refers to the number of trees species sampled in a 200 transect intervals.

Herbarium Preparation refers to the collection of plants or part of plant which has been dried, usually flattened under moderate pressure, preserved and pasted on sheets with an accompanying field label giving the necessary information (Serrano and Lastimosa, 1987). In this study, the same definition will be used. Identification as used in this study, this will be the act of recognizing the trees species which will collected based on a previously known trees species. Line Intercept or Line Transect Method refers to one dimensional and most useful for sampling shrubs stands and woody under story of the forest. It consists of taking observation on a line or lines out randomly over the study area (Smith, 1986). In this study, the same definition will be used. Physical factors refer to the parameters such as soil temperature, soil pH, and type of soil that affect the species of trees in the study area. Random distribution Random distribution, also known as unpredictable spacing, is the least common form of distribution in nature and occurs when the members of a given species are found in homogeneous environments in which the position of each individual is independent of the other individuals: they neither attract nor repel one another. Random distribution is rare in nature as biotic factors, such as the interactions with neighboring individuals, and abiotic factors, such as climate or soil conditions, generally cause organisms to be either clustered or spread apart (Vliet, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species_distribution#cite_note-4). Random distribution usually occurs in habitats where environmental conditions and resources are consistent. This pattern of dispersion is characterized by the lack of any strong social interactions between species (Avila, 1995). In this study, the same definition will be used.

Regular or Uniform distribution Less common than clumped distribution, uniform distribution, also known as even distribution, is evenly spaced. Uniform distributions are found in populations in which the distance between neighboring individuals is maximized. The need to maximize the space between individuals generally arises from competition for a resource such as moisture or nutrients, or as a result of direct social interactions between individuals within the population, such as territoriality (Mauseth, 2008). In this study, the same definition will be used. Species is a group of individuals which is naturally reproductively isolated from other groups. As used in this study, it will refer to the grass species present in the study area. Species distribution is the manner in which a biological taxon is spatially arranged. Species distribution is not to be confused with dispersal, which is the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density. The pattern of distribution is not permanent for each species. Distribution patterns can change seasonally, in response to the availability of resources, and also depending on the scale at which they are viewed. Dispersion usually takes place at the time of reproduction. Populations within a species are translocated through many methods, including dispersal by people, wind, water and animals. (Wallace, 1876). In this study, the same definition will be used. Species Diversity refers to the variety of living species. In this study, it will refer to variety of living species of trees in the study area and will be measured by using the ShannonWiener index formula. Tree refers to a plant with a single woody stem capable of reaching heights of at least 68m (20-25ft) at maturity (Smith, 1986). In this study, the same definition will be used.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature According to Kraner and Kozlowski (1960) trees are classified into a variety of ways but are most common divided into two groups on the basis of their reproduction. The gymnosperms (meaning naked seeds), evolutionary the more primitive group, bear seeds are often aggregated into cones. The gymnosperms are often referred to a conifers, evergreens, needle-bearing trees, or softwoods. Some gymnosperms also have wood of considerable hardness. The other major groups of trees are the angiosperms, have flowers and bear their seeds enclosed in a fruit, which is the ripened ovary of a flower. Angiospermous trees are sometimes referred to as deciduous (those which lose their leaves for part of the year) or hardwoods. Not all Angiospermous trees are deciduous, however, many species in the genus Eucalyptus are evergreen, and some flowering trees have wood that is relatively soft. According to Petriules (1972) species diversity has been documented at a global level, with an observed gradient of increasing diversity from the poles to equator. Further, it is observed that the diversity usually decreases as we move up the slopes of mountain from the base. A umber of hypotheses have been involved to explain the observed pattern in the distribution of biological species diversity. Proponents of the theory of spatial heterogeneity claimed that there might be a general increases in the environmental complexity as one proceeds towards the tropics. In tropics, it is considered that spatial heterogeneity is high and therefore species accommodation themselves in the myriad of niches available to them. Competitive exclusion theory claims that the competitions exclude the niches available to them. Competitive

