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CEOE Family and Consumer Sciences (09) Comprehensive Success System

Table of Content
THE FAMILY .............................................................................. 2 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ............................................................. 4 MANAGEMENT........................................................................... 7 CONSUMER ECONOMICS ........................................................... 9 NUTRITION AND FOOD ........................................................... 14 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES....................................................... 26 HOUSING ................................................................................ 28 FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES EDUCATION .................... 28 QUESTION AND ANSWERS ...................................................... 30 REFERENCES........................................................................... 50

The Family
Family Structure It is a group of people allied by blood relations or by legal bonds like marriage or adoption. It is also referred to as group people joined through a common ancestral, matrimonial or adopt ional relationship. Different types of families are given below: 1. Single parent: In this family there is only single individual (father or mother) in the family unit raising the children. 2. Nuclear Family: It consists of parents (married couple) and their biological children and no other extended family members live with them. 3. Extended Family: In this type of family people from two or more different generation live together i.e. the family living in a single house consist of grandparents, parents and their children. 4. Blended Family: It consists of a child or children with one of their parents not their biological parent i.e. one of his/her parent is a stepparent. 5. Single individual: In this kind of family an individual alone brings up himself/herself without anyone else support. Family Stages Family stages starts from the first day of matrimonial relationship, when a person starts caring about himself and his spouse. Then they gave birth to child, nurture them, and providing them with basic amenities to sustain life and carries till ones death. Various life stages can be summed up as follows: a) Beginning: 1. Infancy: It is a stage in which a child is nurtured and cared by mothers and child is sensitive to visual contact and touch. Relationships that matters are maternal parent and frequent caregiver. 2. Early Childhood: In this stage child learn to walk, talk and is able to feed himself. Development of motor takes place and new skills are gained. Parents have significant in the attainment and learning of new skills. 3. Play Age: new thoughts and desire keeps our mind busy and children try to explore the world. Some scientific explanations are needed to satisfy their quest and parents can mould their child in a way they want up to some extent. 4. School Age: in this stage the type of school they are visiting and their neighborhood affects children. It is a first stage for social development and the family has to cope with child changing environment and they are responsible for telling him what to leave and what to keep. 5. Adolescence: family members should provide their child with a role model and should act more as an elderly brother than a dictator. It is the stage in which a child decides his role in society and important relationship with peer group grew up. b) Expanding: 1. Young adulthood: This is the age in which new companion is sought and their relationship give birth to a new generation people look for isolation and new horizons. 2. Middle Adulthood: During this period people dedicate themselves towards earning, home and social issues. They bring up their child and looks for stability in life. c) Retirement: 8. Late Adulthood: It is last stage of life and adults tries to convince their children and grand children to learn from their experience and wisdom they have owned in their life. It is a stage in which they need to be cared by their son.

Family Functions It includes all the tasks involved in raising a child to a self-reliant adult. 1. Education: Family has rightly been recognized as the first school of social education. It is the responsibility of family members to provide good education to a child. Education: it involves the learning process. Family has rightly been called as the first school of social virtues. Various learning theories are summed up as below: a) The Social Learning Theory: it relates learning through our relationships or learning through Modeling. Most of our early childhood learning comes from the imitation of significant adults in our life. b) Behavioral Learning Theory: people learn through effective fortification of rules, rewards and punishment. The way our conducts are rewarded or punished has the significant control on our future behavior. Since influence and shaping can be for good or bad, it is important that values and policies steer us. 2. Physical support: Family extends physical support to other family members whenever needed and keeps the relationship healthier by doing so. 3. Psychological support: It is necessary to keep person going out in life. Family members motivate each other and they help out themselves to come out from the state of depression and live happily. 4. Behavior modeling: an individual behavior is usually affected mostly by the family, community, school or in other the kind of environment in which he has been brought up. Thus a child behavior is merely a reflection of family member attitude most of the time. 5. Hereditary effects: it is the process of passing characteristics from parents to their offsprings. Hereditary transmission includes physical features resemblance, mental traits and materialistic things like property etc. It also includes hereditary disease passed on to child from their parents. 6. Parenting: It includes: a) Physical care: family looks after and supplies childs necessary diet according to the age and seeks advice from the doctor whenever a necessity is felt. b) Provision of basic amenities like food, drink, shelter, clothes, and entertainment. Family members provide and look after for their welfare. c) Educational and emotional support: It is an equally important task for the parents to provide a good educational environment to their child so that they learn to carry themselves throughout their life. They also gave emotional support to their child to come out of depressing situation. d) Social and moral development: The education and environment must support the social and moral development of a child. e) Parents can also punish their children if necessary: It is done to avoid development of bad habits. 7. Fostering self worth: Self worth is established when anyone helps out others to come out of a situation by providing moral, monetary support etc. or by developing sound understanding on social and other worldly affairs. 8. Stable relation: unstable relation has bad impact on the growing children and these effects can have profound affects on ones social and cognitive aspects of development. Stable relationship is necessary to keep harmonious relation among the family and community. Family is the first and foremost place for knowing the worth of stable relationship. 9. Recreation: It is necessary for changing the mood and for relaxation. Family provides the means and modes of entertainment like, TV, picnic etc. They also provide the basic things necessary for child to play games.

