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DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that a seminar report on summer training taken at MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT is submitted by VISHESH VIJAY, student of 4th year (VII semester) in Electronics and Communication Engineering of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota during the academic year 2011-2012. The report has been found satisfactory and is approved for submission.

(Mr. PRANAY SHARMA) Seminar Coordinator Asst. prof.EC

(Mr. RISHABH SHARMA) Seminar Coordinator Asst. prof.EC

ACKNOWLDEGMENT
We cannot achieve anything worthwhile in the field of technical education unless or until the theoretical education acquired in the classroom is effectively wedded to the practical approach that is taking place in the modern industries and the research institutes. It gives me profound pleasure to have an opportunity to acknowledge and to express gratitude to those who were associated with my training at MULTIMETALS LIMITED. It is a matter of great privilege for me to present this report as a consequence of my 30 days Industrial Training, on the basis of practical knowledge gained by me during this practical training at MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT (RAJASTHAN) during session 2011-2012. I am highly grateful to all Engineering departments and Engineers for their ample guidance during my training period. I attribute heartiest thanks to following officers/instructors at MULTIMETALS for their positive cooperation in learning during full period of training.

1. Mr. Ajay sharma (Training Officer) 2. Mr. Ankit Vijay

I also owe a great deal to all other vocational trainees & persons who directly or indirectly were a source of constant help & suggestions for me.

(VISHESH VIJAY)

PAGE INDEX
TOPIC
ABSTRACT 1. 2. INTRODUCTION 1.1 2.1 About Multimetals Ltd. Line Specifications Line Equipments GENERAL DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO
1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 19 21 22 24 26 27 37 38

2.2
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

ENTRY EQUIPMENTS CRFH COIL WELDING DEGREASING ANNEALING FURNACE SECTION COOLING SECTION PICKING SKIN PASS MILL TENSION LEVELLER EXIT EQUIPMENTS ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES

FIGURE INDEX
FIGURE 1.1 2.1 2.2 3.1 5.1 6.1 6.2 7.1 9.1 10.1 11.1 12.1 12.2 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Site view of Multimetals plant Block diagram of process Line equipment Enter equipment Welding section Degreasing layer Degreasing section Annealing process Jet cooling section Coil after pickling Skin pass mill Tension leveller machine Modulation of tension leveller DSC PLC Pressure gauge Thermocouple SCADA PAGE NO 4 5 7 8 11 12 13 15 20 21 23 25 25 28 31 33 34 36

ABSTRACT
2

According to the rules of Rajasthan Technical University, I have undergone my 30 days Practical In plant Training at MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT which is incorporated in the syllabus for 4 year B.Tech. Course. The training report hereby submitted outlines the course of work during my training in an oriented manner over a period of 30 days for Electronics and Communication branch. MULTIMETALS is ISO 9001:2008 certified Company. Adequate diagrams and layouts have been provided for a more descriptive outlook and clarity of understanding. In all, I have tried my best to present this report in a very precise and profitable manner. Engineering students gain theoretical knowledge only through books, which in not sufficient for absolute mastery in our field. Thus, I made a sincere attempt to bring about the details which I experienced during my training at MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT from 10 JUNE TO 10 JULY 2011 through this report. I have tried my best to reproduce the facts & findings of the training site.

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

About Multimetals Ltd.:Multimetals was founded in 1962 as a joint venture with Revere Copper and Brass Inc., USA. Today, we are premier manufacturers of seamless extruded copper, copper alloy products including 90/10, 95/5, & 70/30 Cupro Nickel, Cunifer, Aluminium Brass, Admiralty Brass, 70/30 Brass, 63/37 Brass, Naval Brass confirming to various international standards. With our wide product range we cater to numerous industries like Airconditioning, Refrigeration, Heat exchangers, Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants, Ship Building and Repairs, Petroleum refineries, Sugar Plants, Defense establishments i.e. Naval Warships etc. We have a technical collaboration with M/s Hitachi Cable Ltd., Japan, one of the world leaders in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Copper tube technology. The distinguishing factor about us is the quality of our products owing to which we have won 13 Export Excellence awards since 1993-94. Multimetals is an ISO 9001:2008 certified company with its works approved from Lloyds Register. We possess PED Certification and self-certification AD 2000 Merkblatt W6/2 from TUV Nord. Apart from the Standard products, we have also started manufacturing other copper based alloy semis in the form of hollows, sections, profiles and rods as per customers requirements, custom made as per the chemical, mechanical, metallurgical and physical properties provided by the customer. We also offer PVC Coated Tubes and high performance copper alloy wires, adding to our product range.

