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CHAPTER 2:THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

  • 2.1 MATTER: (refer text book pg 11)

    • 1. Particle Theory of Matter : Matter is made up of …………………… and ……………… .. particles.

    • 2. The tiny particles may be atoms, ………………

..

and ……………………….

  • 3. Kinetic Theory of matter : Matter consists of small particles that always collide among each other. The particles move faster when energy is ……………… and slower when they are ………….

  • 4. Change of states of matter based on Kinetic Theory:

State of matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Draw the particles arrangement

     

Particles

The particles are

The particles are

The particles are

arrangement

…………….together

………… but not in

……………

..

apart from

in an ……………. manner

………….

each other.

Particles movement

Particles can only

 

Particles can ………,

Particles can ………….,

and

………… About their fix positions

..

……

..

………… and ………. throughout the liquid

……………… and ……… freely

Attractive forces

Very …………………,

Strong ………………

…………………. Forces

between the

……………

..

between

between particles but

between particles

particles

particles

then the forces in solid.

Kinetic energy of particles

…………………… ..

……………………….

………………………

  • 5. When heat energy is supplied to particles in matter, its kinetic energy (increased/decreased) and the particles in matter vibrate ( faster/ slower) When matter loses heat energy, the

1

2

kinetic

energy of the GAS
energy of
the
GAS

particles

SOLID
SOLID
LIQUID BB
LIQUID
BB
D
D
2 kinetic energy of the GAS particles SOLID LIQUID BB D Temperature C C A Times/s

Temperature O C

C

A
A

Times/s

(increased/decreased) and they vibrate ( faster/ slower).

6.

(

C

(

)

A

)

(

D

)

(

B

)

A …………………… B ……………………… C…………………… D…………………….

  • 7. The temperature at which a ………………………………. Completely changes to become a liquid is called ……………………………… ..

  • 8. Explanation on the heating process of matter (refer text book 15)

2

3

 

States of matter

explanation

point A to B

   

B to C

   

C to D

   

9. Explanation on the cooling process of matter

Temperature O C

3 States of matter explanation point A to B B to C C to D 9.
A CC
A
CC
BB
BB
DD
DD
 
Times/s

Times/s

Point

State of matter

 

Explanation

P to Q

   

Q to R

   

R to S

   

3

4

4 Freezing point : The temperature at which a …………………… changes into ……………. During the freezing

Freezing point : The temperature at which a …………………… changes into …………….

During the freezing process, the temperature remains unchanged because the heat lost to the

environment is …………

..

by the heat released when the liquid particles rearrange themselves

to become solid.

2.2 THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

The Historical Development Of Atomic Models

Complete all the blanks and draw the structure of each atomic model.

Model

Structure

 

Characteristic

 

Dalton’s atomic model

 

The

atom

was

imagined

as

a

small

(proposed by

indivisible ball similar to a very tiny ball.

 

………………in

 

…………)

   

J.J Thomson discovered

the……….,

a

Thomson’s atomic

negatively-charged particle.

 

model

The atom was describe as a sphere of

(proposed by

positive charge embedded with electrons.

 

………………

 

in……… )

..

   

Ernest Rutherford discovered ………, a

Rutherford’s atomic

positively-charged particle in an atom.

 

model

The central region of atom has a very small

(proposed by

positively-charged ……………, which

………………… in

contains almost all the mass of the atom.

 

……….)

 
   

The electrons in an atom move in …………

Bohr’s atomic model

around the nucleus which contains protons.

 

(proposed by

 

4

5

……………… in

     

……… )

..

   

Chadwick proved

the

existence

of

Chadwick’s atomic

……………., the neutral

particle

in

the

model

nucleus.

(proposed by

 

The nucleus of the atom contains protons &

…………

…….

in

neutrons, and the nucleus is surrounded by

……….)

electrons.

…………… contribute approximately to half

the mass of an atom.

Subatomic Particle Of An Atom

Fill all the blanks and complete the table. (refer text book pg 18)

  • 1. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles namely ……………

..

,

…………… and …………

..

…………

..

and ……………

..

are found in the nucleus of an atom while electrons surround the

nucleus.

Subatomic particle

 

Symbol

Relative mass

 

Relative electric

 
 

charge

 

Proton

     

Neutron

     

Electron

     
  • 2. The proton number of an element is the number of ………………… in its atom.

PROTON NUMBER, Z

=

NUMBER OF. PROTON

  • 3. Protons and neutrons are collectively called nucleons. The nucleon number of an element is the total number of ……………… and

……………

..

in its atom.

6

  • 4. The nucleon number is also known as the mass number.