Factors affecting family relationship Family Task Areas includes1. Basic: It is includes the provision of food, money, shelter and other necessities of life. 2. Developmental: it is concerned with individual and family stages of growth. 3. Crisis tasks: it relates to the situation of grief and grievances, remorse, loss and damage and how the family members are able to cope with the situation. Multiple roles: An individual has to pass through multiple during a day in a family and has to change according to the need and time for coping with the family members. He/she has to establish clear and flexible roles to carry themselves for healthy family development. Everyone is needed to decide his own task to be fulfilled for the family growth. Communication-pattern: It is defined as the way in which a verbal and nonverbal information exchange is carried out within a family. It includes various factors like feeling expression to one another; listening to other and seeking opinion from others are essential for effective family communication. Conflict prevention and resolution: if properly followed and incalculated in family culture, the below steps will prevent any kind of conflict1. Affective Responsiveness. 2. Affective Involvement. 3. Behavior Control. 4. Focus on Family Strengths. 5. Family Assessment.

Human Development
Theories of Development Various theories have been premeditated and the discipline has grown throughout to be a central constituent of tentative psychology. Archetypal among those first interpretations of children was: 1. Gesell and F.L. Illg's: They carried out cross-sectional study to examine the norms of child development. They describe their work in their famous book, "Infant and Child in the Culture of Today". 2. Erik Eriksons Theory: He matured his psycho Social theory on the basis of Freud's early psychosexual theory of development. He drags the idea of Freud toward the entire life span. He put emphasis on the fact that personality development of a child is determined by the amount of cooperation and support of their parents gave them during childs early procreative and hostile drives. Erik saw the development in human being as their desire and will to come over the crisis time. He accredited that usual development must be rationalized in alliance to the cultural context in which it occurs. 3. Jean Piagets: He aroused a tumult in human development theory, his theory was based on the cognitive development among the children. The four stage of cognitive development, viz. a) The sensory motor stage- 0-2 years.

b) The pre-operational stage- 2-7 years. c) Concrete stage- 7-12 years. d) Formal stage- 12- 18 years. 4. Sigmund Freuds Theory: His theories are based on dynamic or unconscious psychological processes leading to conflicts and adoption of the environment due to different situation. He related the development later relationship and behavior to childhood events and laid down his five stages of psychosexual development. Many other thinkers postulated their theories based on the observation and experiments but above given are most famous theories of their times. Development tasks and processes Social: Man is gregarious by instinct and is most comfortable in company. He interacts with people around him, his family, neighborhood and other members of the community/society. As the individual grows the ability of social interaction improves. The individual social behavior improves with maturity. He/she learns to conduct in the company of sorts in accordance with acceptable social norms. Social development starts from the age of seven and continues throughout ones life. It includes talking, helping, listening, sympathizing and much more. Physical: It starts before the birth and continues up to the young adulthood. Children grew up in size and appearance of sexual gland size increases and related growth appears in all the body parts of human being. Physical development occurs in accordance with the social needs of the person. Environment and hereditary effects influence the physical growth up to much extent. Psychological/emotional: It includes all the mental activities required for the acquisition, processing, organizing and application of knowledge. It is an ongoing process and in every stage of life, there is an expansion in the capacity and style of learning that improves the awareness, imagination, judgement and insight. A child of 0-2 years learns to communicate usually through the reflex actions. Young children attribute feeling and intentions to objects. A child of 7- 12 years learns seriation and decline in egocentrism takes place. After this stage he develops strong emotional and psychological thoughts and look for his own identity. Intellectual development: It starts from the age of 2 years normally egocentric but afterwards relational and prepositional thinking takes place of that and this allows individual to develop his personality and they lay down their own norms to be followed. It is an important aspect of growth and development as this the aspects which differentiate human being from other species. Variation in development Handicapping: Physical disorder may be by birth or accident can lead to this miss-happening. It leads to difficulty in learning, reading, walking, talking or other activities. These children with disabilities require special treatment and attention of family members and the community. Special measures and laws have been implemented for taking care of these people, so that they can effectively carry out their daily task. Every individual with disabilities has right to get education and parents should look for their rehabilitation program. Drugs and alcohol abuse Alcohol: The process of fermentation manufactures alcohol. It can be used for clinical, cleaning or sedative purpose. But people use it for drinking purpose to calm anxiety and produce relaxation or for enjoyment purpose. Alcohol affects the central nervous