FIGURE 1.1- MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT

CHAPTER-2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION


Uncoiling of CRFH Coil at uncoiler

Welding

Degreasing

Cooling section

Annealing in furnance

Entry looper

Pickling Recoiling of coil

Exit looper Creep looper

Skin pass Tension leveler

FIGURE 2.1- BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROCESS

LINE SPECIFICATION: Material to be Processed Strip Thickness Strip Width Coil ID; (In & Out) Coil OD; (In & Out) Coil Weight Hand of Line Product Mix Total length of line
Height of equipment from + 0 mill floors level Depth of cellar from + 0 mill floors level 5 m (exit lopper) (app.) 7.5 m (sump pit) (app.) 10.935 m AISI 200,300, 400 0.3 mm 3 mm 600mm 1300 mm 610 mm 1800 mm (Max.) 28 MT (Max.) Right to Left AISI 200 60%, AISI 300-30%, AISI 400-10% 320 meters 10.36 meters (app.)

Crane hook height

Line Consists Of: Entry Equipments with Looper Welding machine from Guild,USA Degreasing Unit Annealing furnace Pickling section

Skin pass mill with Creep looper On-line Tension leveller and provision for side trimmer. Exit equipments with looper All Auxiliaries which includes Acid Storage, ETP, WT,

DM water plant Etc.

FIGURE 2.2-LINE SPECIFICATION

CHAPTER-3 ENTRY EQUIPMENT

2 Uncoiler with CPC unit

Paper winder with tension feedback unit. Pinchrolls, 5 roll flatteners, Up cut shears, belt conveyors. Flat leader end handling system by vacuum stacker; Bottom side shift able
Bridles;deflector,steering rolls;PU coated roll dia 1000 mmx1600 mm Automatic seam welding machine from Guild USA; Welding time #4 min.. Coil car, coil centering system

FIGURE 3.1-ENTRY EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER-4 COLD ROLLED FULL HARD (CRFH)


Advantages:
Close Dimensional Tolerances Excellent surface finish Controlled mechanical & physical properties as per customer requirements Excellent Testing Facilities

CRFH Specifications:

Thickness Width Length(For Sheets) Temper Edge Thickness Tolerance Width Tolerance Coil Weight Coil ID Coil OD Length Tolerance(For Sheets)

0.30 mm 5.5 mm 6 mm 1000 mm up to 7000 mm 1/8 Hard , 1/4 Hard, 1/2 Hard, Full Mill Edge/ Slit Edge +/- 0.02 mm As per Specification 0.250 MT 10 MT 400 - 500 mm Up to 1300 mm - 0 mm/+5 mm

CHAPTER-5
1

WELDING

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments, including open air, under water and in outer space. Welding is a potentially hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation.

SEAM WELDING:Resistance seam welding is a process that produces a weld at the faying surfaces of two similar metals. The seam may be a butt joint or an overlap joint and is usually an automated process. It differs from butt welding in that butt welding typically welds the entire joint at once and seam welding forms the weld progressively, starting at one end. Like spot welding, seam welding relies on two electrodes, usually made from copper, to apply pressure and current. The electrodes are disc shaped and rotate as the material passes between them. This allows the electrodes to stay in constant contact with the

material to make long continuous welds. The electrodes may also move or assist the movement of the material. WELDING SECTION
Type -Guild Model QMM 125-54, Quick lap Seam Welder Material Max. Strip Width 200,300,400 CRSS 1300mm

Min. Strip Width Max. Strip Thickness Min. Strip Thickness Electrics Weld Process