NUMBER OF NEUTRON = NUCLEON NUMBER --

PROTON NUMBER

=

A

--

Z

5. Symbols Of Elements

The standard representation for an atom of any element shows the proton number and the

nucleon number of the element. It can be written as follows:

A

Z

X

 

#

A – Nucleon number

 
 

Z – proton number

X – symbol of element

 

1

 

21

Proton number

 

2

H

Nucleon number

He

1

Sc 45
Sc
45
 

4

3

4

 

5

6

7

8

9

10

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

7

9

11

12

14

16

19

20

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

23

24

27

28

31

32

35

40

19

20

21

                             

K

Ca

Sc

39

40

45

Consider part of the periodic table of the element above and complete the table below.

Element

Symbol

Proton

No. of

Nucleon

No. of

Standard

number

electron

number

neutron

representation

Scandium

           

Aluminium

           

Argon

           

Beryllium

           

Boron

           

Calcium

           

Carbon

           

Chlorine

           

Fluorine

           

6

7

Helium Hydrogen Lithium Magnesium Neon Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Potassium
Helium
Hydrogen
Lithium
Magnesium
Neon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Potassium
  • 2.3 ISOTOPES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE

  • 2.1 Isotopes And Their Importance ( refer text book pg 20) ** Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

Complete the table:

Element

Number of

Symbol of

Number of

Number of

Number of

Name of

isotopes

isotopes

protons

electrons

neutrons

isotopes

   

1

H

1

     

Hydrogen

3

1

1

H

1

   

Hydrogen-2

   

1

1

H

1

     

1

   

16

O

8

 

8

Oxygen-16

Oxygen

3

8

   

8

9

 
   

18

O

       

8

     

6

   

Carbon-12

Carbon

3

 

6

 

7

 

14

C

 

6

8

 

6

Chlorine

2

35

Cl

17

     

17

     

17

 

20

 

Bromine

2

 

35

   

Bromine-80

 

35

35

 

Bromine-81

* Uses of isotopes in Our Daily Lives (refer text book pg 21)

  • 1. Cobalt-60 : _____________________________________________________

.

  • 2. Gamma rays of Cobalt-60 : ________________________________________

  • 3. Carbon-14 : ______________________________________________________

  • 4. Phosphorus-32 : __________________________________________________

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8

2.4 THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM

  • 1. The elektron are filled in specific shells. Every shell can be filled only with a certain number of electrons. For the elements with proton number 1-20:- First shell can filled with a maximum of ……………. electrons Second shell can filled with a maximum of ……………. electrons Third shell can be filled with a maximum of …………….electrons

Lithium Atom

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

neutral atom.

8 2.4 THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM 1. The elektron are filled in specific shells.

Third shell filled with 8 electrons

Second shell filled with 8 electrons

First shell with 2 electrons

1

3

Li

Sodium Atom

23

Na

11

Number of proton

 

Number of electron

 

Number of neutrons

 

Proton number

 

Nucleon number

 

Electron arrangement

 
 

Number of proton

 

Number of electron

 

Number of neutrons

 

Proton number

 

Nucleon number

 

Electron arrangement

 
  • 2. Valance electron : Electron in the ………………….

shell of a

CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS

3.1 RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS (RAM) AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS (RMM)

8

9

Relative atomic mass of an elemant , A r

= The average mass of an atom of the element

1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

Example:

A r of C=12

A r of O=16

A r of Mg=24

Relative molecular mass of a substance, M r = The Average mass of a molecule of
Relative molecular mass of a substance, M r
= The Average mass of a molecule of the substance
1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

Calculating Relative molecular mass,M r

M r = The sum of A r of all atoms present in one molecule

Example:

2 Hydrogen atoms
2 Hydrogen
atoms
Molecular formula
Molecular
formula

M r of Water, H 2 O = 2(1) + 16 = 18

Relative atomic mass for Hydrogen
Relative atomic mass
for Hydrogen
Relative atomic mass for Oxygen
Relative atomic mass
for Oxygen

M r of Carbon dioxide, CO 2 = 12 + 2(16) = 44

All A M and r, r F have no unit r
All A
M
and
r,
r
F
have no unit
r

For ionic substance , Relative formula mass , F r

= The sum of A r of all atoms present in the formula

Example:

F r of Magnesium oxide, MgO = 24 + 16 = 40

F r of Sodium chloride, NaCl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5

  • 1. Calculate the Relative molecular masses of the substances in the table below.

Substance

Molecular formula

Relative molecular mass, M r

Hydrogen gas

H 2

2(1) = 2

Propane

  • C 3 H 8

 

Ethanol

  • C 2 H 5 OH

 
     

9

10

Bromine gas

Br 2

 

Methane

 

CH 4

 

Glucose

C

6 H 12 O 6

 

Ammonia

 

NH 3

 

[Relative atomic mass : H,1; C,12; O,16; Br,80 ; N,14 ]

  • 2. Calculate the relative formula masses of the following ionic compounds in the table.

