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Antibiotics & Penicillins By Abhishek Mishra/Biochemical Engineering /HBTI Kanpur

Antibiotics come from Greek anti meaning Against and bios meaning Life (a bacterium is in life form).Antibiotics also known as antibacterial, and they are drugs used to treat the infections caused by the bacteria. Bacteria are the tiny organism that can cause sometimes illness in humans and animals. The singular word for bacteria is bacterium. Sometimes bacteria are not harmful, while others are good for us. Before bacteria multiply and cause symptoms our immune system destroys them. We have white blood cells that attack on harmful bacteria. Even symptoms do occur, our immune system fight with them. There are occasion, however, when it is all too much and our body needs help-from Antibiotics. The first antibiotic was discovered in 1896 by Ernest Duchesne and rediscovered by Alexander Flemming in 1928 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium Notatom. Such penicillin (related antibiotics as ampicillin, amoxicillin and benzylpenicillin) are used today to treat variety of infections. PENICILLINE Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis, and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are -lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

Penicillins core structure, where "R" is the variable group.

Work of Antibiotics Although there are number of different type of antibiotics they all work in one of two ways. 1. Bacteriostatic stop bacteria from multiplying. 2. A bactericidal antibiotic kill the bacteria.

Antibiotics & Penicillins By Abhishek Mishra/Biochemical Engineering /HBTI Kanpur All penicillin type antibiotics operate by inhibiting the production of cell walls by bacteria, which therefore prevents growth. It is now known that penicillin has a bactericidal rather than a bacteriostatic action, i.e. it kills the bacteria, rather than merely inhibiting their growth, as some antibiotics do. The bacteria may die due to osmotic damage because they are not protected by their outer wall. Antibiotics used for Antibiotic is given for the treatment of an infection caused by the bacteria. Antibiotics target microorganism is such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. They are not affective against the virus. Most upper respiratory tract infection such as common cold and sore throats are generally caused by the viruses. Antibiotic do not work against these virus.If antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly there is a chance that the bacteria will become resistant-the antibiotic becomes less effective against that type of bacterium. A broad-spectrum antibiotic can be used to treat a wide range of infections. A narrow-spectrum antibiotic is only effective against a few types of bacteria. There are antibiotics that attack aerobic bacteria, while others work against anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria don't. Antibiotics may be given beforehand, to prevent infection, as might be the case before surgery. This is called 'prophylactic' use of antibiotics. They are commonly used before bowel and orthopedic surgery. Side-effects of antibiotics Below is a list of the most common side-effects of antibiotics: Diarrhea Feeling and being sick Fungal infections of the mouth, digestive tract and vagina Below is a list of rare side-effects of antibiotics:

Formation of kidney stones (when taking sulphonamides) Abnormal blood clotting (when taking some cephalosporins) Sensitivity to sun (when taking tetracyclines) Blood disorders (when taking trimethoprim) Deafness (when taking erythromycin and the aminoglycosides) Industrial Production of Penicillin

The name penicillin is applied to a variety of compounds produced by various species of Penicillium and also too many semi-synthetic penicillins, produced by converting one antibiotic, such as penicillin G, into another, such as ampicillin. Aspergillus nidulans, another mould fungus, also produces penicillins. The complete biosynthesis pathway for penicillin is extremely complex and unlikely to be achieved in the laboratory.

Antibiotics & Penicillins By Abhishek Mishra/Biochemical Engineering /HBTI Kanpur

Penicillin G, one of the most active and widely used forms, is manufactured commercially using Penicillium chrysogenum. The process is carried out in stainless steel (strong - strain of stirring, general knocks / does not tarnish - inert - no rust / withstands heat / allows heat to pass through) fermenters of l0 000 dm3 capacity. The fermenter is steam sterilised (to prevent from contamination) and loaded with sterilised growth medium (corn steep liquor) containing lactose, amino acids, mineral salts and other substances. (Phenylethanoic acid, a metabolic intermediate, is also added, to increase the yield). An inoculum of strongly growing hyphae is added. Both glucose and nitrate are added periodically. The pH requires adjustment from time to time, to neutralize ammonia produced by the fungus. Temperature is set at first to give the maximum growth rate and then altered to favour penicillin synthesis. The fermenter is continuously stirred and sterile air blown in. An external cooling jacket is used for temperature control (to prevent overheating - inefficient / kills Penicillium).

Penicillin is a secondary metabolite, produced in large quantities only towards the end of the growth period of the fungus (see the graph below) therefore it is essential for all of the mycelium to reach peak growth at the same time. This is why batch fermentation, rather than a continuous process, is appropriate for penicillin manufacture. After 6-8 days of batch culture, the liquid medium is pumped out, filtered and concentrated. The basic antibiotic - benzyl penicillin - is precipitated as crystals when potassium compounds are added. This antibiotic may then be modified by the action of other micro-organisms or by

Antibiotics & Penicillins By Abhishek Mishra/Biochemical Engineering /HBTI Kanpur chemical means, before being mixed with inert substances and pressed into tablets or converted into syrup or injectable form. Although the molecular structure of penicillin is known, and it may be synthesised by chemical methods, it is not economic to do so. The production process still relies on fungal fermentation based on biological principles, although modern strains are much more productive (producing large quantities of something useful (antibiotic))) than the early strains. This has been achieved through screening programmes (Many experiments, testing lots of strains to see if they work or not) involving isolates from different sources, and treatment to encourage mutations. Question & Answer Why do antibiotics kill bacteria and not (usually!) humans? Bacteria have cell wall. Bacteria die without the cell wall, because antibiotic inhibit the production of cell wall of bacteria thats why antibiotics kill the bacteria not usually humans. (Bacteria constantly remodel their peptidoglycan cell walls, simultaneously building and breaking down portions of the cell wall as they grow and divide) Antibiotic Resistance? Some strain of bacteria produce enzyme which breaks down and thus antibiotics become inactive and bacteria can still grow in presence of antibiotics. These are said to resistant strain of bacteria. Why viral diseases are not controlled by antibiotics? Most antibiotics damage cell walls of bacteria, which viruses do not have. Bacteria are metabolically active, so they can be "hit" by antibiotics, whereas viruses are not active unless inside the host's cells. Once a virus is inside a cell, the cell is doomed (Waste) anyway. Viral activities inside cells can only be stopped by killing cells! Penicillium Penicillium is a genus of mold-forming fungi that grow on stored feed and in growing plants. Some produce antibiotics, some can be opportunistic pathogens and some produce mycotoxins, including patulin. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum Cultures of these fungi produce penicillin. Penicillium notatom was used in time of Second World War but nowadays Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the production of penicillin. -lactam A -lactam (beta-lactam) ring, is a four-membered lactam. (A lactam is a cyclic amide.) It is named as such, because the nitrogen atom is attached to the -carbon relative to the carbonyl