system and slows the function, results in intoxication. Habit of drinking alcohol arises due to various circumstances like: 1. Family factors 2. Environmental factors 3. Company of a person 4. Excitement Drugs: Drugs include chemicals or other harmful substances. These are carried to different parts of the body when taken by the person and affect the functioning of those parts. It can result in various kinds of disorders or the reduction in physical gain may also take place. Various factors, which can be related to ones having these destructive drugs may be summed up as follows: 1. Pleasure sake. 2. Company factor. 3. Out of anxiety and agitation. 4. Some take it because they thought; it will improve their performance. Use of drugs and alcohol's has severe effects on an individual and society: 1. It can lead to physical or sexual aggression. 2. Gateway for other diseases 3. Antisocial behavior, and 4. Decline in family relationships. Family members should avoid aggressive behavior, motivating the child and adolescence for the adoption of good habit and to keep away from the bad habits in cultivation. Avoiding bad company are some the preventive measures and post measures includes seeking advice from a medical practitioner. Teenage pregnancies It is a common seen we encounter in our daily life in today's society. It leads to very serious impact on the child and her mother. Babies are at risk of neglect and abuse, mothers are uncertain about their roles and sometimes education is left behind due to the scenario so created. It may lead physical or mental illness. Teenage develops felling of anger, guilt and denial. Parents should extend their helping hand to teenagers in this situation. They should have: 1. Open communication with the teenagers. 2. They should provide education, which tells them about the family life, and sexual education. 3. Counseling about options available to them, from abortion to adoption. Suicides Depression, unhealthy family relations, quarrel between father and mother, stress, confusion, financial insecurity and pressure to cope with the changing time, more or less leads to the road of suicide. AS this seems to be the solution of every thing and this is very petty of their thought. When a person starts making his mind for suicide his actions reflects his attitude, which if recognized and treated properly would help in stopping him from the suicidal attempt. A psychiatric examination can be very helpful because a sign of psychosis prevails in his/her activities. They should be loved, cared and a proper feedback should be given for distraction.

Management
Management Theory Management is the need of the day. It consists of series of planned actions directed towards the accomplishment of the desired goals. The success of management lies in the proper exploitation and optimum utilization of the available resources. 1. Work simplification: it means reducing the amount of time and energy spent on a particular job and thus ensuring effective energy management. Work can be simplified in the following ways: i. Changes in hand and body motion: a) Eliminating unnecessary extra movements: this can save considerable amount of time and energy. For example using a tray instead of carrying items individually. b) Improving the sequence of work: better sequencing and dovetailing of activities reduces the expenditure of time and energy in a particular task. c) Developing skills at work: it will save time and energy both. d) Using correct posture: it ensures less expenditure of energy and reduces the problem of fatigue and backache. ii. Change in work, storage space and equipment: - it lays emphasis on the organization. The equipment placed should be easy to grasp, handle and see. They should be within the reach and use of labor saving device. iii. Changes in end product: careful planning to bring change and willing ness to accept change. 3. Management of time: Both time and energy are limited human resources. They are inter-linked and inter-dependent. Optimum realization of time is known as time management. A time plan can be defined as the advance plan of the activities to be performed in a given time period. Various steps in making a time plan:i. List all the activities to be performed during a given period of time. ii. List all those activities, which have to be done at a specific time. iii. Prepare a tentative plan. iv. Adjust other weekly and seasonal activities into the above plan. Mark your fixed time activity on the time plan. Management process and technique Due to the advancement or change, the need for management becomes all the more great. Some changes are apparently visible, for example, as a result of great industrialization, increased gainful employment for homemakers, better competitive market, greater mechanization of the home and greater mobility of families are the new options open in front of a home maker. It is through management alone that you can bring in an orderly change or development. Management is needed when parents want that their children should peruse higher education. It is needed when people fight together for a social cause, last but not the least, an efficient management depends upon the welfare, happiness and high standard of an individual, family and the community. Poor manger will be a source of torture for everyone and the community may have to pay a high price for him or her. THE PROCESS OF MANGEMENT Following managerial process can attain management in the home. The term process may be explained as consisting of a series of actions. Leading to the fulfillment of these actions is dependent on various decisions involved. The objectives or goals may