exclusion theory claims that competitions exclude the niches of the species and therefore more species could be accommodated in small space. This theory predicts that tropical species will be more highly evolved and posses finer adaptations than those of temperature species, due to the more directed mortality and the increased importance of competitive interactions. According to Smith, R.L. (1986) Diversity Indexes assumes that the more abundant a species is the more important it is to the community. But the more abundant species are not necessarily the most important or the most influential. In communities embracing organisms possessing a wide range of sizes, the importance of fewer but larger individuals may be underestimated and the more common species are weighted more heavily than the many rare species. Thus, one of the distinctive failures of the indexes is the inability to distinguish between the abundant and the importance species. Nevertheless, diversity indexes do provide one measure for community comparisons. According to Jaques (1946) moisture, temperature, and nutrient conditions are the most important environmental factors that will affects the establishment and growth of tree species. Tree species tolerate different environmental conditions. Trees grow more slowly, attain smaller dimensions, and are often more widely spaced in cold or arid regions. Cold temperature, short growing seasons, and heavy snows prevent the growth of trees at high level elevations and high altitudes. Moisture stress typically limits tree growth at lower timberlines, such as those adjacent to grasslands or desert. According to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) among the high value species of trees in the area the almacitga or Agathis philillinensis and the dipterocarp species Shorea polita and Vatica mangahapoi. These trees are threatened due to over logging. The world famous Vanda sanderiana or waling-waling and the rattan species Plectocomia

elmiriused to abound in the primary forests of Mt. Apo. However these species can no longer be found in their natural habitat because of over collection.

Species distribution Species distribution is the manner in which a biological taxon is spatially arranged. Species distribution is not to be confused with dispersal, which is the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density. A similar concept is the species range. A species range is often represented with a species range map. Biogeographers try to understand the factors determining a species' distribution. The pattern of distribution is not permanent for each species. Distribution patterns can change seasonally, in response to the availability of resources, and also depending on the scale at which they are viewed. Dispersion usually takes place at the time of reproduction. Populations within a species are translocated through many methods, including dispersal by people, wind, water and animals. People are one of the largest distributors due to the current trends in globalization and the expanse of the transportation industry. For example, large tankers often fill their ballasts with water at one port and empty them in another, causing a wider distribution of aquatic species.

Clumped distribution Clumped distribution is the most common type of dispersion found in nature. In clumped distribution, the distance between neighboring individuals is minimized. This type of distribution is found in environments that are characterized by patchy resources. Clumped distribution is the most common type of dispersion found in nature because animals need certain resources to survive, and when these resources become rare during certain parts of the year animals tend to clump together around these crucial resources. Individuals might be clustered

together in an area due to social factors such as selfish herds and family groups. Organisms that usually serve as prey form clumped distributions in areas where they can hide and detect predators easily. Other causes of clumped distributions are the inability of offspring to independently move from their habitat. This is seen in juvenile animals that are immobile and strongly dependent upon parental care. For example, the bald eagle's nest of eaglets exhibits a clumped species distribution because all the offspring are in a small subset of a survey area before they learn to fly. Clumped distribution can be beneficial to the individuals in that group. However, in some herbivore cases, such as cows and wildebeests, the vegetation around them can suffer, especially if animals target one plane in particular. Clumped distribution in species acts as a mechanism against predation as well as an efficient mechanism to trap or corner prey. African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus, use the technique of communal hunting to increase their success rate at catching prey. It has been shown that larger packs of African wild dogs tend to have a greater number of successful kills. A prime example of clumped distribution due to patchy resources is the wildlife in Africa during the dry season; lions, hyenas, giraffes, elephants, gazelles, and many more animals are clumped by small water sources that are present in the severe dry season Creel, N.M. and S. (1995). It has also been observed that extinct and threatened species are more likely to be clumped in their distribution on a phylogeny. The reasoning behind this is that they share traits that increase vulnerability to extinction because related taxa are often located within the same broad geographical or habitat types where human-induced threats are concentrated. Using recently developed complete phylogenies for mammalian carnivores and primates it has been shown that the majority of instances threatened species are far from randomly distributed among taxa and phylogenetic

clades and display clumped distribution Purvis A, Agapowe P-M, Gittleman JL & Mace GM (2000).

