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Ventilation Basics and Beyond Ventilation Basics and Beyond

Jeff Tiller, PE
Coordinator of Construction Technology program at Appalachian State University Director of Southface - North Carolina office 828-262-6355/ FAX 828-264-2333 P.O. 348, 904 W. King Street, Boone, NC 28607 tillerjs@appstate.edu

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Historical Minimum Ventilation Historical Minimum Ventilation Rates (cfm/person) Rates (cfm/person)
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 05 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 75 82 89 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 96

Smoking 62-89

Billings 1895 Nightengale 1865

Flugge 1905 Smoking 62-81 ASHRAE 62-73 ASHRAE 62-89

Tredgold 1836

Yaglou 1938 ASHRAE 62-81

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Ventilation and IAQ Ventilation and IAQ


Outdoor air ventilation addresses most indoor air quality issues
Sick building syndrome Moisture and mold problems Second hand tobacco smoke Material outgassing Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Good ventilation dilutes pollutants!

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Ventilation Ventilation
Why Ventilate?
Humidity control
Reduce excessive moisture harmful to the building structure Reduce excessive moisture that is a source of mold and mildew growth

Eliminate odors and pollutants harmful to human health

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Outside Air Ventilation Outside Air Ventilation


All HVAC systems must be capable of supplying outdoor air ventilation at the minimum rate required by applicable state code
Generally ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 or 1999, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

Provision promotes ventilation No upper limit placed on outdoor air ventilation Ventilation directly impacts load calculations and equipment sizing Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/ High Performance Home Workshops 4

Example Spaces: Commercial laundry Commercial dry cleaner Dining rooms Bar, cocktail lounge Kitchen (cooking) Enclosed parking garage Hotel lobbies Conference rooms Gambling casinos Offices Smoking lounge Retail stores (street level) Barber shops Reducing salons Pet shops Darkrooms Bank vaults Classrooms Hospital patient rooms Operating rooms Cells in correctional facilities Dining halls in correctional facilities

ASHRAE 62 ASHRAE 62 requirements (both requirements (both 1989 and 2001) 1989 and 2001)

people/ cfm/ 1,000 sq ft person 10 25 30 30 70 20 100 30 20 15 30 50 120 7 70 30 25 20 15 20 30 20 60

cfm/ sq ft

1.5

0.3 15 15 1 0.5

5 50 10 20 20 100

15 15 25 30 20 15

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Ventilation and Ventilation and Lag Time Lag Time


Example: 5,000 ft2 x 20 ft 15 classroom (ASHRAE 62: 50 occ/ 1,000 ft2; 15 cfm/occ) # occupants = 5,000 / 50 = 100 volume (ft3) = 5,000 * 20 = 100,000 ft3 ft3 / occ = 100,000 / 100 = 1,000 ft3 / occupant From chart (red line): Permissible lag time = 1.1 hours
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Good Ventilation Design Good Ventilation Design


Mechanically provide filtered and dehumidified outdoor air to the breathing space. Bring in outdoor air from a clean source. Vary amount of ventilation based on the number of occupants and process loads.
Changes in occupancy can be measured by CO2 sensors

Consider designs that provide separate systems for ventilation and space conditioning. Utilize heat recovery systems to reduce Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/ High Performance Home Workshops

Recommendations for Ventilation Recommendations for Ventilation Controls Using CO2 Sensing Controls Using CO2 Sensing System System
Determine design ventilation rate based on total occupancy Locate CO2 sensor in conditioned space/ return; for systems serving multiple rooms, locate sensor in critical area CO2 concentration setpoint: CR= COA + 8400 * m / Rp CR = concentration in room; COA = concentration in outside air; m= metablic rate (1.0 for seated, quiet; 1.4 for filing, standing); Rp = cfm rate per person High Performance Home Workshops 8 Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/

ASHRAE 62-1989: 15 cfm per person; 0.35 natural air changes per hour (number of occupants = # bedrooms +1) ASHRAE 62-2001: stays the same, but ASHRAE 62.2 (residential): minimum ventilation cfm = 7.5*(# bedrms+1)+(0.01*house area in ft2) Bathroom exhaust: 50 cfm Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/ High Performance Home Workshops intermittent