be different for different families. For accomplishment of desired goals of the family the homemaker follows the managerial process in which she synchronies various actions the family members and channelize those actions towards a common goal. The management process comprises of the following five interdependent and inters related steps: 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Implementation 4. Controlling 5. Evaluation Planning The tem planning is very commonly used in relation to day to day activities for example a teacher may plan her lessons, a student plans her days schedule, a homemaker plans the home schedule right from the morning to the night. According to Koontz and O Donnel, Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of the course of action, the basing of decision on purpose, facts and considered estimates. Planning is always based on facts and information and not on wishes or feelings. While making a plan, relevant information is collected and analyzed. One formulates the ways and means of using information in utilizing the resources, carrying out necessary actions. For efficient planning one must answer the following basic questions. 1. Why a particular action is essential? 2. What must be done? What are the different stages of the action plan and what is their sequential arrangement? 3. Where will it be done, i.e. the place where the action will be carried out? 4. When will it be done? 5. Who will perform it? 6. How will it be done? A successful plan will have the following characteristics. 1. Simple 2. Action-oriented 3. Through 4. Motivating family members for the active participation 5. Flexible. ORGANIZING Organizing is one of the most crucial steps in management. The very success and failure of a plan depends on how sound the organization structure is. In simple terms, organizing can be explained as a technique of arranging things in an orderly fashion. In home, where various plans are made and several activities are performed, some form of organization is must. Organization means a process of combining work of the family members with the resources necessary for its execution. IMPLEMENTING Implementing means putting the plan into action. It is the doing process of management. When a plan has been finalized and resources are assembled and organized, it is ready to be put into action. CONTROLLING Controlling is yet another important in managerial process. It is one of the supportive columns on which success of plan depends. In the absence of proper control, all efforts

will prove to be a failure. Controlling is the art of measurement and application of correction to any performance activity. Controlling helps in smooth execution of the plan. During controlling the corrective measure can be taken if events seem to be getting off the track. If anything goes wrong with the prior action plan i.e. planning, organizing or implementing, it can be set right by the control process. It helps in channeling the efforts to the common goal of becoming an architect. EVALUATION Evaluation is a very essential tool of the management. It helps in assessing the success and achievement of the process of management and of the result achieved. Evaluation indicates providing checks and test so as to know whether things are turning out as originally planned or whether any modifications are needed. Evaluation has to be done from time to time. It helps in judging the strength and overcoming weakness of the entire process with a view to make improvements in future planning. DECISION-MAKING Decision-making is the crux of management. It is needed at every step of management. At every step, one meets with several situations and problems that call for decision to be taken. In some cases, it also happens that the selection of a particular course of action, once considered to be the best, proves incorrect when implemented. In light of other possibilities new decisions must be taken. Steps in decision-making process. 1. Identify the problem. 2. Obtaining information and formulating possible courses of action. EVALUATING THE CONSEQUENCES OF EACH ALTERNATIVE After collecting the relevant information on all possible alternatives, the decisionmaker has to identify one of the alternatives, which may be the best in all respects. For identifying such an alternative, each alternative has to be evaluated thoroughly in terms of cost, time, money, energy etc. SELECTING THE BEST COURSE OF ACTION Selecting the best course of action from amongst the various alternatives is a difficult task. It requires the proper assessments of the values for each of the alternatives.

Consumer Economics
Consumer rights and responsibilities Legal and ethical considerations: The word ethic signifies morality and sense of Wright and wrong. Consumer has many legal rights but has many social duties or responsibility to be fulfilled at time like: 1. Payment of bills and other social obligation, which he bears. 2. Consumer has the right to waive disclaimer or notice to company or organization which does not come up to its stated quality or in case of any kind of cheat or fraud. Societal influence on consumer decisions Impacts of marketing: It creates demand and affects the consumer decision by advertising to lure and attract the public. You should not succumb to advertisement tactics. Decision should be based on the facts and figures best known to you.

