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The Study of Phonology

Phonology is, broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language. That is, it is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. In more narrow terms, "phonology proper is concerned with the function, behaviour and organization of sounds as linguistic items".Just as a language has syntax and vocabulary, it also has a phonology in the sense of a sound system. When describing the formal area of study, the term typically describes linguistic analysis either beneath the word (e.g., syllable, onset and rhyme, phoneme,articulatory gestures, articulatory feature or to units at all levels of language that are thought to structure sound for conveying linguistic meaning. Phonology is viewed as the subfield of linguistics that deals with the sound systems oflanguages. It should be carefully distinguished from phonetics. Whereas phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. In other words, phonetics is a type of descriptive linguistics, whereas phonology is a type of theoretical linguistics.

The production of speech sounds

Articulators above the larynx All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. The muscles in the chest that we use for breathing produce the flow of air that is needed for almost all speech sounds; muscles in the larynx produce many different modifications in the flow of air from the chest to the mouth. After passing through the larynx, the air goes through what we call the vocal tract, which ends at the mouth and nostrils. Here the air from the lungs escapes into the atmosphere. We have a large and complex set of muscles that can produce changes in the shape of the vocal tract, and in order to learn how the sounds of speech are produced it is necessary to become familiar with the different parts of the vocal tract. These different parts are called articulators, and the study of them is called articulatory phonetics. Fig. 1 is a diagram that is used frequently in the study of phonetics. It represents the human head, seen from the side, displayed as though it had been cut in half. You will need to look at it carefully as the articulators are described, and you

will often find it useful to have a mirror and a good light placed so that you can look at the inside of your mouth.

The articulators a) The pharynx is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7 cm long in women and about 8 cm in men, and at its top end it is divided into two, one part being the back of the mouth and the other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity. If you look in your mirror with your mouth open, you can see the back of the pharynx. b) The velum or soft palate is seen in the diagram in a position that allows air to pass through the nose and through the mouth. Yours is probably in that position now, but often in speech it is raised so that air cannot escape through the nose. The other important thing about the velum is that it is one of the articulators that can be touched by the tongue. When we make the sounds k and g the tongue is in contact with the lower side of the velum, and we call these velar consonants. c) The hard palate is often called the "roof of the mouth". You can feel its smooth curved surface with your tongue. d) The alveolar ridge is between the top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its shape with your tongue. Its surface is really much rougher than it feels, and is covered with little ridges. You can only see these if you have a mirror small enough to go inside your mouth (such as those used by dentists). Sounds made with the tongue touching here (such as t and d ) are called alveolar.

e) The tongue is, of course, a very important articulator and it can be moved into many different places and different shapes. It is usual to divide the tongue into different parts, though there are no clear dividing lines within the tongue. Fig. 2 shows the tongue on a larger scale with these parts

shown: tip, blade, front,back and root. (This use of the word "front" often seems rather strange at first.)

Place of articulation
Articulation is a clear way of pronouncing words. So, the title of our paper we will explain about the part where the voice was coming, maybe the title of our paper can be interpreted as "Makharijul huruf" (in Arabic). Sounds in a language are produced differently. Those difference based on the place of articulation in which sounds are produced. In articulacy phonetics, the place of articulation which is also called point of articulation of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal track between an active articulator and a passive articulator. In English, the consonant can be classified according to places of articulation. Those places of articulation are described as follows: 1. Bilabial. (Pertemuan dua bibir)

Bilabial are produced with both lips. There are four different sounds may be produced in this place. Say the word pin, bin, my, and why. The initial sounds of those word (/p/, /b/, /m/ and, /w/). 1.The /p/ and /b/ sounds These sounds are produced by bringing the two lips together. Therefore, they are called bilabial sounds. Paper Bed Rib Report Rubbish Cap Map

Rub Cab Club Tap Tab

2. The /m/ sounds This sound is also produced by bringing the two lips together. But the way of producing it is different with the /p/ and /b/ sounds. /m/ is produced with the soft palate is raised. Meet Remind Came Mean Coming 3.The /w/ sound The way to produce this consonant also different with the other bilabial sounds. Wet Sweet Quite White Swim Quiet 2. Labiodental (Bibir dan gigi atas depan)

The lower lip makes contact with the upper front teeth. There are two sounds that may be produced in this place. Say the words: feel, veal. The initial sounds of the word are made rising the lower lip until it nearly touches the upper front teeth. They also differentiate the meanings of the word. /f/ is voiceless and /v/ is a voiced one.

