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INSTRUCTIONS NATURAL GAS BOILER CALCULATIONS 1 2

VBA macros are used. Please ensure that macros are enabled to run this calculation by change Color coding for cells Data input only. Calculated results Inputs required --US units Boiler steam generation lb/h HP steam pressure psia HP steam temperature F Boiler blowdown % Boiler feedwater inlet temperature F Condensate return fraction fraction Condensate return water temperature F Boiler make-up water temperature F LP steam pressure for deaeration psia Boiler overall thermal efficiency fraction LP steam pressure at turbine outlet psia Turbine efficiency fraction Natural Gas GCV (mass basis) lb / MM Btu Natural Gas GCV (volume basis) Btu/ft3 (This value is used only for approximate natural gas density calculation only)

The notable output values shown in US units as well as metric units are: Natural gas consumption based on data input and Deaerator steam quantity Press LP deaerator steam or HP deaerator steam calculation button as required. You can also manually use goal seek as follows: Adjust Deaerator LP steam consumption changing LP steam quantity through goal seek to secur Adjust Deaerator HP steam consumption changing HP steam quantity through goal seek to secu

Steam turbine power generation is estimated for a back pressure turbine based on theoretical eq Steam turbine inlet conditions are assumed to be the specified boiler steam generation, HP stea Steam pressure considered for turbine outlet pressure is assumed to be the LP steam pressure u Dryness Fraction at turbine steam outlet is indicative. Steam turbine vendors need to be consulted for actual performance!

Acknowledgements I gratefully acknowledge the macros for steam and water properties used in these calculations, b X Steam Tables

Excel macros, IF-97 Steam tables. By: Magnus Holmgren Website: Note

www.x-eng.com

Suggestions or comments on this spreadsheet are welcome. Contact details: Email: skonchady@gmail.com Prepared by: Sadananda Konchady Rev. 0 Last Updated: February 25, 2012

his calculation by change in security settings to medium level.

hrough goal seek to secure zero error. hrough goal seek to secure zero error.

e based on theoretical equations. eam generation, HP steam pressure and HP steam temperature. e the LP steam pressure used for deaeration

ed in these calculations, based on:

NATURAL GAS BOILER CALCULATIONS


Thursday, April 05, 2012 Boiler steam generation HP steam pressure HP steam temperature Boiler blowdown Boiler feedwater inlet temperature HP saturation temperature Steam Enthalpy Steam Entropy Total boiler feedwater Boiler feedwater enthalpy Total boiler feedwater enthalpy Condensate return fraction Condensate return water temperature Boiler make-up water temperature Condensate return water enthalpy Condensate return Boiler make-up water Boiler make-up water enthalpy Average boiler feedwater temperature Deaerator Steam (LP) LP steam pressure for deaeration Deaerator Steam Enthalpy Boiler make-up water enthalpy Condensate return make-up enthalpy Total enthalpy in Error, % Deaerator Steam / Boiler steam % Process steam available 40823.32 kg/h 46.00 bar(a) 400.00 C 2.00 % 105.00 C #MACRO? C #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg.C 41639.78 kg/h #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/h 0.75 82.22 C 30.00 C #MACRO? kJ/kg 31229.84 kg/h 7983.00 kg/h #MACRO? kJ/kg 71.59 C 2427 kg/h 2.07 bar(a) #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? 5.94 38396 kg/h Natural Gas Consumption #MACRO? kJ/h 0.85 #MACRO? kJ/h 90000 lb/h 667 psia 752 F 2% 221 F #MACRO? F #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/lb.F 91800 lb/h #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/h 0.75 180 F 86 F #MACRO? Btu/lb 68850 lb/h 17600 lb/h #MACRO? Btu/lb 160.86 F 5350 lb/h 30 psia #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? 5.94 84650 lb/h

Heat to steam Boiler overall thermal efficiency Heat released in boiler Fuel calculation Natural Gas GCV (mass basis) Natural Gas GCV (volume basis) Estimated Natural Gas Consumption Estimated Natural Gas Consumption Approximate Density Blowdown heat loss Boiler drum water enthalpy Boiler blowdown heat loss

#MACRO? MM Btu/h 0.85 #MACRO? MM Btu/h 43.10 lb/MM Btu 1097.00 Btu/ft3 #MACRO? lb/h #MACRO? ft3/h #MACRO? lb/ft3

#MACRO? kg/h #MACRO? m3/h #MACRO? kg/m3

#MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/h Steam Turbine Power generation 0.70

#MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/h

Turbine Efficiency

0.70

LP steam enthalpy, h2S Actual Steam Required LP steam enthalpy actual LP steam enthalpy, h2S LP steam liquid enthalpy LP steam vapour enthalpy Liquid Entropy at LP steam condition Vapour Entropy at LP steam condition Dryness Fraction Estimated Power generation in back pressure steam turbine If applicable Deaerator HP Steam (Direct from boiler) Deaerator Steam Enthalpy Boiler make-up water enthalpy Condensate return make-up enthalpy Total enthalpy in Error, % Deaerator Steam / Main steam %

#MACRO? kj/kg #MACRO? kg/kWh #MACRO? kj/kg #MACRO? kj/kg #MACRO? kj/kg #MACRO? kj/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg.C #MACRO? kJ/kg.C #MACRO? #MACRO? kW 1.00E-05 2052 kg/h #MACRO? #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? kJ/h #MACRO? 5.03

#MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? lb/kWh #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/lb #MACRO? Btu/lb.F #MACRO? Btu/lb.F #MACRO? #MACRO? kW

4524.34 lb/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? Btu/h #MACRO? 5.03 1.00E-05

X Steam Tables
Excel macros, IF-97 Steam tables. By: Magnus Holmgren www.x-eng.com The excel scripts are stored inside this workbook. A complete list of functions for use is available on the OBS: This workbook uses macros. Set security options in Tools:Macro:Security to enable macros.

The steam tables are free and provided as is. We take no responsibilities for any errors in the code or da

Saturation properties given temperature Temperature 120.00 C Saturation pressure #MACRO? bar a Liquid Enthalpy #MACRO? kJ/kg Density #MACRO? kg/m3 Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Vapour Vapour enthalpy #MACRO? kJ/kg Vapour density #MACRO? kg/m3 Vapour Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Evaporation energy #MACRO? kJ/kg Properties given pressure and temperature Pressure 68.97 bar a Temperature 482.22 C Enthalpy #MACRO? kJ/kg Density #MACRO? kg/m3 Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Vapour fraction #MACRO? % IF97 Region #MACRO? Phase ### Isobaric heat capacity #MACRO? kJ/kg Speed of sound #MACRO? m/s

Saturation properties given pressure Pressure 12.570 bar a Saturation temperature #MACRO? C Liquid Enthalpy #MACRO? kJ/kg Density #MACRO? kg/m3 Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Vapour Vapour enthalpy #MACRO? kJ/kg Vapour density #MACRO? kg/m3 vapour Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Evaporation energy #MACRO? kJ/kg Properties given pressure and enthalpy Pressure 12.57 bar a Enthalpy 2788.00 kJ/kg Temperature #MACRO? C Density #MACRO? kg/m3 Entropy #MACRO? kJ/kgK Vapour fraction #MACRO? % IF97 Region #MACRO? Phase ### Isobaric heat capacity #MACRO? kJ/kg Speed of sound #MACRO? m/s

functions for use is available on the "Calling functions" worksheet

bilities for any errors in the code or damage thereby.

cro:Security to enable macros.

X Steam Tables

v2.6 http://www.x-eng.com Steam tables by Magnus Holmgren according to IAPWS IF-97 The excel scripts are stored inside this workbook. (No extra files are needed. Start from a copy of this workbook. This page can be removed) magnus@x-eng.com For error-reporting, feedback, other units etc. contact: The steam tables are free and provided as is. We take no responsibilities for any errors in the code or damage thereby.
OBS: This workbook uses macros. Set security options in Tools:Macro:Security to enable macros.

Temperature
Tsat_p T_ph T_ps T_hs 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 kJ/kg 100 C 84 kJ/kg 2000 kJ/kg 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 0.01 bar 0.01 bar 0 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 100 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K) 0.2 kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? C #MACRO? C #MACRO? C #MACRO? C #MACRO? bar #MACRO? bar #MACRO? bar #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? m3/kg #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kg/m3 #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg

Saturation temperature Temperture as a function of pressure Temperture as a function of pressure Temperture as a function of enthalpy

Pressure
psat_T p_hs p_hrho 0.3 kJ/(kg K) 5 kg/m3

Saturation pressure Pressure as a function of h and s. Pressure as a function of h and rho (

Enthalpy
hV_p hL_p hV_T hL_T h_pT h_ps h_px h_Tx h_prho

20 C 1 kJ/(kg K) 0.5 0.5 2 kg/m3

Saturated vapour enthalpy Saturated liquid enthalpy Saturated vapour enthalpy Saturated liquid enthalpy Entalpy as a function of pressure and Entalpy as a function of pressure and Entalpy as a function of pressure and Entalpy as a function of temperature Entalpy as a function of pressure and