Consumer Resources Consumer is needed to make a decision before buying anything. Today a person can find many private and government agencies that can help in making the right decision. Some of them are listed below3. American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS)= it provides assistance and arrange programs that educates and publish research findings. 4. AARP= it looks for the needs and interest for the adult persons. 5. American Council on Consumer Interests (ACCI) 6. Citizen Advocacy Center (CAC)= for health related services. 7. Consumer Coalition for Quality Health Care = it aims at quality health care service provision. 8. Consumer Federation of America = it is an advocacy organization. 9. Consumers' Checkbook = for consumers awareness 10. National Consumer Law Center = it advocates for low-income and elderly Americans on consumer law and public policy. 11. National Consumers League = it advocates consumer on market place and workplace. 12. Consumer Union = it provides an unbiased advice based on consumers reports There are various institutions providing information regarding product information. A consumer must look for appropriate resources before making a decision. Selection of services and product It should be done on the basis money, time, quality and urgency for the product. Health care services: This requires special thought and attention. If consumer knows what he/she is looking for and what it should contain then it will add to his/her decisive power of purchasing it or not. You can consult your physician for best services available and your own mental imagery. You should look for1. Organization's service philosophy 2. Crisis interventions used in the organization 3. Staff is well qualified or not 4. Does the organization took care of complete assessment of emotional, behavioral & physical needs 5. Does the organization develop a remission plan to ensure proper care is provided after the patient leaves the hospital? 6. Does the organization have a procedure for receiving and resolving complaints of the individual served and the family concerning the quality of care? 7. Are the buildings and grounds suitable to the nature of the services provided and the age of persons served? 8. Does a nationally recognized accrediting body such as the Joint Commission accredit the organization? 10. See for quality check (r). Financial Planning and Management Family Budget: Money is a limited resource but if used wisely can solve much of your problem. Budget consists of step-by-step use of money in a planned manner. It is needed for: 1. It is needed for keeping track of money, so that future saving or other long term or short-term goal can be met. 2. It is helpful in putting limits on your spending

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Budget should be made in keeping mind the following things: 1. It should be based on your future financial goals. 2. The entire income sources should be included. 3. It should keep an account for your future investments and support payments. 4. Portion of income you are spending on household requirement. 5. You should also keep record of how much you have to pay for taxes. 6. House repair and maintenance, utility service or any other kind of obligation you have to go for in that month. 7. Transportation expenses should be included. 8. Family and personal care expenses should be checked off. 9. Children education and clothing or other expenses should be tracked. 10. How much you spend on your recreational activities. 11. The most important part is to keep an account of you saving i.e. how much you are saving at the end of month excluding your expenses. 12. You should also know which saving scheme suits you best. Investments First step is to determine your long-term and short-term goals Short-term investment includes1. Gift 2. Recreational activities 3. Other occasional expenses. Long-term investment includes 1. Purchasing home 2. Saving for child's education 3. Planning retirement 4. Paying down debt To proceed in an effective manner you have to 1. Identify Your Income source 2. Understand your fixed and flexible expenditures 3. Adjust your budget 4. Differentiate between need and desire. Keeping in mind the above plan you should go for investment. Investment can be made in A) Bonds: A bond is an "IOU," certifying that you loaned money to a government or corporation and outlining the terms of repayment. The bond has a fixed interest rate for a fixed period of time. When the time is up, the bond is said to have "matured" and the buyer may redeem the bond for the full face value. Types 1. Corporate bonds 2. Municipal bonds 3. Federal government bonds B) Mutual funds: Professionally managed portfolios made up of stocks, bonds, and other investments. Individuals buy shares, and fund uses money to purchase stocks, bonds, and other investments. Profits returned to shareholders monthly, quarterly or semi-annually in the form of dividends. Advantages

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1. Allows small investors to take advantage of professional account management and diversification normally only available to large investors. Types of mutual funds 1. Balanced Fund 2. Global Bond Fund 3. Global Stock Fund 4. Growth Fund 5. Income Fund 6. Industry Fund 7. Municipal bond Fund 8. Regional Stock Fund C) Real estate: Buying a house, living in that and selling it later at a profit. Income sources if you rent it. Advantages 1. This gives Protection against inflation. Disadvantages 1. Can be difficult to convert into cash. 2. A requires study and knowledge of business. Retirement Planning: A persons full retirement age 65 years and 4 months. But planning should be made as soon as possible. There are several things to be sure about necessary income to finance your retirement. Retirement plans: They are meant to help individuals to set aside money to be used after they retire. Features 1. Federal income tax is not at once payable on money put into a retirement account or on the interest it makes. 2. Income tax is paid when money is withdrawn. 3. Penalty charges apply if money is withdrawn before retirement age, except held down by convinced state of affairs. 4. Income tax rate is lower after retirement on account of low-income resources. Types of plans 4. An individual Retirement Account (IRA) 5. Roth IRA 6. 401(k) 7. Keogh Plan Traditional IRA: An IRA is an individual retirement fund that he/she can form by making saving each year. These contributions are usually tax-free at the year of the contribution and are subject to tax the year it is withdrawn. Roth IRA: A Roth IRA is an individual retirement fund that he/she can form by making contributions each year. Contributions are non-tax deductible. Credit: It helps us in the following ways: 1. Fewer impulse buying 2. Lower cost for items purchased 3. Ability to obtain needed items at your desire 4. Lower chance of overspending.