Regular or Uniform distribution Less common than clumped distribution, uniform distribution, also known as even distribution, is evenly spaced. Uniform distributions are found in populations in which the distance between neighboring individuals is maximized. The need to maximize the space between individuals generally arises from competition for a resource such as moisture or nutrients, or as a result of direct social interactions between individuals within the population, such as territoriality. For example, penguins often exhibit uniform spacing by aggressively defending their territory among their neighbors. Plants also exhibit uniform distributions, like the creosote bushes in the southwestern region of the United States. Salvia leucophylla is a species in California that naturally grows in uniform spacing. This flower releases chemicals called terpenes which inhibit the growth of other plants around it and results in uniform distribution Mauseth, James (2008). This is an example of allelopathy, which is the release of chemicals from plant parts by leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and other processes. Allelopathy can have beneficial, harmful, or neutral effects on surrounding organisms. Some allelochemicals even have selective affects on surrounding organisms; for example, the tree species Leucaena leucocephala exudes a chemical that inhibits the growth of other plants but not those of its own species, and thus can affect the distribution of specific rival species. Allelopathy usually results in uniform distributions, and its potential to suppress weeds is being researched Fergusen, J.J; Rathinasabapathi, B (2003). Farming and agricultural practices often

create uniform distribution in areas where it would not previously exist, for example, orange trees growing in rows on a plantation.

Random distribution Random distribution, also known as unpredictable spacing is the least common form of distribution in nature and occurs when the members of a given species are found in homogeneous environments in which the position of each individual is independent of the other individuals: they neither attract nor repel one another. Random distribution is rare in nature as biotic factors, such as the interactions with neighboring individuals, and abiotic factors, such as climate or soil conditions, generally cause organisms to be either clustered or spread apart Vliet,Kent. Random distribution usually occurs in habitats where environmental conditions and resources are consistent. This pattern of dispersion is characterized by the lack of any strong social interactions between species Avila, Vernon L (1995). For example; when dandelion seeds are dispersed by wind, random distribution will often occur as the seedlings land in random places determined by uncontrollable factors. Tropical fig trees exhibit random distribution as well because of wind pollination. In addition to tropical fig trees and dandelion seeds, oyster larvae can travel hundreds of kilometers powered by sea currents, which causes random distribution when the larvae land in random places. Although random is thought to be unpredictable, it is the only dispersion that has a mathematical equation to represent it. This is due to the individualistic characteristics of random dispersion based on the idea that every species has equal opportunity and access to resources.

Species Distribution Model Species distribution can now be potentially predicted based on pattern of biodiversity at spatial scales. A general hierarchical model can integrate disturbance, dispersal and population dynamics. Based on factors of dispersal, disturbance, resources limiting climate, and other species distribution, predictions of species distribution can create a bioclimate range, or bioclimate envelope. The envelope can range from a local to a global scale or a density independence to density dependence. The hierarchical model takes into consideration of requirements and impacts or resources as well as local extinctions in disturbance factors. Models can integrate the dispersal/migration model, the disturbance model, and abundance model. SDM's can be used to assess climate change impacts and conservation management issues. Species distribution models include, presence/absence models, the dispersal/migration models, disturbance models, and abundance models. A prevalent way of creating predicted distribution maps for different species is to reclassify a land cover layer depending on whether or not the species in question would be predicted to habit each cover type. This simple SDM is often modified through the use of range data or ancillary information- such as elevation or water distance. Recent studies have indicated that the grid size used can have an effect on the output of these species distribution models (http://www.uvm.edu/~ebuford/MB_species1.html). The standard 50x50 km grid size can select up to 2.89 times more area than when modeled with a 1x1 km grid for the same specie. This has several effects on the species conservation planning under climate change predictions (global climate models- which are frequently used in the creation of species distribution models- usually consists of 50100 km size grids) which could lead to over-

prediction of future ranges in species distribution modeling. This can result in the misidentification of protected areas intended for a species future habitat.

