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School of Engineering and Design

ME2605: Principles of Aircraft Design Aerodynamics


Dr Mark Jabbal 110 Howell Building mark.jabbal@brunel.ac.uk

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Course aim

To introduce the basic concepts of aerodynamics

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Real life aerodynamics

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Course plan
Week # 1 2 Date Mon 26 Sep Thu 29 Sep Mon 03 Oct Thu 06 Oct Mon 10 Oct Thu 13 Oct Mon 17 Oct Thu 20 Oct Mon 24 Oct Thu 27 Oct Mon 31 Oct Thu 03 Nov Mon 07 Nov Thu 10 Nov Mon 14 Nov Thu 17 Nov Mon 21 Nov Thu 24 Nov Mon 28 Nov Thu 01 Dec Mon 05 Dec Thu 08 Dec Mon 12 Dec Thu 15 Dec Lectures: Mondays 9-10am (LC262) and Thursdays 5-6pm (LC063) Introduction to Aerodynamics and the Atmosphere 1. Introduction to Aerodynamics 2. Aviation Weather (Dr Andrew Russell, Institute for the Environment, Brunel University) 3. Standard Atmosphere 4. Aerostatics and Buoyancy Inviscid (Frictionless) Flows 5. Continuity and Momentum 6. Euler and Bernoulli Equations 7. Thermodynamics and Conservation of Energy 8. Isentropic Flow 9. Mach number and Compressible Flow 10. Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves Viscous (Friction) Flows 11. Introduction to Viscous Flows and The Boundary Layer 12. Laminar and Turbulent Flows 13. Boundary Layer Transition 14. Boundary Layer Separation 15. Boundary Layer Equations 16. Boundary Layer Control Methods Aerofoil and Wing Aerodynamics 17. Introduction to the Aerofoil 18. Lift Augmentation 19. Thin Aerofoil Theory 20. Finite Wing Theory (1) 21. Finite Wing Theory (2) 22. Lifting Line Theory 23. Induced Drag 24. Swept and Delta Wings

3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Course text
1. Essential Reading Introduction to Flight, Anderson

- 9x 7th edition, 6x 6th edition and 3x 5th edition are available in Brunel Library (TL570.A68 2008)

Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, Houghton and Carpenter


- 8x 5th edition are available in Brunel Library (TL570.H68 2003) - e-book version also available (requires PC username and password login)

2. Recommended Reading Fundamentals of Weather and Climate, McIlveen

- 2x 1992 edition are available in Brunel Library (QC981.3.M33 1992)

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Course assessment
Exam 70% (Aerodynamics, Flight Mechanics and Avionics) Assignments 30% (Aircraft Design 25% and Avionics 5%) No assignments in Aerodynamics only exam questions

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Lecture 1: Introduction to Aerodynamics


Aim To introduce the discipline of aerodynamics and establish basic aerodynamic principles Objectives Define subject area of aerodynamics Define pressure, density, temperature and velocity Calculate flow properties using the gas equation of state

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Subject Definition
Dynamics The study of the motion of solid bodies under applied forces Fluid dynamics The study of the motion of fluids under applied forces Subdivisions of fluid dynamics: Hydrodynamics flow of liquids Gas dynamics flow of gases Aerodynamics flow of air Aerodynamics The term aerodynamics is generally used for problems arising from flight and other topics involving the flow of air

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Important aerodynamic variables


1. Pressure, p Definition: Definition Normal force per unit area exerted on a surface due to the time rate of change of momentum of the air molecules impacting on that surface Consider a point B in a volume of air. Let: dA = incremental area around B dF = force on one side of dA due to pressure Then, the pressure at point B is defined as

dF
Gas

B dA

dF p = lim dA

dA

units: Newtons per square metre or Pascals (N/m2 or Pa)

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Important aerodynamic variables


2. Density, (rho) Definition: Definition Mass per unit volume of air Again, consider a point B in a volume of air. Let: dv = elemental volume around B dm = mass of air inside dv Then, the density at point B is

B dv
Volume of air

dm = lim dv

dv

units: kilogram per cubic metre (kg/m3)

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Important aerodynamic variables - density


The density of an element changes as it is squeezed (compressed) The extent to which the density of air can be changed (compressibility) depends on the applied pressure

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Important aerodynamic variables


3. Temperature, T Definition: Definition Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy KE of the air molecules

3 KE = kT 2

k is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 10-23 J/K)

Conversion between Kelvin and degrees Celsius: K = C + 273.16

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

Important aerodynamic variables


4. Velocity, V

streamtube

streamline

Definition: Definition The velocity of flowing air at point B in space is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid element as it sweeps through B. Streamline: a line in the flow field over which no fluid flows Streamtube: a closed body of fluid bounded by streamlines
ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

The Equation of State for a Perfect Gas


Relates pressure, density and temperature of a gas:

P = RT

R is the gas constant = 287 J/Kg K for air (note: T in Kelvin!)

Learn equation!

Example 1. At a given point on the wing of an Airbus A340 the pressure and temperature of the air are 1.9 104 N/m2 and -70C respectively. What is the density at this point?

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1

School of Engineering and Design

The Equation of State for a Perfect Gas


Relates pressure, density and temperature of a gas:

P = RT

R is the gas constant = 287 J/Kg K for air (note: T in Kelvin!)

Example 2. At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel, the pressure and density of the air are 50 kPa and 0.63 kg/m3. Calculate the temperature at this point.

ME2605 Aerodynamics Lecture 1