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Saving account: The APY (annual percent yield) that is the percentage rate expressing the total amount of interest that would be received is based on the annual rate and frequency of compounding for a 365-day period. Money earned comes from the interest rate or annual yield. Financial institutions should disclose 1. Fees on deposit accounts 2. The interest rate 3. Other terms and conditions Following factors should be kept in mind: Fees, charges, and penalties And interested rate offered. Annuities: These are manageable insurance contracts intended to provide income and help you achieve long-term savings goals. It is a long-term contract between you and an insurance company. After making a single lump-sum premium payment, or a series of periodic payments, individuals can then receive regular annuity payments from the insurance company. These payments can be made over a definite period of time, or they can last a lifetime. These are of two types 4. Fixed annuity 5. Variable annuity Checking Accounts Accounts are needed for saving money in a bank. You can go for any of the option available with the bank but before going for that you must look for personal and family requirement and proceed in accordance with that. Checking account is specially designed for meeting the regular transaction, which a customer has to make to fulfill his liability. It is very convenient and helpful if you want to pay your recurring bills or when you want that a fixed amount for loan etc. to be automatically withdrawn from account, you dont even have to write checks for those. A track of transaction can be easily maintained and its very cheaper to go with, it usually cost from $5.00 to $12.00 per month. You can also find some institution offering free checking. Consumer Protection (Guarantees/Warranties) Terminology: - it is the shorthand label used in describing the supplier's contractual responsibilities (or guarantees) regarding the quality or fitness of the goods. Guarantees: means the replacement of the product with a new one in case of not coming up to the terms defined in the contract or in case of damage. Warranties: It implies that the product will be repaired and service according to the contract. There are two kinds of warranties: 1. Express warranties: which are based on what the supplier says about the goods. 2. Implied warranties: which don't depend simply on what the supplier says, but are based on the consumer's reasonable expectations about the goods in all the circumstances. Government agencies:

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1. Consumer Gateway it provides sources available for various categories of consumer products available online. 2. Consumer Product Safety Commission it works on reducing the mortality rate on account of consumer products. 3. Department of Agriculture it include meat and poultry inspection system, consumer education on food safety, and nutrition research and policy. 4. Federal Citizen Information Center this agency looks out for consumer problems and government services. 5. Food and Drug Administration it take cares for the medicinal things to common food ingredients. Consumer Advocates groups: 1. National Association of Consumer Advocates they represents consumers interest. 2. Public Citizen it represents consumer interests in Congress, the executive branch and the courts.

Nutrition and Food


Food: it is defined as any nutritive material of plant or animal origin which when taken into the human body meets the need for growth, maintenance, tissue repair and work. It is made up small chemical units called nutrients. Nutrients: These can be defined as small chemical component of food capable of performing functions related to bodys ability to work grow, develop and maintain good health. These substances are: 1. Protein, 2. Fat, 3. Carbohydrates, 4. Vitamins and 5. Minerals. Classification of food: 1. Functional Classification. a) Physiological functions, b) Psychological functions, and c) Socio-cultural function. 2. Nutrients Classification. a) Protein, b) Fat, c) Vitamins d) Carbohydrates, and e) Minerals. The other two components of food are water and roughage. They help in the regulation of body processes and are not nutrients in real sense. Functions of food: 1. Physiological functions: a) Energy giving food: Energy is required for voluntary and involuntary functions i.e. for processes like respiration, circulation, digestion and absorption (voluntarily function) and walking, playing etc (involuntarily function). b) Body building food: Body goes through constant anabolic and catabolic activities, together termed as metabolism. Tissues need to be repaired