600 mm 3.0mm 0.3mm 415/3/50 Continuous Seam

FIGURE 5.1- WELDING MACHINE

CHAPTER-6 DEGREASING

Degreasing is a process that removes oils, grease, and solid dirt particles from metal surfaces. Degreasing prepares a material for finishing applications such as primers, paints, or bonds. Parts cleaning is essential to many industrial processes, as a prelude to surface finishing or to protect sensitive components. Electroplating is particularly sensitive to part cleanliness, since molecular layers of oil can prevent adhesion of the coating. ASTM B322 is a standard guide for cleaning metals prior to electroplating. Cleaning processes include solvent cleaning, hot alkaline detergent cleaning, electrocleaning, and.Hydrophobic contaminants such as oils cause the water to bead and break up, allowing the water to drain rapidly. Perfectly clean metal surfaces are hydrophilic and will retain an unbroken sheet of water that does not bead up or drain off. ASTM F22 describes a version of this test. This test does not detect hydrophilic contaminants, but the electroplating process can displace these easily since the solutions are water-based. Surfactants such as soap reduce the sensitivity

FIGURE 6.1-DEGREASING LAYER

degreasing section: (i) First degreasing stage (ii) Second degreasing stage (iii) Rinsing section Spray degreasing machine Chemical scrub brush 3 Stage cascade rinsing

(iv) Length of degreasing section

18.15 meters (approx)

FIGURE 6.2-DEGREASING SECTION

CHAPTER-7 ANNEALING
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. It is a process that produces conditions by heating to above the recrystallization temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature, and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften

material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and improve cold working properties. In the cases of copper, steel, silver, and brass, this process is performed by substantially heating the material (generally until glowing) for a while and allowing it to cool. Unlike ferrous metalswhich must be cooled slowly to annealcopper, silver and brass can be cooled slowly in air or quickly by quenching in water. In this fashion the metal is softened and prepared for further work such as shaping, stamping, or forming. Annealing occurs by the diffusion of atoms within a solid material, so that the material progresses towards its equilibrium state. Heat is needed to increase the rate of diffusion by providing the energy needed to break bonds. The movement of atoms has the effect of redistributing and destroying the dislocations in metals and (to a lesser extent) in ceramics. This alteration in dislocations allows metals to deform more easily, so increases their ductility. The relief of internal stresses is a thermodynamically spontaneous process; however, at room temperatures, it is a very slow process. The high temperatures at which the annealing process occurs serve to accelerate this process.

ANNEALING PROCESS
Process annealing, also called "intermediate annealing", "subcritical annealing", or "inprocess annealing", is a heat treatment cycle that restores some of the ductility to a work piece allowing it be worked further without breaking. Ductility is important in shaping and creating a more refined piece of work through processes such as rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, extruding and heading. The piece is heated to a temperature typically below the austenizing temperature, and held there long enough to relieve stresses in the metal. The piece is finally cooled slowly to room temperature. It is then ready again for additional cold working. This can also be used to ensure there is reduced risk of distortion of the work piece during machining, welding, or further heat treatment cycles.

The temperature range for process annealing ranges from 260 C(500 F) to 760 C(1400 F), depending on the alloy in question.

FIGURE 7.1-ANNEALING PROCESS

CHAPTER-8 FURNACE SECTION


ANNEALING FURNACE:SCOPE OF SUPPLY:ANDRITZ-THERMTEC offers annealing furnace equipment for a new APL for cold-rolled stainless steel strip.The furnace equipment will comprise following: A - Furnace heating and cooling sections and auxiliary equipment, consisting of:Four (4) furnace chambers, heated by gas-fired, hot-air burners, as follows:

1st chamber, comprising an unfired preheating section 2nd chamber, unfired section plus 1 fired zone. 2

3rd chamber, 2 fired zones. 4th chamber, 3 fired zones


Heat recovery system with flue gas recuperator, including flue gas ducting, exhauster fan and stack. Combustion system, incl. main fuel gas station and pressure safety system, combustion air fan and hot-air distribution and flow control system.