Abiotic and Biotic factors The distribution of species into clumped, uniform, or random depends on different abiotic and biotic factors. Any non-living chemical or physical factor in the environment is considered an abiotic factor. There are three main types of abiotic factors: climatic factors consist of sunlight, atmosphere, humidity, temperature, and salinity; edaphic factors are abiotic factors regarding soil, such as the coarseness of soil, local geology, soil pH, and aeration; and social factors include land use and water availability. An example of the effects of abiotic factors on species distribution can be seen in drier areas, where most individuals of a species will gather around water sources, forming a clumped distribution. Biotic factors, such as predation, disease, and competition for resources such as food, water, and mates, can also affect how a species is distributed. A biotic factor is any behavior of an organism that affects another organism, such as a predator consuming its prey. For example, biotic factors in a quails environment would include their prey (insects and seeds), competition from other quail, and their predators, such as the coyote (http://www.biology-

online.org/dictionary/Biotic_factor). An advantage of a herd, community, or other clumped distribution allows a population to detect predators earlier, at a greater distance, and potentially mount an effective defense. Due to limited resources, populations may be evenly distributed to minimize competition, (Campbell, Reece. Biology. Eight edition) as is found in forests, where competition for sunlight produces an even distribution of trees (http://www.biologyonline.org/dictionary/Abiotic_factor)

Statistical determination of distribution patterns There are various ways to determine the distribution pattern of species. The Clark-Evans nearest neighbor method can be used to determine if a distribution is clumped, uniform or random Blackith, R. E. (1958). To utilize the Clark-Evans nearest neighbor method, researchers examine a population of a single species. The distance of an individual to its nearest neighbor is recorded for each individual in the sample. For two individual that are each other's nearest neighbor, the distance is recorded twice, once for each individual. To receive accurate results, it is suggested that the number of distance measurements is at least 50. The average distance between nearest neighbors is compared to the expected distance in the case of random distribution to give the ratio:

If this ratio (R) is equal to 1, then the population is randomly dispersed. If R is significantly greater than 1, the population is evenly dispersed. Lastly, if R is significantly less than 1, the population is clumped. Statistical tests (such as t-test, chi squared, etc.) can then be used to determine whether R is significantly different from 1. The Variance/Mean ratio method focuses mainly on determining whether a species fits a randomly spaced distribution, but can also be used as evidence for either an even or clumped distribution Banerjee, B. (1976). To utilize the Variance/Mean ratio method, data is collected from several random samples of a given population. In this analysis, it is imperative that data from at least 50 sample plots is considered. The number of individuals present in each sample is compared to the expected counts in the case of random distribution. The expected distribution can be found using Poisson distribution. If the variance/mean ratio is equal to 1, the population is found to be randomly distributed. If it is significantly greater than 1, the population is found to

be clumped distribution. Finally, if the ratio is significantly less than 1, the population is found to be evenly distributed. Typical statistical tests used to find the significance of the variance/mean ratio include Student's t-test and chi squared. However, many researchers believe that species distribution models based on statistical analysis, without including ecological models and theories, are too incomplete for prediction. Instead of conclusions based on presence-absence data, probabilities that convey the likelihood a species will occupy a given area are more preferred because these models include an estimate of confidence in the likelihood of the species being present/absent. Additionally, they are also more valuable than data collected based on simple presence or absence because models based on probability allow the formation of spatial maps that indicates how likely a species is to be found in a particular area. Similar areas can then be compared to see how likely it is that a species will occur there also; this leads to a relationship between habitat suitability and species occurrence Ormerod, S.J.; Vaughan, I.P. (2005).