Specific volume
vV_p vL_p vV_T vL_T v_pT v_ph v_ps

100 C 1000 kJ/kg 5 kJ/(kg K)

Saturated vapour volume Saturated liquid volume Saturated vapour volume Saturated liquid volume Specific volume as a function of pres Specific volume as a function of pres Specific volume as a function of pres

Density
rhoV_p rhoL_p rhoV_T rhoL_T rho_pT rho_ph rho_ps

100 C 1000 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K)

Saturated vapour density Saturated liquid density Saturated vapour density Saturated liquid density Density as a function of pressure and Density as a function of pressure and Density as a function of pressure and

Specific entropy
sV_p sL_p sV_T sL_T s_pT s_ph

20 C ### kJ/kg

Saturated vapour entropy Saturated liquid entropy Saturated vapour entropy Saturated liquid entropy Specific entropy as a function of pres Specific entropy as a function of pres

Specific internal energy


uV_p uL_p uV_T uL_T u_pT

100 C

Saturated vapour internal energy Saturated liquid internal energy Saturated vapour internal energy Saturated liquid internal energy Specific internal energy as a function

u_ph u_ps CpV_p CpL_p CpV_T CpL_T Cp_pT Cp_ph Cp_ps CvV_p CvL_p CvV_T CvL_T Cv_pT Cv_ph Cv_ps

1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar

1000 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K)

#MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/kg #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? kJ/(kgC) #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s #MACRO? m/s

Specific internal energy as a function Specific internal energy as a function

Specific isobaric heat capacity

100 C 200 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K)

Saturated vapour heat capacity Saturated liquid heat capacity Saturated vapour heat capacity Saturated liquid heat capacity Specific isobaric heat capacity as a f Specific isobaric heat capacity as a f Specific isobaric heat capacity as a f

Specific isochoric heat capacity

100 C 200 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K)

Saturated vapour isochoric heat capa Saturated liquid isochoric heat capac Saturated vapour isochoric heat capa Saturated liquid isochoric heat capac Specific isochoric heat capacity as a Specific isochoric heat capacity as a Specific isochoric heat capacity as a

Speed of sound
wV_p wL_p wV_T wL_T w_pT w_ph w_ps

100 C 200 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K)

Saturated vapour speed of sound Saturated liquid speed of sound Saturated vapour speed of sound Saturated liquid speed of sound Speed of sound as a function of pres Speed of sound as a function of pres Speed of sound as a function of pres

Dynamic Viscosity
my_pT my_ph my_ps 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 kJ/kg 1 kJ/(kg K) #MACRO? Pa s #MACRO? Pa s #MACRO? Pa s

Viscosity is not part of IAPWS Steam IF97. Equations from "Revised Release on the IAPWS Formulation 1985 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance Viscosity in the mixed region (4) is interpolated according to the density. This is not true since it will be two fases.

Viscosity as a function of pressure an Viscosity as a function of pressure an Viscosity as a function of pressure an

Prandtl
Calcualted as Cp*my/tc

pr_pT pr_ph

1 bar 1 bar

200 C ### kJ/kg

#MACRO? #MACRO? -

Thermal Conductivity
Revised release on the IAPS Formulation 1985 for the Thermal Conductivity of ordinary water substance (IAPWS 1998)

tcL_p tcV_p tcL_T tcV_T tc_pT tc_ph tc_hs

100 bar 1 bar 100 C 100 C 100 bar 350 C 1 bar 350 kJ/(kg K) 100 kJ/(kg K) 0.34 kJ/(kg K)

#MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K) #MACRO? W/(m K)

Saturated vapour thermal conductivit Saturated liquid thermal conductivity Saturated vapour thermal conductivit Saturated liquid thermal conductivity Thermal conductivity as a function of Thermal conductivity as a function of Thermal conductivity as a function of

Surface Tension
IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994

st_T st_p

100 C 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1000 kJ/kg 4 kJ/(kg K)

#MACRO? N/m #MACRO? N/m #MACRO? #MACRO?

Surface tension for two phase water/ Surface tension for two phase water/

Vapour fraction
x_ph x_ps

Vapour fraction as a function of press Vapour fraction as a function of press

Vapour Volume Fraction


Observe that vapour volume fraction is very sensitive. Vapour volume is about 1000 times greater than liquid volume and therfore vapour volume fraction gets close to the accurancy of steam IF-97

vx_ph vx_ps

1 bar 1 bar

418 kJ/kg 4 kJ/(kg K)

#MACRO? #MACRO?