Ten (10) air jet-cooling chambers, including air supply fans and interconnecting
ductwork. The 2nd and 9th chamber will be fitted with water-mist spray-headers, for accelerated cooling.

Three (3) air knives incl. fans; located at entry of 1st chamber, entry of 2nd chamber
and exit of 2nd chamber. Exhaust system for waste cooling air, including exhauster fans and stack. furnace roll stands, including a transferable motorized carriage (1), for roll removal in the heating and cooling sections. Skid-mounted closed recirculation type cooling water system for furnace rolls. Strip retraction cooler, ahead of furnace entry end. Exit table with threading winch at exit end of the equipment. Strip threading mechanism. process control (recipe model control) and visualization. Components for piping systems for combustion air, fuel gas, cooling water, compressed air and impulse lines; incl. valves, expansion bellows, flexibles, packing and sealing materials, as required.

Strip supporting equipment, comprising ceramic fiber lined rolls and carousel type

Platforms, walkways, ladders and stairs, for access to the equipments. Process control system in pre-wired cabinets, incl. customized software for furnace

Special cabling materials (standard cabling by others).


Special tools B - Engineering and documentation, including:

Drawings and specifications for equipment components.


Drawings and specifications for components to be manufactured / supplied by the Buyer or others.

Operating and maintenance manuals.


Software documentation of process control. C - Supervision services Supervision for site installation. Supervision for commissioning.

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS:The furnace equipment will have following approximate principal dimensions:-

Overall length, incl. strip retraction cool and exit table Overall height of furnace equipment above support floor Height of strip passline above support floor Length of unfired preheat section Total length of heating section Length of cooling section Inside width of heating chamber Inside height of DGF heating chamber Roll span heating section (typical) Roll span cooling section (typical) Discharge height of stacks above ground floor level Diameter of waste combustion gas stack (approx.)

: 140,000 mm : : 6,500 mm 2,500 mm

: 21,000 mm : 73,900 mm : 52,500 mm : : : : 2,400 mm 2,850 mm 5.200 mm 1,200 mm

: 18,700 mm : 23,000 mm

Diameter of waste cooling air stack (approx.)

3,500 mm

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF FURNACE EQUIPMENT


It is understood that the furnace equipment will be located on a concrete support floor at +4,500 mm elevation. This floor shall extend to the outer wall of the building to locate various auxiliary systems, such as hot-air ducting, and fan equipment for the heating and cooling sections. The flue gas recuperator and exhaust fan will be located in a pit.

Floor loads will typically be approx.:-

Furnace section Cooling section Recuperator and hot-air ducting, alongside furnace Fan equipment, alongside cooling section

80 kN/m 40 kN/m 50 kN/m 20 kN/m

CHAPTER-9 COOLING

The strip will be cooled in 10 jet-cooling chambers. The method of strip cooling may be adjusted for the various material grades and processing requirements by random selection of the following cooling means or combination thereof. High-convection jet-cooling with ambient air, in 10 air cooling chambers. Additional accelerated cooling in the 2nd and 9th chamber by water-mist sprays Separate adjustment of air flow from top and bottom plenums, to allow for

adjustment for various strip thickness and shape.

In the air jet-cooling chambers air will be supplied by centrifugal fans and blown onto the strip surface through a number of plenum ducts, located above and below strip passline, to provide uniform high convection air cooling. The cooling rate in the JC chambers 1-4 can be controlled by speed control of the jet-cool fan motors. The adjustment of the air flow in the other chambers is by motorized inlet vane dampers on the fans. All plenums and tubes facing the strip will be of stainless steel construction. Strip support rolls / Roll carousels:The strip will be supported on rolls throughout the heating and cooling sections, as follows:

1 fix mounted roll at the entrance of the 1st heating chamber. 4 carousel type roll stands for the heating sections, each with 2 rolls. 10 fix mounted rolls in the jet-cooling section, 1 after each jet-cool chamber.

Each furnace carousel will be fitted with two rolls (1 water-cooled bronze coated metallic roll for heavy gauges and 1 fiber disc type roll for thin gauges).

