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Definition Assignment

Larceny: the wrongful act of taking or removing something from someone elses possession with the intentions of keeping it for oneself, or for ones own use. It can also be considered nonviolent theft, or stealing.

Abatement: A reduction or elimination of something that poses a problem to, or endangers others. It can also be referred to as a reduction or elimination of a continuing charge, for example, rent. It can also be a decrease in debts to all creditors when there are not enough payable assets to pay the amount in full.

Abbacinare: A vulgar form of punishment used in the middle ages, where the person getting punished would be permanently blinded by way of pressing a hot iron to their open eyes.

Pro Bono: Doing professional legal work for the public good without being paid or compensated. For example, to provide free legal services to people with limited budgets or organizations involved social causes such as environmental issues, as well as non-profit organizations.

Prima Facie: An evident legal assumption or fact made and presumed to be true unless it is disproven. Usually a piece of evidence itself is a prima facie evidence. If a murder act was caught on tape, that tape would be prima facie evidence.

Culpable: When someone breaks the law by doing something illegal, but has no evil intentions. Manslaughter is an example of culpable homicide; which involves the killing of a person without the intention of purposely killing them. An example of this would culpable driving which involves a person driving a motor vehicle negligently and recklessly, resulting in the death of another person.

Felony: A serious crime that is punishable by death (in some countries) or imprisonment for more than a year. Murder would be an example of felony.

Fungibles: A good that is made up of identical parts which can be replaced by an identical item. For example: apples, flour, or grain.

Gross Negligence: Being careless and indifferent to ones legal duty regarding the rights and wellbeing of others. A serious ignorance and violation of the law causing and injury harm to others. For example, man slaughter.

Hearsay: A type of rumour; information heard or received by one person from another person that cannot be proven to be true. If a witness reports someone elses words, it is a hearsay statement, and is usually not allowed in court. For example Mary told me John was with Amy.

Modus Operandi: The way something works, or the way something happened. For example, the specific way a crime was committed.

Defamation; Slander vs. Libel: A communication or statement either written or spoken about a person, with intentions to purposely harm their reputation. Libel defamation is a written form of defamation. For example: newspapers, website postings, or a letter. It is usually a permanent form of defamation. Slander defamation is a non-permanent type, which is usually a spoken statement. For example if someone said something bad about you and caused you to lose a business opportunity, that would be slander defamation. Most slander cases dont end up going to court because they are harder to prove.

Buggery: Similar to sodomy, buggery is a sexual act that is deemed unnatural. It is referred to as a crime against nature. This includes unnatural sexual acts like anal intercourse between a man and another man, woman, or animal (bestiality). It is considered unnatural intercourse and can a punishable act.

Canon Law: Originated from ancient church writings, the canon law is a group of laws made by a clerical authority for Christian organizations and its members, based on religious beliefs. It was used by the Roman Catholic Church in reference to personal morality, powers of the clergy, and personal discipline. In the middle ages, the canon law was used to resolve cases that are known today as civil cases. It covers things such as the process of It is the common law and the canon law that make up the law of England, which is similar to many other laws formed in the United States. Chattel: A chattel is a term used to signify goods and property of a person. A chattel can be tangible or intangible. An example of a tangible personal chattel (objects that can be moved/carried around) would be an automobile. A non tangible chattel would be a property interest, like a lease. De Facto: Something that is being practiced, but doesnt necessarily have to be established by the law. For example, de facto segregation would be having black people sit in the back of the bus. This is a separation between two groups that has occurred, but not by any force of law.

Circumstantial Evidence: Evidence that does not directly prove the fact sought to be proven. It is not directly from an eye-witness, so it requires reasoning for it to be proven a fact. It is evidence that is used as an inference to conclude a fact. In criminal trials, circumstantial evidence is often used to infer the guilt of an accused. An example of this would be if Adam claims he saw John and Amy enter a room, and a few minutes later he heard a shot, then this circumstantial evidence can be used to infer that John shot Amy. However, this evidence does not prove that John is guilty because Adam did not witness it happen. Collusion: A group of people who get together to commit a fraud. Collusion is largely illegal in North America. Companies can collude and make agreements to try and eliminate new competition. Escheat: The authority of the state, or the Queen, to take the property from an individual after he or she has died without leaving a valid will to indicate who is to inherit the property or without having a heir to inherit the descendants property. So if a man was to die and had not left a valid will indicating the inheritance of his property, the state has the right to acquire title of his property. Expunge: To erase or eliminate something. For example, to expunge criminal records or computer files.