Feel Veal Suffer Cover File Vile Deafer Never Fail Veil Defied Divide Fan Van 3. Dental (Ujung lidah dengan gigi atas depan)

Made with the tongue tip or the blade of tongue and the upper front teeth. There are two sounds that may be produced in this place: say the word think, they. The initial sounds of the word are made with the tongue tip closing behind the upper front teeth. 1.The // and // Figure above indicates the process of producing the // and // sounds. It is narrowing at the tip of tongue and the upper front teeth. These voices cannot be found Indonesian, so the Indonesian speakers should practice pronouncing this sounds. Thank Earthy Those Think Author

These Thing Nothing That 4. Alveolar (Ujung lidah dengan )

These sounds evolve the tip or blade of the tongue and alveolar ridge. These are five sounds that are produced in this place say the words such as too, do, noon, seal, zeal, /t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, and /z/ are pronounced at the tip of tongue or blade of tongue and the alveolar ridge. 1.The /t/ and /d/ sounds These sounds are different with other alveolar sound. These are produced with pressing the tip tongue and the alveolar ridge for a short time, and the soft palate is raised, so the air escaped through the mouth. When the tip of the tongue is lowered from the teeth, the breath goes out with a slight expression. Town Water Do Ten Writer Done Ton Letter Down Twin Waiting Die 2.The /n/ sound In the case of /n/, it is also different with the other alveolar sounds. It produced with the soft palate is down, so the air goes thought the nose.

Neck Money One Nine Knew Night Know Noon 3. The /s/ and /z/ sounds. These sounds are also produced at the alveolar. But the way to articulate them is not the same with the other alveolar sounds. These are produced with pressing the tip and tongue and the alveolar ridge for a short time and the soft palate is raised. Town Water Do Ten Writer Done Ton Letter Down 4.The /s/ and /z/ sounds. Those sound are also produced at the alveolar, but the to articulate them are not the same with the other alveolar sound, such as/t/,/d/, and /n/. they are friction consonant. /s/ is voiceless and /z/ is a voiced one See Looser

Zinc Sea Lacy Lazy Say Racing His Speak Hearse Zoo Study Bus Play 5. The /i/ sound

This sound is also produced at the tongue tip and the alveolar ridge. It obstructing the centre of the mouth when this sound is produced, the palates is raised, so that the air passes between the sides of tongue and palate. Letter Ruler Ill Like Feeling Kill Late Called Sell

5.

Palato alveolar/ postalveolar

These sounds involve the tongue tip or blade and the back of the alveolar ridge. The tongue is raised towards the alveolar ridge and the front of the hard palate. There are five sounds produced in this place. Say the word such as: sheep, she, beige, child, judge, red. Shirt Wishes Measure Sharp Finish Rouge She Wash Beige 1.The /t/ and /d/ sounds. This pair of sounds is related to both alveolar and valato-alveolar sounds (/t/, /d/ and /t/, /d/. These sounds are produced at the tongue tip and the back of alveolar ridge. Choose Teacher Joke Child Catching Job Cheese Fetch Judge 2.The /r/ sound

When this consonant is produced, the blade of tongue and the back of the alveolar ridge are close together, but they do not make friction. Reason Very Through Roof Cream Tree Rich Bread During 6. Palatal

Made with the front tongue and the hard palate. There is only one sound produced in this place. Say the word such as you. You should be able to feel that the front of tongue is raised toward the hard palate 1.The /j/ sound. There is only one palatal sound in Indonesian. It is produced at the front tongue and the hard palate Young Pure Tune Use View Due 7. Velar

Made with back of tongue and the soft palate. There are three sounds produced in this place. Say the word such as: book, hag, sing. The last sound of the word /k/, /g/, and /n/ are made with the back of tongue is raised to touch the velum or the soft palate.

1.The /k/ and /g/ sounds It is very clear that when we produce the /k/ and /g/ sounds, the back of tongue is very closed to the soft palate so that the air stream is obstructed for a short time. Cave Talking Gave Class Digging Gap Kite Market Doq 2.The // sound This sound has different manner of articulation with the other velar nasal such /k/ and /g/ therefore that also called velar, because the sound is produced at back of tongue and the soft palate. Sing Angkle Thing Song Angry Hang Thank Finger Long 8. Glotal

This sound is produced by passing the breath between the open vocal cords. It alaways occurs befor a vowel and never occurs in the last position of a word. Half Behind Heel Rehearse Habit Alcohol Hand Rehabilatate Happy Anyhow Happen Greenhouse Head Inhale

Manner of Articulation
In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants, even though the movement of the articulars will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the vocal tract, thereby changing the formant structure of speech sounds that is crucial for the identification of vowels. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another. Parameters other than stricture are those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills), and the sibilancy of fricatives. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but phoneticians such as Peter Ladefogedconsider them to be independent. Individual manners

