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Nayak, R.N.; Sehgal, Y.K.; Subir Sen; Gupta, M.Power India Conference, 2006 IEEE544-548April 10-12, 2006

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Optimization of Neutral Grounding Reactor Parameters - An Analysis for a Double circuit EHV Line

R. N. Nayak, Senior Member, IEEE, Y. K. Sehgal, Subir Sen, and Manju Gupta

that the ionized faulted path is de-ionized in time so that dielectric strength is re-built and secondary arc current is promptly extinguished to facilitate successful reclosure. In case of SPS on double circuit (D/c) EHV line, the secondary arc is maintained not only by the inter-phase capacitive coupling between faulted phase and energized phases of the same circuit, but also by the mutual coupling of the other healthy circuit. Use of Neutral Grounding Reactor (NGR) at the neutral point of the shunt reactor on long EHV lines is widely adopted to ensure successful SPS. In case of single circuit(S/c) line, based on the given reactor size, ohmic value of the neutral reactor necessary to compensate the inter-phase capacitance is calculated. However, very little research has been done for treatment of double circuit line. In this paper, an empirical formula for determination of NGR value for a double circuit EHV line has been established as an extension of single circuit line and validated through EMTP simulation. Methodology for optimization of NGR parameters like size (ohmic value), current rating etc. is presented with a sample case study. Further, impact on the size of NGR value with variation in line length, source strength, power flow etc. for successful SPS of double circuit line have been examined through EMTP studies and results are discussed in the paper. II. SECONDARY ARC CURRENT Secondary arc current is composed of a capacitive component due to the inter-phase/inter-circuit capacitances and an inductive component driven by the voltage induced from the currents in the other phases of both circuits [2]. Both components increase with line length. The capacitive component is more important, being independent of line loading whereas inductive coupling is sensitive to both the line length and loading. Two major factors, which determine the probability of secondary arc extinction, are the magnitude of secondary arc current and recovery voltage as shown in Fig. 1.

Secondary Current(A)

Abstract-- In order to maintain power transmission reliability, application of Single-phase switching (SPS) and auto-reclosing on EHV line is a common practice. However, in some cases, it is necessary to apply special means like Neutral Grounding Reactor (NGR) to improve the conditions for secondary arc extinction for successful auto-reclosing. This paper presents importance of various parameters in optimization of NGR in a double circuit (D/c) EHV line. In case of SPS on D/c line, the secondary arc is maintained not only by the inter-phase coupling of the faulted circuit but also by the mutual coupling of the other healthy circuit. An empirical formula for NGR value of a double circuit line along with the methodology for its optimization is presented. Magnitude of secondary arc current also depends on the line length, power flow, source strength etc. Sensitivity of various parameters on Secondary arc current has been demonstrated through EMTP study. Index Terms-- EMTP, Neutral Grounding Reactor, Recovery voltage, Secondary arc current, Single Pole Switching

I. INTRODUCTION

account 95% of S INGLE-phase-to-ground faultslines and for 70% -these are faults on EHV transmission most of

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transitory in nature. From the standpoint of minimizing the disturbances, especially loss of synchronism thus hampering system stability, caused by such faults, as well as to maintain reliability, it is desirable to clear them by opening only the circuit-breaker pole on both terminals of the faulted phase out of the three phases and then reclose after certain time gap. This allows two energized and healthy phases to continue carrying power during the period of interruption, which has significant benefits [1]. The increasing difficulty of construction of new EHV transmission lines as well as high cost makes Single Phase Switching (SPS) attractive means of obtaining reliable power delivery system. SPS, also in comparison with three phase reclosing, has the additional benefit of reducing the torsional impact on turbine-generator shaft. During the dead time of SPS, extinction of the main transient arc current should take place. However, the faulted phase remains capacitively and inductively coupled with the energized unfaulted phases resulting in a continuat5ion of the fault (arc), current, which is known as secondary arc current [2]. If single-phase switching is adopted, care must be taken

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Current Voltage

100 75 50 25 0

R.N.Nayak, Y.K.Sehgal, Subir Sen and Manju Gupta are with Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd, Sector-29, Gurgaon(Haryana), India (Ph: 01242571815; Fax: 0124-2571802; E-mail: nayak@powergridindia.com

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0-7803-9525-5/06/$20.002006 IEEE

Fig. 1. Variation of Secondary arc current and Recovery Voltage with line length.