 

Substance

Compound formula

Relative formula mass, F r

 

Potassium oxide

K 2 O

2(39) + 16 = 94

Aluminium sulphate

Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

2(27)+3[32+4(16)]=342

 

Zinc nitrate

Zn(NO 3 ) 2

 

Aluminium nitrate

Al(NO 3 ) 3

 

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3

 

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH) 2

 

Hydrated copper(II)

CuSO 4 .5H 2 O

64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) + 16]=250

sulphate

Hydrated sodium

Na 2 CO 3 .10H 2 O

 

carbonate

[Relative atomic mass: O,16; C,12; H,1; K,39 ; Cu,64 ; Zn, 65; Cl, 35.5 ; Al, 27

S,32 ;

Ca, 40;

Na,23; N, 14]

3.2 The Mole and the number of particles

  • 1. To describe the amount of atoms, ions or molecules , mole is used

10

11

  • 2. A mole is an amount of substance which contains a constant number of particles (atoms, ions, molecules which is 6.02 x 10 23

  • 3. The number 6.02 x 10 23 is called …………………………

..

(N A )

  • 4. relationship between number of moles and number of particles (atom/ion/molecules):

x Avogadro Constant

number of moles
number of moles
number of nmolecules
number of nmolecules

A vogadro Constant

 

Number of moles

 

Number of particles

…………

..

mol of carbon atoms

3.01 x 10 23 atoms of carbon

 

0.2 moles of hydrogen gas

(i)

……………

..

molecules of

hydrogen

(ii)

……………. Atoms of hydrogen

………………… mol of carbon dioxide

x 10 23 molecules of carbon dioxide

molecules

 

contains :

 

…………atoms of C and ……. Atoms of O

3.3 Number of Moles and Mass of Substances

  • 1. Molar Mass :

    • (a) Molar Mass is the mass of one mole of any substance.

    • (b) Molar Mass is the relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass and relative formula mass of a substance in g mol -1

    • (c) Molar Mass of any substance is numerically equal to its relative mass.

Number Of moles
Number
Of
moles

X RAM/RMM/RFM

RAM/RMM/RFM

Mass in g
Mass
in g

2. Complete the following table.

 

Chemical

   

Element/compound

formule

RAM/RMM/RFM

Calculate

Copper

Cu

RAM= 64

(a)Mass of 1 moll

11

12

     
  • (b) Mass of 2 mol :

(c)Mass of ½ mol:

(d)Mass of 3.01x10 23 Cu atoms:

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

RFM= 40

  • (a) Mass of 3 mol of sodium

hydroxide

  • (b) Number of moles of sodium

hydroxide in

20 g

Zinc nitrate

Zn(NO 3 ) 2

RFM =

a) Number of moles in 37.8 g of

zinc nitrate:

3.4 Number of Moles and Volume of gas

  • 1. Molar volume of a gas : Volume occupied by one mole of any gas.

  • 2. The molar volume of any gas is 24 dm 3 at room conditions and 22.4 dm 3 at standard

temperature and pressure (STP)

  • 3. generalization : One mole of any gas always occupies the same volume under the same

temperature and pressure;

Example i)

1 mol of oxygen gas, 1 mol of ammonia gas, 1 mol helium gas and 1 mol sulphur

dioxide gas occupies the same volume of 24 dm 3 at room condition

Number of moles of gas 2 2
Number of moles of
gas
2
2

dm 3

x 22.4/24 dm 3

12

∻2 Volume of gas .4/ 4
∻2
Volume of gas
.4/
4

13

Mass in gram
Mass in gram
Volume of gas (dm 3 )
Volume of gas (dm 3 )
Number of moles
Number of moles
No of particles
No of particles

Complete the above diagram (Refer to Page 33,34 & 38-Chemistry textbook)

Relative Atomic Mass : Fe = 65, Ca = 40, Cl = 35.5, Mg = 24, H = 1, O = 16, C =12 Avogadro number = 6 x 10 23

The Molecules and the Volume of Gas

  • 1. What is the volume of 0.3 mole of sulphur dioxide gas at STP? [Molar volume: 22.4 dm 3 mol -1 at STP]

(Ans: 6.72 dm 3 )

  • 2. Find the number of moles of oxygen gas contained in a sample of 120 cm 3 of the gas at room conditions. [Molar volume: 24 dm 3 mol -1 at room conditions]

(ans: 0.005 mol)

  • 3. Calculate the number of water molecules in 90 g of water. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16. Avogadro constant, N A : 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 ]

(Ans; 3.01x 10 24 molecules)

  • 4. What is the volume of 24 g methane at STP? [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12. Molar volume: 22.4 dm 3 mol -1 at STP]