Related Studies In the study of Muralis et.al (2000) indicates that the spatial variety of trees was high and similarly among the species in the adjacent plots was low, suggesting that the spatial heterogeneity is influencing the pattern of diversity of trees species. The degraded forest, which is considered as shrubs and tree savanna of the Anogeissus chloroxylon Acacia series, is highly diverse, recording over 59 tree and 119 shrubs species. Trees species similarity index among quadrats in the forest is less than 0.02, indicating high diversity in trees species within limited areas of the sample conversely, the shrubs species are far more similar than the trees species when the two plots are compared. The number of stem >1cm D13H observed in the sampled plot (7844/ha) is high, further reinforcing that the area is rich in species diversity of mean and standard deviations of adjacent plots of the focal plot was high, indicating that the species-rich patches in the forests are likely to associate with other species rich patches. The study is based on 30 quadrats of 25mX25m laid at 1km interval over the state forest. According to Acharya,B.K. et.al (2010) tree species distribution has been investigated along 45 km of line transects in the tropical rain forest of the Dja Fauna Reserve in Cameroon. The spatial patterns were expressed by the probabilities that two trees are conspecific according to the distance separating them, providing information on the degree of species clumping as well as on alpha- and beta-diversity. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity and limited dispersal in determining these patterns by: (1) comparing the patterns observed within and across major habitats; (2) comparing the patterns with the ones expected under a neutral hypothesis where limited dispersal is the sole factor. Although, habitat heterogeneity affected the distribution of many species, our results suggest that limited dispersal was the major factor affecting the degree of species clumping. The pattern observed was similar

to the one found in Amazonia by Condit et al. [Science 295 (2002) 666]. We discuss the relevance of neutral models of tree communities to study the dispersal abilities of tree species. According to C.Y. Jim et al. (2009) the promotion and preservation of biodiversity in urban areas remains scant, especially in Asian cities. This study focuses on spatial pattern and diversity of landscape trees in compact Taipei. Aggregate species diversity of three urban habitats (streets, urban parks and riverside parks) exceeded the countrysides secondary forests. Urban parks with site heterogeneity and multiple functions accommodate the highest richness, and streets with acute site limitations the poorest represented by popular native species. More affinities exist between urban and riverside parks. Low diversity in riverside parks echoes natural site constraints and primary use for river discharge and flood control. The compact urban form has not stifled species diversity and spatial variability of urban forests. Development history and park area have no significant relationship with species diversity. Understanding species composition in urban ecosystems could frame conservation strategies to augment species richness, appropriate site selection, habit preservation and wildlife recruitment. According to Hoebee, S.E. et.al (2005) distinct spatial genetic structure, as the result of various evolutionary and ecological processes, is a common feature of tree populations. The rare pioneer forest tree Sorbus torminalis occurs in scattered populations of low density and exhibits both clonal propagation and gametophytic self-incompatibility. Clonal reproduction can promote considerable spatial genetic structure and, together with a self-incompatibility system, may substantially reduce mating opportunities within S. torminalis populations, i.e. an Allee-effect owing to mate limitation. All 10 S. torminalis stands mapped in northern Switzerland and analyzed with allozymes showed a considerable degree of clonal reproduction, but they were also characterized by large numbers of genotypes that occurred only once. However, spatial

autocorrelation analysis revealed significant spatial genetic structure at distances between 15 and 30 m as the result of clonal reproduction. Once the effect of clonal propagation was removed from the analysis, the stands no longer exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. This implies that seed dispersal was not locally restricted. The degree of clonal reproduction was neither correlated with population size, nor did smaller populations exhibit less genetic diversity. Because clonal patches were rather small and interspersed with other genetically unique and unrelated individuals, clonal reproduction seemed to have no negative impact on the species sexual reproduction. It is thus likely that the combination of an effective self-incompatibility system and high interstand gene flow helps to maintain genetic diversity in S. torminalis stands, while clonal propagation preserves the genetic diversity over time even if environmental conditions become less favorable during the course of succession.