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because they wear out because activities carried out by the men. New tissues are also added on during the period of rapid growth and development. c) Protective food: food is needed for providing protection against the deficiency diseases i.e. diseases acquired due to unbalanced diet. d) Regulatory food: Water and roughage is needed to regulate the various body activities. Water helps in disposing of wastes from body and roughage facilitates peristaltic movements and prevents constipation. 2. Psychological function: Food satisfies the emotional need in an individual. One tends eat more, when one is in a good mood. Loneliness, depress appetite in some individuals and some people derive satisfaction of company from food and eat more. 3. Socio-cultural functions: People try to try out food outside the meal pattern at a social get together, thus bridging the cultural differences. Social and cultural events are often accompanied by refreshments and feast shared with friends and relatives. Refreshment brings people together and eases the general atmosphere. Factors influencing nutritional needs Various factors contribute towards the nutritional needs of human body like age, sex, kind of work etc. It is the activity which a person carries out during the daily routine best describes how much food and nutrient supply is needed for a person and Food group Children ages 2 to 6 years, women, some older adults (servings) 6 Older children, teen girls, active women, most men (servings) 9 Teen boys, active men (Servings) 11

Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta, especially whole grain Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Nuts Vegetable Group Fruit Group Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese

2, for a total of 5 ounces 3 2 2 or 3

2, for a total of 6 ounces 4 3 2 or 3

3, for a total of 7 ounces 5 4 2 or 3

Above-mentioned serving follows American dietary guideline norms. Nutritional Guidelines Recommended Balanced diet intakeFor Adults Food items Adult man Working condition Cereals Pulses Leafy vegetables Other vegetables Sedentary (ounces) 16.192 1.408 1.408 2.112 Moderate (ounces) 18.304 1.76 1.408 2.464 Heavy (ounces) 23.584 2.112 1.408 2.816 Sedentary (ounces) 14.432 1.408 3.52 1.408

Adult woman Moderate (ounces) 15.448 1.584 3.52 1.408 Sedentary (ounces) 20.24 1.76 1.76 3.52

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Roots and tubers Milk Oil and fat Eggs Meat and fish Sugar and jaggery

1.76 5.28 1.408 1.056 1.056 1.056

2.112 7.04 1.584 1.232 1.232 1.232

2.816 8.8 2.28 1.408 1.056 1.936

1.76 3.52 20 1.056 1.056 .704

1.76 5.28 25 1.056 1.056 .704

2.112 7.04 1.408 1.232 1.232 1.408

For child and teens: Food items Children (ounces) Age 1-3 4-6 7-9 years years Years Cereals Pulses Leafy vegetables Leafy vegetables Other vegetables Roots and tubers Milk Oil and fat Eggs Meat and fish Sugar and jaggery 6.16 1.584 1.232 1.232 .704 .352 10.56 15 1.056 1.056 1.056 9.504 1.584 1.232 1.232 1.056 .704 8.8 25 1.056 1.056 1.408 8.8 2.112 8.8 2.112 2.64 1.76 8.8 1.056 1.056 1.056 1.76

Boys (ounces) 10-12 13-15 16-18 years years years 14.784 50 1.584 1.584 1.76 1.056 8.8 1.408 1.232 1.232 1.584 15.136 1.76 2.112 3.52 2.64 1.232 8.8 1.232 1.056 1.056 1.408 15.84 2.112 2.112 3.52 2.64 1.408 8.8 1.408 1.056 1.056 1.408

Girls (ounces) 101315-18 12 15 Years years years 13.37 6 1.232 1.584 1.584 1.76 1.056 8.8 1.232 1.232 1.056 1.232 12.32 1.76 1.76 150 2.64 1.232 8.8 1.232 1.056 1.056 1.056 12.32 1.76 2.464 150 2.64 1.408 8.8 1.408 1.056 1.056 1.056

Nutrients: nutrition is a process of ingestion, digestion, absorption and utilization of food for the well being of the living organism. Basic terms defining nutrition conditions: 1. Optimum nutrition: A person is known to be in the state of optimum nutrition when the essential nutrients are supplied and utilized to maintain health and well being at the highest possible level. It provides as reserve as well. 2. Over nutrition: It results when individual eats more food than his requirement. Excessive intake of food will make the individual over weight. 3. Under-nutrition: It is a state of the body arising from in-adequate intake of food and resultant reduced body weight. 4. Malnutrition: It is defined as a state in which prolonged lack of one or more nutrients retards physical development or causes the appearances of specific clinical conditions such as anaemia, goitre etc.