FIGURE 9.1-JET COOLING SECTION

JET-COOLING SECTION:Each cooling chamber is enclosed in a casing of approx. 4 mm. steel plate, reinforced with structural steel shapes. All air supply- and exhaust ducts and remaining construction will also be of normal steel plate construction. All air plenum boxes will be constructed of stainless steel plate, connecting to a common steel header. Each chamber will be fitted with a hand operated flow damper to adjust the distribution between top and bottom flow.

CHAPTER-10 PICKLING

Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, and aluminium alloys. A solution called pickle liquor, which contains strong acids, is used to remove the surface impurities. It is commonly used to decaled or clean steel in various steelmaking processes. The function of pickling is to dissolve/ remove/ peel off oxide layer on surface of strip. Such oxide layers are formed during hot rolling and in case of cold rolled strip during annealing operation.

FIGURE 10.1- COIL AFTER PICKLING

CHAPTER-11 SKIN PASS MILE

Skin passing is done to:1. To improve strip shape 2. To impart the desired surface finish to steel from 2D to 2B 3. To produce desired mechanical properties. 4. To eliminate minor surface blemishes. 5. Masking of yield point 2 Hi Mill Elongation 1.5% Roll Cleaning system Bottom Roll having Hydraulic Gap Control Quick Roll Changing device; Roll changing time ~ 8 minutes Roll changing is possible during running High Pressure Hydraulic system 2 High roll 800mm (max.) / 750mm (min.) x 1500mm barrel length. Roll force Max. 10,000 KN

FIGURE 11.1- SKIN PASS MILL

CHAPTER-12 TENSION LEVELER


The purpose of tension leveling is to bring all the fibers in the metal to equal
length: To achieve Desired strip elongation(0-2%) and strip flatness

Tension leveler consists of Entry bridle, Tension leveler wet type process, and Exit
bridles.

Design One set of bending roll cartridge two sets of anti cross bow roll cartridge Tension Roll configuration. Bending roll module: Anti cross bow roll module: Bending: - work roll Intermediate roll Back up roll Anti cross: - work roll Back up roll 6 High 3 High. 35mm x 1600mm 50mm x 1600mm 60mm x 130mm 150mm x 1600mm 60mm x 130mm 350 KN (max.)

FIGURE 12.1-TENSION LEVELLER

MODULES AND EFFECT OF TENSION LEVELLING


Module Bending Anti-Cross Bow Anti-Cross Bow

Bending

Function

Combination of Bending and Tension

Tension

Effect

FIGURE 12.2- MODULATION OF TENSION LEVELLER

CHAPTER-13 EXIT EQUIPMENTS


1 Recoiler with EPC Unit Paper unwinder with Tension feedback unit Pinch Rolls, Up Cut Shears, Belt Conveyor. Bridles, Deflector, Steering rolls; PU coated Roll dia 1000 mm x 1600mm. Coil car with a provision to travel in other bay 4 Strands Dolly Type Looper; Storage capacity 566 m. On line Weighing, Manual Strapping Hydraulics & Pneumatic Systems

CHAPTER-14 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS


Distributed control system (DCS):
INSTALLED AT: Have almost the same work as PLC but is unable to handle not as much input as that PLC WORKING PRINCIPLE: Distributed control systems (dcs) are dedicated systems used to control manufacturing processes that are continuous or batch-oriented, such as oil refining, petrochemicals, central station power generation, pharmaceuticals, food beverage manufacturing, cement production, steelmaking, and papermaking. DCSs a connected to sensors and actuators and use set point control to control the flow of material through the plant. The most common example is a set point control loop consisting of a pressure sensor, controller, and control valve. Pressure or flow measurements are transmitted to the controller, usually through the aid of a signal conditioning Input/ Output (I/O) device. When the measured variable reaches a certain point, the controller instructs a valve or actuation device to open or close until the fluidic flow process reaches the desired set point. Large oil refineries have many thousands of I/O points and employ very large DCSs. Processes are not limited to fluidic flow through pipes, however, and can also include things like paper machines and their associated variable speed drives and motor control centres, cement kilns, mining operations, ore processing facilities, and many others. A typical DCS consists of functionally and/or geographically distributed digital controllers capable of executing from 1 to 256 or more regulatory control loops in one control box. The input/output devices (I/O) can be integral with the controller or locate remotely via afield network. Today controllers have extensive computational capabilities and, in addition to proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control, can generally perform logic and sequential control .DCSs may employ one or several workstations and can be configured at the workstation or by an online personal computer. Local communication is handled by a control network with transmission over twisted pair, coaxial, or fibre optic cable.