CHAPTER III METHODOOGY

Locale of the Study This thesis proposal on the species diversity and distribution patterns of trees species which will be conducted in the University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman Northern Samar (Figure 1). This will focus in achieving the set of objectives of the study. Other factors which are not included on the set of objectives of the study will not be included. The entire area of the University of Eastern Philippines will be divided into four sampling sites namely; Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, and Zone IV. Zone I will be comprises the area from the white beach (Boundary of the municipality of Mondragon) up to sunrise village. Zone II, will be comprises the seaside areas in the north and along the national highway toward the boundary of Cawayan. Zone III will be comprises the hillside, bukid tabor, the scout city and the forest reserved to the south and Zone IV will include the campus area which will be comprises the school and academic sites.

Research Design This study will use the descriptive research since its purpose is to gather first the data/information in order to describe the trees species, as they exist at the time of the study. It is defined as a purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about the prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends and cause effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical methods (Calderon and Gonzales, 1993).

Figure 1. Sketch Map of the Study Area

Sampling Technique A Purposive sampling technique and the line intercept or line transects methods will be used in this study. Purposive sampling technique will be used in determining the target plants. While the line intercept or line transect method is one dimensional and most useful for sampling woody understory of the forest. It consists of taking observation on a line or lines laid out randomly over the study area (Smith, 1987). This study will measure the salinity temperature and pH of the soil and water; identify the type of substrate and nutrients will serve as the independent variables. The community structure, species diversity and abundance of tree species in the sampling sites will serve as the dependent variables.

Data Gathering Procedure The researcher will purposively stretched a metric steel tape of 100 meter long in the site. For each sampling site 10 transect lines will be lay down and each transect line will be subdivided into 10 meters intervals. All tree species found along will be identified and counted. Data will be recorded immediately on a prepared logbook. A reconnaissance survey will be conducted in the sampling areas during the period which will be between mid December 2011 and end of January 2012 and will last for 30 days, to assess the three species diversity and their distribution pattern. The phytosociological analysis of tree layer will be conducted by laying 100x100 m2 quadrat on each site which will be divided into 20x20 m sub-plots. This will be systematically surveyed for all tress having girth at breast height (gbh) =10cm. in case of buttressed trees, the measurements will be made above the buttress.

Identification of the Tree Species Only one representative samples of each species will be collected. The collected samples will be recorded and will be placed in plastic bags/containers with the following label: Sampling site, identification number of the species, scientific name, common name, local name. In order to facilitate identification of the tress species, an interview will be conducted among residents in the vicinity/locality. For this purpose, an interview guide will be prepared (Appendix B). Observation on plants identified by the respondents will be done immediately after each personal interview. Photo documentation will be done to facilitate plant identification. Following the method of Potot (1995) a record notebook will be prepare and the following data will be collected.
1. Field Number collection number with the use of tags. 2. Date Collected day, month, year of collection. 3. Collector name of the collector. 4. Locality province, town, barangay where plant is collected. 5. Vernacular Names Ninorte Samarnon and other local names, if available. 6. Habitat description of the growth place of the plant. 7. Habit or Form nature of plant based on stem type (Tomlison, 1990): solitary, clustering, aerial branching, subterranean branching, or climbing.

Representative samples of the grass species will be collected. At least one specimen will be collected for every species and each specimen will be 1 foot long. The information on the plants will be documented such as its name and the place where it was gathered, following the format in figure 3, which will be attached to the preserved sample (Potot, 1995).

FLORA OF THE PHILIPPINES University of Eastern Philippines University Town, Northern Samar Family: __________________ No. ________ Sci Name: _______________________________________ Common Name and Dialect:_________________________ ________________________________________________ Collector: _______________________________________ Fld. No. _________________________Date: ___________ Locality: ________________________________________ Habitat: _________________________________________ Habit Description: ________________________________ Determined by: ___________________________________ Date: _________________________________________

Figure 3. Format of the Label of Each Identified Plant Specimen

The collected samples will be washed with water. After washing, the samples will be air-dried for herbarium preparation. The code number will be followed in marking the respective herbarium samples.