13

14

(Ans: 33.6 dm 3 )

  • 5. How many aluminium ions are there in 20.4 g of aluminium oxide? [Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27. Avogadro constant, N A : 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 ]

(2 x 0.2 x 6.02

x10 23 )

  • 6. Calculate the number of hydrogen molecules contained in 6 dm 3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions. [Molar volume: 24 dm 3 mol -1 at room conditions Avogadro constant, N A : 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 ]

(Ans: 1.505x10 23 molecules)

  • 7. Find the volume of nitrogen in cm 3 at STP that consists of 2.408 x 10 23 nitrogen molecules. [Molar volume: 22.4 dm 3 mol -1 at STP. Avogadro constant, N A : 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 ]

(Ans: 8.96 dm 3 )

3.5 CHEMICAL FORMULAE

  • 1. Chemical formulae- A set of chemical symbols for atoms of elements in whole numbers

representing chemical substances.

Chemical subtance

Chemical formulae

Notes

Water

-------------

2 atoms of H combine with 1 atom of O

14

15

------------

 

NH 3

-----

atoms of H combine with 1 atom of N

Propene

C

3 H 8

3 atoms of C combine with ----- atom of H

1. There are two types of chemical formulae

** Empirical Formula

** Molecular Formula

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element

in the compound.

The actual number of atoms of each element that are

present in a molecule of the compound

Remember:

Molecular formula = (Empirical formula) n

 

Example:

Compound – Ethene

Molecular formula -

C H

2

4

Compound – Glucose

Molecular formula -

C H O

6

12

6

Empirical formula -

CH

  • 2 Empirical formula - CH O

2

2. To find the empirical formula of a compound

Example of calculation:

a) When 11.95 g of metal X oxide is reduced by hydrogen, 10.35 g of metal X is

produced. Find the empirical formula of metal X oxide [ RAM; X,207; O,16 ]

Element

X

O

Mass of element(g)

10.35

11.95-10.35

Number of moles of atoms

10.35÷207

(11.95-10.35)÷16

Ratio of moles

   

Simplest ratio of moles

   

Empirical formula : ……………

b) A certain compound contains the following composition:

Na 15.23%,

Br 52.98% , O 31.79%, [ RAM : O, 16; Na, 23; Br,80]

(Assume that 100g of substance is used)

Element

Na

Br

O

Mass of element(g)

15.23

52.98

31.79

Number of moles of atoms

15.23 ÷23

52.98÷80

31.79÷16

Ratio of moles

     

Simplest ratio of moles

     

Empirical formula:

15

16

Compound

Molecular Formula

Empirical formula

Value of n

Water

 

H 2 O

   

Carbon Dioxide

 

CO 2

CO 2

 

Sulphuric Acid

 

H 2 SO 4

   

Ethane

 
  • C CH 2

2 H 4

   

Benzene

 
  • C 6 H 6

   

Glucose

C

6 H 12 O 6

   

a) 2.58g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16 g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the

hydrocarbon is 86. [RAM H,1; C,12]

  • i. Find the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon

ii.

Find the molecular formula of the carbon.

3. Chemical Formula for ionic compounds:

*MemoriseThe formulae of some common cations and anions :

Cation

Formula

Anion

Formula

 

Hydrogen ion

H

+

Flouride ion

F

Lithium ion

Li

+

Chloride ion

Cl

 

Sodium ion

Na

+

Bromide ion

Br

 

Potassium ion

K

+

Iodide ion

I

Magnesium ion

Mg

2+

Hydroxide ion

OH

 

Calcium ion

Ca

2+

Nitrate ion

NO

3

Barium ion

Ba

2+

Manganate(VII)

MnO

 
 

ion

4

Copper(II) ion

Cu

2+

Ethanoate ion

CH COO

3

 

16

17

Iron(II) ion

Fe

2+

Oxide ion

O

2

Iron (III) ion

Fe

3+

Sulphate ion

SO

4

 

Lead (II) ion

Pb

2+

Sulphide ion

S

2

Zinc ion

Zn

2+

Carbonate ion

CO

3

2

Chromium (III) ion

Cr

3+

Dichromate (VI)

Cr O

 

2

 

ion

2

7

Aluminium ion

Al

3+

Phosphate ion

PO

4

3

Ammonium ion

NH

+

4

 

Silver ion

Ag

+

17

a) Chemical formula of an ionic compound comprising of the ions X m+ and Y n- is

constructed by exchanging the charges of each element. The formula obtained

will X n Y m

example : Sodium oxide

Copper (II) nitrate

 