Residential Ventilation Residential Ventilation Standards Standards

ASHRAE 62 Residential ASHRAE 62 Residential Standard Standard


(7.5 ** # bedrooms + 0.01 ** area) (7.5 # bedrooms + 0.01 area)

Outside air ventilation rate in cfm


Area of Heated Rooms (sq ft) 1,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 25 33 40 48 55 63 70 78 85 Number of Bedrooms 1,500 30 38 45 53 60 68 75 83 90 2,000 35 43 50 58 65 73 80 88 95 2,500 40 48 55 63 70 78 85 93 100 3,000 45 53 60 68 75 83 90 98 105 3,500 50 58 65 73 80 88 95 103 110 4,000 55 63 70 78 85 93 100 108 115 5,000 65 73 80 88 95 103 110 118 125 6,000 75 83 90 98 105 113 120 128 135 7,500 90 98 105 113 120 128 135 143 150 10,000 115 123 130 138 145 153 160 168 175

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Spot Ventilation Spot Ventilation


Bathroom fans Range Hoods

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Almost Is Almost Is Not Good Not Good Enough Enough

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Simple Ventilation System Simple Ventilation System

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Fresh, Make-Up Ventilation Air Fresh, Make-Up Ventilation Air

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Exhaust-Only Ventilation Exhaust-Only Ventilation Using Spot Fans Using Spot Fans
Ventilation controller

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Supply-Only Ventilation Supply-Only Ventilation

Ventilation controller

Central forced air blower

Dampered outside air duct


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Spot Fans with Make-Up Air Spot Fans with Make-Up Air

Ventilation controller

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Central Ventilation System Central Ventilation System

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Central Exhaust with Make-Up Central Exhaust with Make-Up Air Air
Central exhaust fan

Central heating/ cooling system

Dampered outside air duct


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Heat Recovery Ventilation Heat Recovery Ventilation

Bath

Kitchen

Heat exchanger

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Heat Recovery Ventilation Heat Recovery Core


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High Performance Buildings High Performance Buildings Have Ventilation Systems Have Ventilation Systems

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North Carolina High Performance North Carolina High Performance Affordable Homes Ventilation Affordable Homes Ventilation

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HVAC Fan Control HVAC Fan Control

AirCycler is a low cost device attached to the air handler cabinet and connected to the low-voltage thermostat wiring block inside the air handler. By periodically operating the central heating and cooling system fan, AirCycler improves the effectiveness of the temperature control, humidity and filtration system in a house.
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Impact of Ventilation on Energy Impact of Ventilation on Energy Costs (Raleigh --- $/year) Costs (Raleigh --- $/year)
cfm of ventilation -- on 12 hours per day no 25 50 100 150 200 ventilation $ 393 $ 395 $ 398 $ 402 $ 407 $ 411 237 238 241 247 254 260 366 366 366 366 366 366 449 449 449 449 449 449 120 120 120 120 120 120 $ 1,565 $ 1,568 $ 1,574 $ 1,584 $ 1,596 $ 1,606 $ 3 $ 9 $ 19 $ 31 $ 41

heating cooling hot water appliances service charge total net change from none

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Part of State Building Code in a few states Energy Star Home Programs in some states Energy Star - IAQ LEED -- commercial and residential Green Building Programs High Performance Home Programs Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/ High Performance Home Workshops 26

Energy Efficiency Programs Energy Efficiency Programs with with Residential Ventilation Residential Ventilation Standards Standards

NC Statewide Residential NC Statewide Residential Efficiency Program A Efficiency Program A Partnership Partnership NCs Electric and Gas
Utilities North Carolina Homebuilders Association and North Carolinas builders and contractors Certified Home Energy Raters Building Product Suppliers Advanced Energy Corporation North Carolina Solar Center Southface - North Carolina ASU Energy Center Southface Energy Institute/Tennessee Energy Code/ High Performance Home Workshops

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Test for Results Test for Results

Air leakage blower door Gauges for pressure problems Duct leakage duct testing fan Ventilation system air flow You dont know til you test
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Is This a Good Idea? Is This a Good Idea?

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Are vents Are vents helping? helping?

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What is High Performance? What is High Performance?

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