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Recovery Voltage(kV)

120

125

Various methods have been suggested for reducing the secondary arc current. For successful SPS, it is desirable to have arc extinction during the dead time for majority of the time. Reclosing time is often set in the range of 0.5-1 seconds. Extinction time is also dependent on atmospheric conditions and arc length. For long EHV lines, two methods are being considered to minimize the secondary arc current to ensure successful SPS mechanism. Out of these, four reactor scheme had a great deal of appeal for this application since phase/line reactors are required for long EHV line to control voltage. The fourth reactor of suitable size connected at the neutral point of the three phase reactors and ground (known as Neutral Grounding Reactor), cancels the inter-phase/inter-circuit capacitances between faulted and unfaulted phases, thus, facilitates reduction of magnitude of secondary arc current and recovery voltage. If an optimum reactive compensation scheme is used, secondary arc current would be of low magnitude (driven only by the inductive coupling) and in most of the cases, arc would be expected to extinguish within a short dead time. III. NGR VALUE TO COMPENSATE CAPACITIVE COUPLING A typical double circuit line with intra and inter-phase capacitive coupling along with shunt inductive compensation is represented in Fig. 2

CKT 1 Cm Cm CKT 2 Cm a c a b c

L1

L0

= C C0

(3)

1 1 = j C j C 0 jL1 jL0

(4)

i.e., the resulting positive and zero sequence admittance shall be equal, to compensate the effect of coupling capacitance by the reactor inductance. Further, equation (4) can be rearranged as C C 0 L0 L1 (5) L.C. = C L0 Degree of coupling may be defined by the ratio

C C0 (6) C Assuming M= 1/2CL1 and using equations (1), (5) and (6), the neutral grounding reactor inductance can be expressed in terms of shunt reactor inductance and phase and mutual capacitance by the following expression R=

Ln 1 R = L1 3 M R

IV. NGR VALUE SELECTION

(7)

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C1 b

Where, C1 : positive sequence phase capacitance of line C0 : zero sequence capacitance of line Cm : mutual capacitance between phases L1 : positive sequence inductance of shunt reactor L0 : zero sequence inductance of shunt reactor Ln : neutral grounding reactor inductance

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The neutral grounding reactor inductance is expressed by L L1 (1) Ln = 0 3 Equivalent phase capacitance taking into account the mutual effect of other circuit is represented by (2) C = C1 + C m

Secondary arc current can have magnitude from a few amps to over 100 Amp. Several investigators have measured secondary arc current magnitude and arc extinction time. Effective compensation of both the capacitive and inductive coupling requires that the phase reactors compensate the line to 100%. This is undesirable for many reasons like cost aspects, low voltage condition under normal power flow and possibility of a potentially damaging resonance condition. The ohmic value of the phase reactors are selected considering power flow, stability and other switching criteria for particular line. Based on the given phase reactor size, ohmic value of the NGR necessary to compensate the inter-phase capacitance of a line is to be estimated. Based on a review, successful secondary arc extinction would apparently be expected for double circuit EHV line, if the secondary arc current is less than 40 Amp and rate of rise of recovery voltage(RRRV) less than 10 kV/ms[4]. A typical characteristic of secondary arc current and recovery voltage is presented at Fig. 3 and 4 respectively.

I(A)

Effective value of the coupling capacitances between phases are represented in star connection, the phase value is (C - C0 ). Inductive coupling in the star connected reactor can be determined by the following expression [3] 1 1 L1 L0 The capacitive coupling between phases is totally compensated by the inductive coupling, if [3]

t (ms)

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V(kV)

capacitive coupling is calculated as 1400 ohms. However, to determine the knee point of NGR value, studies have been carried by varying the NGR value from 0 to 2500 ohms and magnitude of secondary arc current, recovery voltages are calculated. The results are plotted in Fig. 6 and 7 below:

Secondary Arc current(Amps) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 NGR Reactance(ohms)

t (ms)

V. CASE STUDY The above Equations for determination of NGR value for a double circuit EHV line is used as starting point for optimization of parameters of Neutral Grounding Reactor (NGR) like ohmic value, short-time current rating etc. through Electromagnetic Transient Programme(EMTP) simulation[5]. System considered for analysis is shown at Fig. 5 and details are given as under: Typical 400kV (twin moose) D/c line 350 kms Shunt compensation 1x63 MVAR line reactors (60% compensation) at each end of both the circuits C1=4.2 F;C0 =2.52 F;Cm =0.2989 F; L1=4.45 H; L0/L1=0.9 Equivalent source strength at sending and receiving end 5000 MVA each Power flow on the line 400MW at 0.9 p.f.

400 kV 63 MVAR 63 MVAR 400 kV

140

Recovery Voltage(kV))

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 NGR Reactance(ohms)

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5000 MVA

5000 MVA

350 Km

63 MVAR

63 MVAR

Sequence of Single-Phase switching (SPS) and auto-reclosing on SLG fault is as given in Table I. SWITCHING SEQUENCE Sequence SLG Fault on line Faulted phase breaker open Faulted phase remote end breaker open Reclosing of faulted phase breaker Reclosing of faulted phase remote end breaker Time (msec) 100 200 220 1200 1220