Plosive, or oral stop, where there is complete occlusion (blockage) of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract, and therefore no air flow. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d g/ (voiced). If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion; if it is voiceless, a plosive is completely silent. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, as well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel. The shape and position of the tongue (theplace of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different plosives their characteristic sounds. All languages have plosives. Nasal stop, usually shortened to nasal, where there is complete occlusion of the oral cavity, and the air passes instead through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasal stops their characteristic sounds. Examples include English /m, n/. Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language onBougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. Examples include English /f, s/ (voiceless), /v, z/ (voiced), etc. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an /s/. However, the Indigenous Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. o Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. These are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually, though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. o Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. The "ll" of Welshand the "hl" of Zulu are lateral fricatives. Affricate, which begins like a plosive, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. Affricates are quite common around the world, though less common than fricatives. Flap, often called a tap, is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap inNorth American and Australian English. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps, but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. No language relies on such a difference. There are also lateral flaps. Trill, in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place, and the airstream causes it to vibrate. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill. Trills and flaps, where there are one or more brief occlusions, constitute a class of consonant called rhotics. Approximant, where there is very little obstruction. Examples include English /w/ and /r/. In some languages, such as Spanish, there are sounds that seem to fall between fricativeand approximant.

One use of the word semivowel, sometimes called a glide, is a type of approximant, pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth, so that there is slight turbulence. In English, /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/, and /j/ (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. Other descriptions usesemivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic, but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. These are found as elements in diphthongs. The word may also be used to cover both concepts. Lateral approximants, usually shortened to lateral, are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. English /l/ is a lateral. Together with the rhotics, which have similar behavior in many languages, these form a class of consonant called liquids.

VOWELS

Vowels may be classified as either rounded or unrounded, as either lax or tense, and as either long or short. In articulating a rounded vowel, the lips are rounded. The rounded vowels of Present-Day English are

1. /u/ (the phoneme spelled oo in food); 2. /U/ (the phoneme spelled u in put); 3. /o/ (the phoneme spelled oa in boat); 4. // (the phoneme spelled au in caught). Note that there are different degrees of rounding in these different vowels. The other vowels of Present-Day English are unrounded. In articulating a tense vowel, the tongue and other parts of the vocal apparatus are relatively tense. With a lax vowel, on the other hand, the muscles of the vocal apparatus are relatively loose. The lax vowels in Present-Day English are

1. /I/ (the phoneme spelled i in bit); 2. /e/ (the phoneme spelled e in bet);

3. /U/ (the phoneme spelled u in put); 4. // (the phoneme spelled au in caught). Note that the degree of tenseness varies considerably in these different vowels. The other vowels of Present-Day English are relatively tense (also in different degrees). The distinction between long and short vowels cannot be illustrated in Present-Day English, because vowel-length is no longer "phonemic" for speakers of English. That is, there are no "minimal pairs" of words that differ only with respect to the length of a vowel, and so speakers of PDE typically do not "hear" differences in vowel length. The distinction between long and short vowels was presumably phonemic in Old English and Middle English. Vowel length is presumably a matter of duration: that is, how long the vowel-sound is sustained in its articulation. Apart from the above distinctions, vowels may be classified according to the how far the tongue is from the roof of the mouth during articulation, and how far back in the oral cavity the vowel is articulated. If the lower jaw is relatively low (that is, if the mouth is relatively widely open), the tongue will be relatively far from the roof of the mouth. Vowels for which the jaw is relatively low during articulation are called, unsurprisingly, low vowels; and vowels for which the jaw is relatively high (the mouth is more nearly closed) are called high vowels. This distinction can be appreciated, for example, by gripping the chin and successively articulating "ha-ha, hee-hee, ha-ha, hee-hee." The phoneme spelled a in ha is a low vowel, and the phoneme spelled ee in hee is a high vowel. The jaw can be felt to move up and down correspondingly. A vibration is felt in the oral cavity when a vowel is articulated. If this vibration is felt toward the front of the cavity, say in the area of the alveolar ridge, the vowel is described as a front vowel. If the vibration is felt toward the back of the cavity, say in the area of the velum, the vowel is described as a back vowel. This distinction can be appreciated by successively articulating "ho-ho, hee-hee, ho-ho, hee-hee," and paying attention to where the vibration is felt most strongly in the oral cavity. The phoneme spelled o in ho is a back vowel, and the phoneme spelled ee in hee is a front vowel. Thus, we get the following system of classification for vowels. Click on the terms for further information. POSITION OF JAW High Mid Low

POINT OF ARTICULATION

Front Central Back Diphthongs are vowel-phonemes articulated with a glide from one vowel to another. There are three diphthongs in Present-Day English. 1. /aI/ (the phoneme spelled i in bite). In articulating this phoneme, a speaker begins by articulating /a/ (the phoneme spelled a in father), and glides to /I/ (the phoneme spelled i in bit). 2. /aU/ (the phoneme spelled ou in house). In articulating this phoneme, a speaker begins by articulating /a/ (the phoneme spelled a in father), and glides to /U/ (the phoneme spelled u in put). 3. /I/ (the phoneme spelled oy in boy). In articulating this phoneme, a speaker begins by articulating // (the phoneme spelled au in caught), and glides to /I/ (the phoneme spelled i in bit)