FIGURE:-14.1 DCS Programmable logic controller (PLC): Simplification of engineering and precise control of manufacturing process can result in significant cost savings. The most cost-effective way, which can pay big dividends in the long run, is flexible automation; a planned approach towards integrated control systems. It requires a conscious effort on the part of plant managers to identify areas where automation can result in better deployment/utilization of human resources and savings in man-hours, down time. Automation need not be high ended and too sophisticated; it is the phased, step-by-step effort to automate, employing control

systems tailored to ones specific requirements that achieves the most attractive results. That is where Industrial electronics has been a breakthrough in the field of automation and control techniques.

ROLE OF ELECTRONICS IN AUTOMATION A constant demand for better and more efficient manufacturing and process machinery has led to the requirement for higher quality and reliability in control techniques. With the availability of intelligent, compact solid state electronic devices, it has been possible to provide control systems that can reduce maintenance, down time and improve productivity to a great extend. By installing efficient and user friendly industrial electronics systems for manufacturing machinery or processors, one can obtain a precise, reliable and prolific means for generating quality products. Considering the varied demand and increasing competition, one has to provide for flexible manufacturing process. One of the latest techniques in solid state controls that offers flexible and efficient operation to the user is PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS. controlled systems. Programmable controllers offer a system with computer flexibility: 1. Suited to withstand the industrial environment 2. Has simplicity of operation 3. Maintenance by plant technicians and
4.

The basic idea behind these programmable controllers was to

provide means to eliminate high cost associated with inflexible, conventional relay

Reduce machine down time and provide expandability for future. DEFINATION OF PLC

A Programmable controller is a solid state user programmable control system with functions to control logic, sequencing, timing, arithmetic data manipulation and counting capabilities. It can be viewed as an industrial computer that has a central processor unit, memory, input output interface and a programming device. The central processing unit provides the intelligence of the controller. It accepts data, status information from various sensing devices like limit switches, proximity switches, executes the user control program

store in the memory and gives appropriate output commands to devices like solenoid valves, switches etc. Input output interface is the communication link between field devices and the controllers; field devices are wired to the I/O interfaces. Through these interfaces the processor can sense and measure physical quantities regarding a machine or process, such as, proximity, position, motion, level, temperature, pressure, etc. Based on status sensed, the CPU issues command to output devices such as valves, motors, alarms, etc. Programmer unit provides the man machine interface. application program, which often uses a simple user-friendly logic. BENEFITS OF PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS 1. Programmable controllers are made of solid state components and hence provide high reliability. 2. They are flexible and changes in sequence of operation can easily be incorporated due to programmability. They may be modular in nature and thus expandability and easy installation is possible. 3. Use of PLC results in appreciable savings in Hardware and wiring cost. 4. They are compact and occupy less space. 5. Eliminate hardware items like Timers, counters and Auxiliary relays. presence for timers and counters has easy accessibility. 6. PLC can control a variety of devices and eliminates the need for customized controls. 7. Easy diagnostic facilities are provided as a part of the system. Diagnosis of the external systems also becomes very simple. Thus easy service/maintenance. 8. Programming devices provide operator friendly interface with the machine. Being an outcome of the latest art of electronics technology, Programmable controllers provide higher level of performance with computers is possible. Useful management data can be obtained and maintained. 9. It has total protections against obsolescence and has wide scope for upgradation. The It is used to enter the

INSTALLED AT: - Serve as the centre for monitoring ,controlling and measuring all the parameters in control room. PLC in short act as the important computer to control the process flow.