Herbarium Preparation (Serrano and Lastimosa Edition, 1987)

The air-dried samples will be prepared for herbarium. Equipment needed is a pair of pressers, specimen papers or old newspaper folds. Corrugated cardboards, absorbent paper or ordinary blotters, and straps, ropes, or colds to hold the press framed tightly. In Pressing the specimen, it will be placed in between folds of newspaper sheets in such a way that it follows its natural position. Once the specimen is dried, the position and arrangement of part cannot be changed anymore. Newspaper folds, with the collection number and labeled specimens, are carefully piled one after the other, separated by absorbent materials and corrugated cardboards, then it will be tightly packed in a pair of pressers. Applying pressure by

placing a heavy weight over the presses before drying will help in flattening specimens and facilitate uniform drying. In Drying the specimen; the strapped presser will be placed under the sun or in a warm place such as over a stove, oven, or in artificially heated chamber. It is advisable to check the progress of drying and at the same time to prevent growth of molds by frequent change of absorbent. Length of time for drying depends on moisture content of the material, the method of drying and attention given to the process. In poisoning the specimen, dried specimens will be dipped in poison solution to preserve them from insect damage. Poison solution is prepared by mixing 12-15 g of mercuric chloride and 5-10 g of phenol crystals to 1 liter of denatured alcohol. The two chemicals must be handled properly for these are corrosive and poisonous. Poisoned specimens will be air dried in a manner previously described or stored at room temperature. Mounting the specimens, the dried poisoned specimens will be mounted by means of glue or tape or herbarium sheet which has a standard size of 11-12 by 16 1/2 inches. Field label is placed on the upper left-hand corner sheets. Each mounted specimen will be labeled properly as in Figure 3. The above procedure will be followed for specimens that are relatively small and thin, such as those on the fronds. For the flowers and fruits, these will be preserved in packets, bearing the same identification number/tag and will be attached in the herbarium sheet of the particular specimen.

Young plants, sapling preferably, when available, will be collected as sample of the whole plant and will be preserved properly. This will also bore the same identification number/tag of the particular species.

Identification of the Tree Species All trees collected in the study area will be identified down to the species level using available references. Authentication of the specimens will be done by Dr. Eva M. Potot a professor of the College of Science.

Community Structure of Trees Transect line plot method will be utilize to determine the species composition, density, frequency, and dominance of medicinal plants in the sampling site.

A. Structural Parameters The trees community will be analyzed by using the following structural parameters with their formulas (English et.al) 1. Constancy (Bautista et.al 1975) Constancy (%) 2. Density Density (D) Total number of individuals of the species = --------------------------------------------------Total area sampled Number of plots where the species occurs = --------------------------------------------------Number of all plots invested Number of plots where the species occurs = ---------------------------------------------------Total number of plot sampled x 100

3. Frequency (F)

4. Dominance in terms of basal area (g) Density of the species = ---------------------------------------------------Sum of the frequencies of all species Frequency of the species = ---------------------------------------------------Sum of frequencies of all species

5. Relative Density (RD)

x100

6. Relative Frequency (RF)

x100

Basal area of the species 7. Relative Dominance (Rg) = ---------------------------------------------------Sum of the basal areas of all species Relative Density + Relative (I.V.) = ---------------------------------------------Dominance + Relative Frequency

x100

8. Importance Value

The three relative measures (RD, RF, Rg) 9. Species diversity of medicinal plants will be measure by the use of the Shannon-Weiner Function as shown in the equation: n log n -fi log fi H = -----------------------------N The vegetation data of each quadrat that will be gather will be analyze for frequency, density and abundance (Curtis and McIntosh, 1950). The statistical analysis will be done as per standard statistical methods. The Importance Value Index (IVI) of trees will be determined as the sum total relative frequency, relative density and relative abundance following Phillips (1959). The ratio of abundance to frequency will be used to interpret the distribution pattern of species of trees (Whiteford, 1949). Species diversity (H) of different tree species will be calculated using the Shannon-Weiner Index (Shannon and Weiner, 1963). Concentration of dominance (Cd) will be measured by using Simpsons Index (Simpson, 1949). Species Evenness Index (EI) and species Richness Index (RI) will be calculated following Pielou (1966) and Margalef (1978),

respectively. The maturity index will be calculated as per Pichi-Sermolli (1948) and beta diversity following Whittaker (1977). The plant will be identified with the help of Flora of Orrisa edited by Saxena and Brahmam (1994-1996).