Vapour volume fraction as a function Vapour volume fraction as a function

Version history
News in V2.6 * Error in valid region for function tc_ptrho * Error in function h3_pt for temperatures near the saturation point. News in V2.5 * DLL distrubution for use in other applications * Freebasic translation * Fixed small error in Cv Region 5 p>1000bar News in V2.4a * ToSIUnit for h_ps region 4. (No effect in SI unit version). News in V2.4 * Functions by p,rho inplemented in matlab also. * Many missing ; in matlab causing printouts detected. * OpenOffice version introduced. (Fixed calculation differences in open office and excel) * Matlab error giving varaible undefined in some backwards solutions fixed. News in V2.3 * Option Explicit, gives more efficient calculations. * Extensive testing * my_ph not defined in region 4. * Problems at region border for h4V_p to adress solver problems at the exact border. * Problem at fast border check in region_ph fixed. News in V2.2 * Extensive testing * Fixed error in Cp_ph * Function p_hrho added. (Very good for calcualting pressure when heating a volume with water/steam mixture.) * Fixed error in T_hs return no value for vet region bellow the water saturation line. * Prandtl number added News in V2.1 * Calling function h_prho * Fixed problem with Cv reporting NaN in region 5. * Equivivalent to the Matlab version. (Downloadable from www.x-eng.com) News in V2 * Calling functions of h and s added. * Thermal conductivity, Surface tension added * Calling functions h_px and h_tx added. * Cp, Cv and w undefined in the mixed region. (Before interpolation with the vapor fraction was used.) * A work sheet "Properties" for simple lookups added.

ge can be removed)

on temperature ture as a function of pressure and enthalpy ture as a function of pressure and entropy ture as a function of enthalpy and entropy

e as a function of h and s. e as a function of h and rho (density). Very unaccurate for solid water region since it's almost incompressible!

ed vapour enthalpy ed liquid enthalpy ed vapour enthalpy ed liquid enthalpy as a function of pressure and temperature. as a function of pressure and entropy. as a function of pressure and vapour fraction as a function of temperature and vapour fraction as a function of pressure and density. Observe for low temperatures (liquid) this equation has 2 solutions. (Not valid!!)

ed vapour volume ed liquid volume ed vapour volume ed liquid volume volume as a function of pressure and temperature. volume as a function of pressure and enthalpy volume as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour density ed liquid density ed vapour density ed liquid density as a function of pressure and temperature. as a function of pressure and enthalpy as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour entropy ed liquid entropy ed vapour entropy ed liquid entropy entropy as a function of pressure and temperature (Returns saturated vapour entalpy if mixture.) entropy as a function of pressure and enthalpy

ed vapour internal energy ed liquid internal energy ed vapour internal energy ed liquid internal energy internal energy as a function of pressure and temperature.

internal energy as a function of pressure and enthalpy internal energy as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour heat capacity ed liquid heat capacity ed vapour heat capacity ed liquid heat capacity isobaric heat capacity as a function of pressure and temperature. isobaric heat capacity as a function of pressure and enthalpy isobaric heat capacity as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour isochoric heat capacity ed liquid isochoric heat capacity ed vapour isochoric heat capacity ed liquid isochoric heat capacity isochoric heat capacity as a function of pressure and temperature. isochoric heat capacity as a function of pressure and enthalpy isochoric heat capacity as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour speed of sound ed liquid speed of sound ed vapour speed of sound ed liquid speed of sound of sound as a function of pressure and temperature. of sound as a function of pressure and enthalpy of sound as a function of pressure and entropy.

scosity of Ordinary Water Substance", 2003 are used.

y as a function of pressure and temperature. y as a function of pressure and enthalpy y as a function of pressure and entropy.

ed vapour thermal conductivity ed liquid thermal conductivity ed vapour thermal conductivity ed liquid thermal conductivity conductivity as a function of pressure and temperature. conductivity as a function of pressure and enthalpy conductivity as a function of enthalpy and entropy

tension for two phase water/steam as a function of T tension for two phase water/steam as a function of T

fraction as a function of pressure and enthalpy fraction as a function of pressure and entropy.

d therfore vapour volume fraction

volume fraction as a function of pressure and enthalpy volume fraction as a function of pressure and entropy.

s. (Not valid!!)

workbook. A complete list of functions for use is available on the "Calling functions" worksheet The steam tables are free and provided as is. We take no responsibilities for any err 12

10

The excel scripts are stored inside this workbook. A com plete list of functions for use is available on the "Calling functions" worksheet The steam tables are free and provided as is. We take no responsibilities for any errors in the code or dam age thereby.