Na +

O 2-

Cu 2+

NO 3

-

+1

-2

2+

-1

Na O Cu NO - +1 -2 2+ -1 2 1 1 2 = Na O
 
Na O Cu NO - +1 -2 2+ -1 2 1 1 2 = Na O
 

2

1

1

2

=

Na 2 O

=

Cu(NO 3 ) 2

Construct a chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds:

(a). Magnesium chloride

(b). Potassium carbonate

(c). Calcium

sulphate

(d). Copper (II) oxide

(e). Silver nitrate

(f). Zinc nitrate

(g). Aluminium oxide

(h). Iron(II) hydroxide

(i). Lead(II) sulphide

3.6 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

Example:

C (s)

+

O

2

(g)

CO

2

(g)

Reactant

product

*Qualitative aspect of chemical equation:

  • 1. Arrow in the equation the way the reaction is occurring

  • 2. Substances on the left-hand side reactants.

  • 3. Substances on the reight-hand side products.

  • 4. State of each substance solid : (s), liquid (l), gas (g) and aqueous reaction (aq)

Example:

2

H

2

(g)

+

O

2

(g)

2 H

2

O (l)

2

molecules

Or

2

mol

1 molecule

or

1 mol

2 molecules

or

2 mol

* Quantitative aspect of chemical equations

1. Coefficients in a balanced equation the exact proportions of reactants and products

in a

equation.

Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions and interpret the equations

quantitatively.

(a). Carbon monoxide gas + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas

___________________________________________________________________

___

Interpreting:

___________________________________________________________________

(b). Hydrogen gas + nitrogen gas ammonia gas

___________________________________________________________________

___

Interpreting:

___________________________________________________________________

(c). Aluminium + Iron (III) oxide aluminium oxide + Iron

___________________________________________________________________

___

Interpreting:

___________________________________________________________________

** Numerical Problems Involving Chemical Equations

Hydrogen peroxide decomposes accordin to the following equation:

2

H O

2

2

(l) 2

H O

2

(l) +

O

2

(g)

1. Calculate the volume of oxygen gas,

O

  • 2 measured at STP that can be obtained

from the decomposition of 34 g of hydrogen peroxide,

H O

2

2

.

[Relative atomic mass : H, 1 ; O, 16. Molar volume : 22.4

3

dm mol

1

at STP]

(Ans: 11.2 dm 3 )

2.Silver carbonate Ag 2 CO 3 breaks down easily when heated to produce silver metal

2 Ag 2 CO 3 (l)

2 Ag CO ( l ) 4 Ag (s) + 2 CO 2 (g) + O

4 Ag (s) + 2

CO

  • 2 (g) +

O

2

Find the mass of silver carbonate that is required to produce 10 g of silver

[Relative atomic mass: C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Ag, 108]

3. 16 g of copper (II) oxide, CuO is reacted with excess methane,

equation below, find the mass of copper that is produced.

[Relative atomic mass : Cu, 64 ; O, 16]

4

CuO (s) +

CH

4

(g) 4 Cu (s) +

CO

2

(g) + 2

H

2

O

(l)

(Ans : 12.77g)

CH

4

(Ans : 16 g)

. Using the

4.A student heats 20 g of calcium carbonate

CaCO

  • 3 strongly. It decomposes according

to the equation below:

CaCO

3

2 Ag CO ( l ) 4 Ag (s) + 2 CO 2 (g) + O
  • (s) CaO

(s) +

CO

  • 2 (g).

(a). If the carbon dioxide produced is collected at room conditions, what is its volume?

(b). Calculate the mass of calcium oxide, CaO produced.

[Relative atomic mass: C, 12 ; O, 16; Ca, 40. Molar volume : 24 dm 3

conditions]

mol

1

at room

(Ans : (a). 4.8 dm 3 (b) 11.2 g)

CHAPTER 4 : PERIODIC TABLE of ELEMENTS

4.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

Historical Development of the Periodic Table

Arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table

  • a) Elements are arranged in an increasing order of proton number

  • b) Vertical columns are called group ( Group 1 18)

  • c) Horizontal rows are called period ( Period 1 7)

  • d) Elements with similar chemical properties are placed in the same group

  • e) The group number of the elements with 1 to 2 valence electrons = the number of valence electrons in its atom.

  • f) The group number of the elements with 3 to 8 valence electrons = the number of valence electrons in its atom + 10

  • g) The period number of an element = the number of shells occupied with electrons in its atom.

1. Complete the table below

Element 1 4 7 9 11 12 14 16 19 20 H He Li Be B
Element
1
4
7
9
11
12
14
16
19
20
H
He
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Electron
2.1
2.4
2.7
arrangement
Number of
2
8
valence
electrons
Group
14 17
Number of
2
shells
occupied
Period
2
Element
23
24
27
28
31
32
35.5
40
39
40
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
K
Ca
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Electron
2.8.1
arrangement
Number of
6
valence
electrons
Group
1
16 2
Number of
shells
occupied
Period
3
4

2.An atom of element E has 10 neutrons. The nucleon number of element E is 19. In

which group and period is element E located in the Periodic Table?