B. Environmental Parameters The measurement of the environmental factors characterize the conditions that will be existing in the sampling site will be done simultaneously with the data collection.

1.

Salinity A refractometer will be used to measure both soil and water salinity. The soil sample will

be placed in the filter paper lined bottom syringe and then will be pushed until drops of water will extracted. A few drops of water will be placed under the cover of the refractometer and salinity will be read through the eyepiece while the instrument will held toward the light. 2. pH The pH paper will be used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of soil and water sample. 3. Temperature A hole will be dug to a depth of 5 cm in the outer margin, middle and inside margin of the medicinal plants area. The thermometer will be carefully inserted into the wall of the hole to determine the soil temperature. 4. Type of Substrate The type of substrate in the sampling area will be described as solid or coralline, and rocky sandy-muddy solution.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS Avila, Vernon L (1995). Biology: Investigating Life on Earth. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 855. ISBN 0867209429. Creel, N.M. and S. (1995). "Communal Hunting and Pack Size in African Wild Dogs, Lycaon pictus". Animal Behaviour: 13251339. Curtis, J.T and R.P. McIntosh (1950). The interrelations of certain analytical and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology, 31: 434-455. Jaques, H.E. 1946. How to know the trees. Revised Edition. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa. Keeler, H. 1969. Shrubs and how to identify them. Reprint, Dover, New York. Khan, M. L., Menon, S. and Bawa, K. S., Effectiveness of the protected area network in biodiversity conservation: a case study of Meghalaya state. Biodiver. Conserv., 1997, 6, 853868. Kraner, Paul and Teodore T. Kolowski. 1960. Physiology of Trees. Mc Graw Hill Book Company, Inc. New York, tonto, London, p. 53. Kumar, A., Gupta, A. K., Marcot, B. G., Saxena, A., Singh, S. P. and Marak, T. T. C., Management of forests in India for biological diversity and forest productivity, a new perspective. Volume IV: Garo Hills Conservation Area (GCA). Wildlife Institute of India USDA Forest Service collaborative project report, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, 2002, p. 206. Margalef, F.R. (1978). Information theory in ecology. Gen. Syst., 3: 36-71. Mauseth, James (2008). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. pp. 596. ISBN 0763753459. Mishra, R., Ecology Workbook, Oxford & IBH Co, New Delhi, 1968, p. 244. Phillips, E.A. (1959). Methods of Vegetation Study. Henry Holt and Co. Inc. Petriules, G. 1972. A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs. Houghton, Mifflin Boston Pielou, E.C. (1966). The measurements of Diversity in different types of biological collections. J. theor. Biol., 13: 131-144.

Pichi-Sermolli, R. (1948). An index for establishing the degree of maturity in land communities. J. Ecol., 36: 85. Purvis A, Agapowe P-M, Gittleman JL & Mace GM (2000). Non-random extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 288: 328-330. Saxena, H.O and M. Brahmam (1994-1996). (Eds) Flora of Orissa Vol. I-IV. Orissa Forest Development Corporation, Bhubaneswar. Shannon, C.E. and W. Wiener (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, p. 127. Smith, R.L. 1986. Ecology and Field Biology 3rd Edition. Harper and Row Simpson, E.H (1949). Measurement of Diversity. Nature, 163: 688. Vliet,Kent. Integrated Principles of Biology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species_distribution#cite_note-4 Wallace, Alfred in The Geographical Distribution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species_distribution of lab manual,

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Whiteford, P.B. (1949). Distribution of woodland plants in relation to succession and clonal growth. Ecology, 30: 199-208. Whittaker, R.H. (1977). Evolution of species diversity in land communities. Evolutionary Biology (Hecht, M.K, W.C. Steere and B. Wallace, eds.). plenum, New York. Pp. 1-67.

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