ABLE I

From Fig. 6 it is observed that magnitude of secondary arc current decreases initially with increase in NGR value up to a certain point (knee point) and there after it starts increasing. Further from Fig. 7, recovery voltage decreases with increase in value of NGR. This indicates that there is an optimal value (1700 ohms in the present case) for NGR for a particular line having specific reactive compensation. As the NGR is connected at the neutral point of the phase reactors, this may lead to a sustained oscillation in the ring down voltage on the de-energized circuit in a double circuit line. In the extreme case, depending upon the line length and degree of shunt reactive compensation on the line, it may result into resonating overvoltages. To take care of these aspects, suitability of NGR value needs to be examined considering opening of all the three phases from both the ends of one circuit while other circuit remains in energized condition. Studies reveal that there is a probability of resonating overvoltages with 1700 ohms in the present case during opening of all the phases of one circuit. Studies have been repeated to determine the modified value of NGR to avoid resonating overvoltages. It is seen that NGR value in the range of 400-600 ohms enables avoiding of such situation. Further to ensure successful SPS, optimal NGR value of 600 ohms is selected to restrict secondary arc current within reasonable limits. B. Determination of other parameters Other important system parameters that are required to be specified in NGR design are continuous and short time current rating, insulation level etc. Continuous current rating is determined assuming system in normal operating conditions.

A. Determination of NGR value Using Equation (7), NGR value required to compensate the

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SIMULATION SEQUENCE Sequence SLG Fault on line Faulted phase breaker open Faulted phase remote end breaker open Reclosing of faulted phase breaker Reclosing of faulted phase remote end breaker Opening of receiving end breakers (3poles) Time (msec) 100 200 220 1200 1220 1240

TABLE II

For determination of short-time current rating and insulation level, methodology applied is given in Table II.

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 250

300

400

B. Power flow Variation of secondary arc current with power flow from 100MW to 450 MW has been studied. Result is shown at Fig. 10.

Secondary Arc Current(Amps) 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 100

Opening of all the three-poles of receiving end breakers results in load throw-off and unbalance condition in the line. Hence, maximum current, though for a short duration would flow through NGR and thereby large voltage will appear. Result of time variation of current through 600 ohms NGR is shown at Fig. 8.

I (A)

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400

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Fig. 8. Current through NGR during load throw-off condition.

Secondary Arc Current(Amps)

It is observed that continuous current through NGR is about 0.2 Amp under normal operating condition while transient peak current is about 100 Amp for the sample system. Transient voltage across the NGR is 60kV. Based on the above values and taking into account the design margins and safety aspects continuous and short time current rating as well as voltage rating of NGR are selected. VI. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

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24 22 20 18 16 14 0.95 0.96

t (ms)

Fig. 10 reveals that although secondary arc current is mainly influenced by capacitive coupling, to a certain extent it is also dependent on inductive coupling, which in turn is influenced by line loading. Secondary arc current decrease with increase in real power flow as the increased inductive coupling compensates for the capacitive coupling. C. Power factor Reactive loading

Variation of secondary arc current with power factor (p.f.) from 0.95 to 0.98 has been studied. Result is shown at Fig. 11.

Impact of various network parameters like line length, power flow, p.f , source strength etc. on the secondary arc current thereby successfulness of SPS is examined. In the study NGR value considered as 600 ohms. A. Line length Variation of secondary arc current with line length from 250 to 400 kms (60% shunt compensation) has been studied. Result is shown at Fig. 9 and it is seen that secondary arc current has a great influence on the line length, which increases with the increase in length of line.

0.98

From the above result, it is seen that with the decrease of p.f, thereby increase in reactive loading on the line, secondary arc current decreases. This is mainly due to increase in inductive coupling compensating the effect of capacitive coupling, responsible in maintaining secondary arc current, and thereby reducing it.

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D. Source strength Variation of secondary arc current with source strength from 3000MVA to 10000 MVA has been studied. Result is shown at Fig. 12.

Secondary Arc Current(Amps) 25 24 23 22 21 20 3000

an initial value for analysis, is also presented. The presence of one circuit in a double circuit line influences the magnitude of capacitive coupling in addition to inter-phase coupling. Magnitude of secondary arc current also depends on the line length, power flow, source strength etc. This phenomenon has been clearly demonstrated in this paper by varying the parameters of line length, real and reactive power flow, source strength etc. Methodology is applied on real-time system and validates the same. VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors are thankful to the management of POWERGRID for granting permission to present the paper. Views expressed in the paper are of the authors only and need not necessarily be the management of POWERGRID. IX. REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] M.C.Tavares and C.M. Portela,Transmission system parameters optimisation Sensitivity analysis of secondary arc current and recovery voltage, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol 19, pp 1464-1470, 2004. N. Knudsen, Single phase switching of transmission lines using reactors for extinction of the secondary arc, CIGRE proceedings, 1962 IEEE Committee report, Single phase tripping and auto reclosing on transmission lines, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, vol 7, pp182-192, Jan, 1992 G.C. Thomann, S.R. Lambert and S. Phaloprakarn,Non-optimum compensation schemes for single pole reclosing on EHV double circuit transmission lines, IEEE Trans., 92 WM 261-8 PWRD . ATP Rule Book

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It is observed that increase of source strength increases secondary arc current to some extent, however its impact is not significant. VII. CONCLUSION Optimization of Neutral Grounding Reactor parameters viz. ohmic value, current and voltage rating etc. for a double circuit line to ensure successful Single Phase Switching (SPS) using EMTP is presented. An empirical formula to determine the NGR value for a double circuit line, which can be used as

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