3.

An atom of element G has 3 shells occupied with electrons. It is placed in group

17 of the Periodic Table. What is the electron arrangement of atom G?

  • 4.2 Group 18 Element

known as noble gases: Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon & radon

monoatomic

all noble gases are inert – chemicallt unreactive

** The electron arrangement of noble gases are very stable because the

outermost occupied shells are full

Uses of Group 18 elements:

  • 1. Helium gas – to fill airships and weather balloons

  • 2. Neon gas – used in advertising lights and television tubes

  • 3. Argon gas – to fill light bulbs

  • 4. Krypton gas – used in lasers to repair the retina of the eye

  • 5. Radon gas – treatment of cancer

  • 6. Xenon gas – used for making electron tubes and stroboscopic lamps

  • 4.3 Group 1 Elements (Alkali Metals)

Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium & francium

uses of Group 1 elements:

  • a) Lithium – batteries in calculator, watches and cameras

  • b) 2

Sodium -

Na CO

3

Potassium -

KNO

3

in soda-lime glass

  • c) as fertiliser.

* physical properties: softmetals, low densities, low melting & boiling points,

silvery and shiny surfaces, good conductors of heat and electricity

*Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements

  • 1. react vigorously with water to produce alkaline metal hyrdroxide solutions and hydrogen gas Example: 2Li +

2 H O

2

2LiOH +

H

2

Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with water

_______________________________________________________________

  • 2. react (burn) in oxygen gas rapidly to produce white solid metal oxides Example: 4Li +

O

2

2 Li O

2

Write down the balanced equation when rubidium reacts with oxygen

_______________________________________________________________

  • 3. burn in chlorine gas

Cl

  • 2 , to form white solid metal chlorides.

Example: 2Na +

Cl

2

2NaCl

Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with chlorine gas

_______________________________________________________________

**

The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases when going down the group.

Explain why.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

**

Potassium reacts more vigorously with water as compared to sodium. Explain.

(Proton number: Na, 11 ; K, 19)

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

(refer text book pg 67&68)

To Investigate The Chemical Properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium

(A) The Reaction of alkali metals With Water, H O

2

Problem Statement: How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when

they react with water?

Hypothesis:

When going down Group 1, alkali metals become more

reactive in their reactions with water.

Variables:

Manipulated variable – Different types of alkali metals

Responding variable – Reactivity of metals

Fixed variables – water, size of metals

Procedure:

(refer to practical book pg 39)

Data & Observation (complete this table!)

Alkali metal

Observation

Lithium

 

Sodium

 

Potassium

 

(B) The Reaction of alkali metals With Oxygen, O 2

(This procedure also can be used to test the reaction of alkali metals with chlorine gas!)

Problem Statement: _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

Hypothesis: ___________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________

Variables:

Manipulated variable – ________________________________

Responding variable – ________________________________

Fixed variables – ____________________________________

Procedure;

(refer practical book pg 36)

Data & Observation (This reaction of alkali metals with chlorine gas will give the same

observations!)

Alkali metal

Observation

Lithium

 

Sodium

 

Potassium

 

Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending order of

reactivity.

_______________________________________________________________

Write the chemical equations for the reactions between the products from the

combustion of each alkali metal with water.(refer text book pg 67)

1.

 

____________________________________________________________

2.

 

____________________________________________________________

3.

 

____________________________________________________________

4.4 Group 17 Elements (Halogens)

Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine

uses of Group 17 elements:

1)

Chlorine – water treatment, bleaching agent

2)

Bromine – weaker bleaching agent

3)

Iodine – needed in human thyroid gland to produce hormones

*Physical properties: Low melting and boiling points.

*Remember

Fluorine: pale yellow gas

Chlorine: greenish-yellow gas

Bromine: reddish-brown gas

Iodine: purplish-black gas

Cl

  • 2 colour of

melting and

Br

  • 2 halogens

boiling points

I

2

increase

Alkali metal Observation Lithium Sodium Potassium Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending
Alkali metal Observation Lithium Sodium Potassium Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending

becomes

darker

Alkali metal Observation Lithium Sodium Potassium Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending

Density

increases

When going down the Group 17, the melting and boiling points increase. Explain

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

**

(refer text book pg 70)

Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements

  • 1. react with water to form two acids Example:

Cl

2

+ H O

2

HCl

+

hydrochloric

acid

HOCl

hypochlorus

acid

Write a balanced equation when bromine reacts with water.