Figure-14.2 PLC

WORKING PRINCIPLE:A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines, such as packaging for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges and semiconductor machines, unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs control machine operation is typically stored in battery-backed or nonvolatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time ,otherwise unintended operation will result. Transducers 1. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD): INSTALLED AT: Installed in furnaces to measure, monitor and regulate the temperature.

WORKING PRINCIPLE: It is a temperature sensor that exploits the predictable Change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature based on positive temperature coefficient of resistance. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability. 2. Bourdon Gauge: INSTALLED AT: Installed measure pressure at sinter, zinc and lead circuit. WORKING PRINCIPLE: A Bourdon gauge uses a coiled tube, which as it expands due to pressure increase causes a rotation of an arm connected to the tube. The pressure sensing element is coiled tube connected to the chamber or pipe in which pressure is to be sensed. As the gauge pressure increases the tube will tend to uncoil which is a reduced gauge pressure will cause the tube to coil more tightly. This motion transferred through a linkage to a gear train connected to an indicating needle.

3. Pressure Gauge: INSTALLED AT: Installed measure pressure at sinter, zinc and lead circuit.

FIG:-14.3 PRESSURE GAUGE WORKING PRINCIPLE: A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum which is further divided into two sub categories high and low vacuum and sometimes ultra high vacuum .The appreciable pressure range of many of the techniques used to measure vacuum have an overlap. Hence by combining several different types of gauges, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar to very low value. 4. Thermocouple: INSTALLED AT: Many places to measure the temperature. WORKING PRINCIPLE: A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a voltage related to a temperature difference. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used to convert heat into electric power. The main limitation is accuracy; System errors of less than one Kelvin (K) can be difficult to achieve. [Citation needed] Any circuit made of dissimilar metals will produce a temperature-related difference of voltage. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are made of specific alloys, which in combination have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and voltage. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges, and to resist corrosion. Where the measurement point is far from the measuring instrument, the intermediate connection can be made by extension wires, which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor. Thermocouples are standardized against a reference temperature of 0

degrees Celsius; practical instruments use electronic methods of cold-junction compensation to adjust for varying temperature at the instrument terminals. Electronic instruments can also compensate for the varying characteristics of the thermocouple, and so improve the precision and accuracy of measurements. Thermocouples are widely used in science and industry; a few applications would include temperature measurement for kilns, measurement of exhaust temperature of gas turbines or diesel engines, and many other industrial processes.

FIGURE:-14.4 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THERMOCOUPLE

SCADA: INSTALLED AT: This act as the interface between measuring and controlling the different parameters . In short SCADA is the language of PLC and DCS. WORKING PRINCIPLE: 14 SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of low and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop. Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a commodity Database Management System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing

FIGURE:-14.5 SCADA SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly referred to as a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point represents an actual input or output within the system, while a soft point results from logic and math operations applied to other points. (Most implementations conceptually remove the distinction by making every property a "soft" point expression, which may, in the simplest case, equal a single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a value and the timestamp when it was recorded or calculated. A series of value-timestamp pairs gives the history of that point. It's also common to store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to a field device or PLC register, design time comments,

CONCLUSION

In this orientation program that I underwent during our summer training session at MULTIMETALS LTD. KOTA PLANT, I studied about various industrial process and various instruments installed at the ANNEALING & PICKLING unit. These process were of varying_fields like chemical, mechanical, electronic and civil. I also gained knowledge of mining and metallurgical industries and their scenario in India. In my training program i was able to learn the practical aspect of all the electrical instruments i have learnt so far during the course of my study. I also learnt about the professional hierarchy of an industry, about various departments that exists in an industrial firm like MULTIMETALS LTD. Hence with this I would like to conclude that the duration of this training was a knowledge gaining experience which would help me in the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The followings books and websites were referred to during the making of the project report. 1. 2. 3. 4. Manuals provided at MULTIMETALS. http://www.multimetals.in http://www.seminar projects.com http://www.wikipedia.com