__________________________________________________________________

  • 2. in gaseous state react with hot iron to form a brown solid, iron (III) halides. Example: 2Fe +

3Br

2

2FeBr

3

Write a balanced equation when iodine vapour reacts with iron

__________________________________________________________________

  • 3. react with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH , to form sodium halide, sodium halite (I) and water

Example: I + 2NaOH  NaI + NaOH + H O 2 2 Write a balanced
Example:
I +
2NaOH
 NaI
+ NaOH + H O
2
2
Write a balanced equation when chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide solution
__________________________________________________________________
The reactivity of Group 17 elements decreases when going down the group. Explain
why.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Chlorine gas reacts more vigorously with hot iron as compared to bromine gas.
Explain (Proton number: Cl, 17 ; Br, 35)
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
(refer text book pg 71)
To investigate the Chemical properties of Group 17 elements.
The Reaction of halogens with iron (refer practical book pg 44)
Data and Observation (Complete this form)
Halogens
Observation
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Based on your results, arrange the halogens,
Cl Br I
,
,
in ascending order of
2
2
2

reactivity.

__________________________________________________________________

Element E is placed below element D in Group 17 of the Periodic Table.

(a). Compare the melting and boiling points of element D with element E. Explain

your answer

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

(b). Write an equation for the reaction between element D and hot iron

_______________________________________________________________

4.5 Elements In A Period

(refer text book pg 73)

 

Example:

Period 3 in the Periodic Table – Properties of Elements

 

Element

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

Proton number

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Electron

               

arrangement

Atomic radius

186

160

143

118

110

104

100

94

(pm)

Physical state at

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Gas

Gas

room

temperature

Electronegativity

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

2.5

3.0

-

*

Across Period 3: (refer text book pg 73)

 
  • 1. The proton number

________________

by one unit from one element to the next

element

  • 2. All the atoms of elements have

_______________

shells occupied with electrons.

  • 3. The number of valence electrons in each atom

from 1 to 8.

_______________

  • 4. The physical state at room temperature changes from

__________

to ___________

  • 5. The atomic radius (atomic size) of elements ________________.

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

  • 6. The electronegativity of

elements.

_______________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

  • 7. The oxides of elements change from basic to acidic properties.

Example:

Na O , MgO , Al O SiO

2

2

3

,

2

P O

4

10

SO

2

Cl O

2

7

Below are some oxides of elements of Period 3.

*Sodium oxide, Na O

2

*Aluminium oxide,

Al O

2

3

*Silicon (IV) oxide,

SiO

2

*Sulphur dioxide,

SO

2

(a). Which of these oxides can react with

(i) dilute nitric acid,

HNO

  • 3 ? ________________________________________

(ii) sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution? _______________________________

(b). Based on your answers in (a), what inferences can you make about the

properties of each of the oxides?

_______________________________________________________________

Q2
Q2
7 12 19 Li , C F , 3 6 9
7
12
19
Li ,
C F
,
3
6
9

The above show the symbols of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

(a).Which period in the Periodic Table can you find the three elements? Explain.

_______________________________________________________________

(b).Arrange the three elements in order of increasing atomic size.

_______________________________________________________________

(c). Compare the electronegativity of the three elements. Explain your answer.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

4.6 Transition Elements

elements from Group 3 to Group 12 in the Periodic Table

all are metals

high melting and boiling points ; high densities

good conductors of heat and electricity.

exhibit three special characteristics:

1. transition elements show different oxidation numbers in their compounds.

Example:

Iron:

Copper:

2 oxidation numbers

+2,

+3

2 oxidation numbers

2.

transition elements form coloured ions or compounds.

Example:

Cu 2+ - blue

MnO 4 - - purple

Fe 2+ - green

CrO 4 2- - yellow

Fe 3+ - brown

  • 3. transition elements and their compounds are useful catalysts.

Example: (refer text book 77)

  • 1. Haber process – Manufacture of ___________ Catalyst: iron

  • 2. Ostwald process – manufacture of ______________ Catalyst: __________

  • 3. Manufacture of margarine Catalyst: _____________

  • 4. Contact process – manufacture of ______________ Catalyst: ___________________

****(Zinc is usually not classified as a transition element because it does not exhibit the

special characteristic of transition elements!)

****(Precious stones such as emerald, rubies, sapphire and jade are beautiful due to the

colours of the transition element compounds present in them!)

1

Diagram 1.1 shows the atomic structure of elements X and Y.

(Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan struktur atom bagi unsur X dan Y.)

1 Diagram 1.1 shows the atomic structure of elements X and Y. (Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan struktur

DIAGRAM 1.1

(a

What is the proton number of element X?

)

(Apakah nombor proton bagi unsur X?)

………………………………………………………….…………………….…………………

 

[1 mark]

(b

(i)

Atom of element X has isotopes. What is meant by isotopes?

)

(Atom unsur X mempunyai isotop. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan isotop?)

…………………………………………………………………….………………………

[1 mark]

 

(ii)

State one example of an isotope. (Nyatakan satu contoh isotop.)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(c)

(i)

Atom of element Y has a nucleon number of 23. Calculate the number of

 

neutrons in atom Y.

(Atom unsur Y mempunyai nombor nukleon 23. Hitungkan bilangan neutron

bagi atom Y.)

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

 

(ii)

Write the standard representation of atom Y.

 

(Tuliskan simbol atom unsur Y.)

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(d

Ethanol is an organic compound. Its melting point is –117 o C and its boiling point is

)

78 o C .

(Etanol ialah satu sebatian organik dengan takat lebur – 117 o C dan takat didih 78

o C.)

(i)

What is the physical state of ethanol at room temperature?

(Apakah keadaan fizik etanol pada suhu bilik?)

…………………………………………………………………………… ……………

..

[1 mark]

(ii)

Draw the arrangement of particles of ethanol at 100 o C.

 

(Lukiskan susunan zarah etanol pada 100 o C.)

   

100 o C

 

[1 mark]

(iii)

State how the movement of ethanol particles changes when heated from room

temperature to 100 o C.

(Nyatakan bagaimana pergerakan zarah-zarah etanol berubah apabila

dipanaskan dari suhu bilik ke 100 o C.)

 

…………………………………………….……………………………… ……………

..

 

[1 mark]

(iv)

Sketch the graph of temperature against time when ethanol is heated from

room temperature to 100 o C.

(Lakarkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila etanol dipanaskan daripada suhu

bilik ke 100 o C)

Temperature/ o C

(ii) Draw the arrangement of particles of ethanol at 100 C. (Lukiskan susunan zarah etanol pada
(ii) Draw the arrangement of particles of ethanol at 100 C. (Lukiskan susunan zarah etanol pada

Time/min

[2 marks]

  • 2 Figure 2.1 shows the chemical symbols which represent elements R, S and T. (Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan simbol kimia yang mewakili unsur-unsur R, S dan T.)

35

12

39

17

6

19

FI GURE 2.1 R S T (a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atom T. (Tuliskan
FI
GURE 2.1
R
S
T
(a)
(i)
Write the electron arrangement of atom T.
(Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom T.)
………………………………………………………………………………
...
[1 mark]
(ii)
State the period and the group for element T in the Periodic Table.
(Nyatakan kala dan kumpulan bagi unsur T dalam Jadual Berkala.)
Period (Kala) : ….…………………………………………………………… ..
Group (Kumpulan) ………………………………………………….……… ...
[2 marks]
(b)
Atoms of R and S can react to form a compound.
(Atom R dan atom S boleh bertindak balas untuk membentuk satu sebatian.)
(i)
Name the type of bond in the compound formed between atoms R and S.
(Nyatakan jenis ikatan dalam sebatian yang terbentuk antara atom R dan atom
S.)
…………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
(ii)
Give one physical property of the compound in (b)(i).
(Beri satu sifat fizik bagi sebatian di (b)(i).)
….……………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(c)
Atoms of R and T can also react to form a compound. Draw the electron

arrangement for the compound formed.

(Atom R dan atom T juga boleh bertindak balas untuk membentuk satu sebatian.

Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk.)

(d)))

[ 2 marks]

Iron, copper, nickel and chromium are examples of transition elements.

(Ferum, kuprum, nikel dan kromium adalah contoh unsur peralihan.)

  • (i) State the position of transition elements in the Periodic Table. (Nyatakan kedudukan unsur peralihan dalam Jadual Berkala.) ……………………………………………………………….…….……………

(ii)

State two special characteristics of transition elements.

[1 mark]

(Nyatakan dua ciri istimewa bagi unsur peralihan.)

………………………………………………………………….………………

[2 marks]

  • 3 Diagram 2 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Elements. U, V, W, X, Y and Z do not represent the actual symbol of the elements.

U V W X Y Z
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

DIAGRAM 2

  • (a) Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the Elements in Diagram 2, answer the following questions.

    • (i) Choose two elements in period 3

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(ii) Which element will form coloured compound?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii)

Write the electron arrangement for an atom of element V.

[1 mark]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(iv) Which element is chemically unreactive ?

[1 mark]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

  • (v) Explain your answer in (a)(iv)

[1 mark]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

(vi)

State one of the uses of U.

[2 marks]

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

  • (b) When X reacts with cold water, hydroxide solution is formed and a gas is released. (i) Name the gas

………………………………………….…………………………………………………………

(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction

[ 1 mark ]

………………………………………………………………………………………

[ 2 marks ]