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Function and sources of food Proteins: - These are complex organic compounds with nitrogen as the integral part and are made up of small units called amino acids. There are twenty-two amino acids contents, which are needed by the human body. There are two kinds of amino acids essential and nonessential, certain amino acids, which are not produced inside the human body, are called as essential Aminoacids and vice-versa. Functions of proteins: 1. Essential for growth of new cells in the body, responsible for the maintenance of old and worn out tissues. 2. Globin protein is an essential part of connective tissues hemoglobin, and also the supply of oxygen is regulated by hemoglobin. 3. The antibodies providing immunity are proteins in nature. 4. Hormones, responsible for the various vital activities of the body are also proteins in nature. 5. Enzymes and coenzymes are responsible for the digestions of food are proteins in origin. 6. Proteins are also capable of giving energy supply. Sources of proteins: Name of food Milk Egg white Meat Blood Hoof Pulses Wheat Barley Maize Hair

Proteins Present Casein, lactalbumin, lactoglobin Albumin and avidin Myosin Globin, fibrin, collagen Gelatin Lysine Glutenin, gliadin Hordenin Orzenin Keratin

Carbohydrates: - These are complex organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates constitute the bulk of most diets. They are referred to as saccharides. Functions of Carbohydrates: 1. It is the main source of energy and gives 4 calories of energy per gram. 2. Carbohydrates perform the regulatory functions in the body. 3. The bacteria derive energy from the carbohydrates for the synthesis of Bcomplex vitamins present in the gastro-intestinal tract. 4. Carbohydrates are essential for the metabolism of the fats. 5. Carbohydrates taken in sufficient amount have a protein sparing action. Sources of Carbohydrates: Cereals Roots and tubers Wheat Potatoes Rice Colacasia Ragi Yam Maize Tapioca Bread Turnips Biscuits Beet root

Sweet Foods Jaggery Honey Grapes Ripe banana Mango Dates

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Fats or Lipids: Fats are concentrated forms of energy in the diet. Fats are complex organic compounds made of glycerol and fatty acids; these are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in different proportions. They are complex soluble in ether, benzene, carbon tetra chloride and alcohol etc. Functions of fats: 1. Fats/lipids are a reservoir of calories. 2. Fats supply the essential soluble vitamins-A, D, E, & K and aids in the absorption of these vitamins. 3. Fats provide fatty layer below the skin that checks the loss of heat from the body or it acts as insulation between external and internal environment. 4. Fatty layers/adipose tissue provides protection to the delicate internal organs. 5. Fats lubricate digestive tract and facilitate evacuation of waste from the body. Sources of fats: Animal Fats Milk Cream Butter Egg yolk Pure gee Lard Suet Fish Vegetable fats Vanaspati ghee Oils from corn Peanuts Sesame Sunflower Cotton seeds Nuts

Vitamins: - These are organic substances, which the body requires, in small amounts for its metabolism, yet cannot make it at least in sufficient quantities. All vitamins differ in chemical and physiological actions. Vitamins are of two types- fatsoluble and water-soluble. Functions of Vitamins: Name of Vitamin Vitamin-A Function of Vitamin 1. It is required for the proper functioning of eyes (Rhodopsin). 2. For epithelial cells. 3. For proper functioning of sweat glands. 4. For proper development of skeletal. 5. For normal functioning of foetal tissue. 1. Thiamine (B1) is required for the well being of nerves. 2. It is important for normal tissue function. 3. Pregnancy and lactation requires higher Thiamine intakes 4. Riboflavin is essentials for the enzymes that help in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. 5. It prevents Occular lesions, seborrhea of skin and cracking of lips and tongues. 18

Vitamin-B

of skin and cracking of lips and tongues. 6. Folic acid is necessary for the metabolism of proteins. 7. Regeneration of red blood cells. 8. For the normal functioning of gastro intestinal tract. Vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid) 1. It is required for the proper formation of intracellular glandular substance or matrix that binds the cells in tissues as capillaries, bones, teeth dentin, connective tissue and cartilage. 2. It maintains collagen, a protein essential for binding and cementing the teeth on the jaws. 3. It heals wounds. 4. In the formation of red blood cells in bone marrow. 5. For the absorption of iron in the body. 6. Protects body against infections 7. Helps in the metabolism of amino acids tyrosine and in the functioning of adrenal glands. 1. It promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphates from small intestine. 2. For the process of calcification. 3. It promotes the tabular absorption of phosphorous in the kidney. 4. Minerlisation of bones and their normal growth. Source 1. Orange vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, 2. P u m p k i n Dark-green leafy vegetables such as spinach, collards, turnip greens 3. Orange fruits like mango, 4. antaloupe, apricots Tomatoes 1. Cooked dry beans and peas, peanuts 2. Oranges, orange juice 3. Dark-green leafy vegetables like spinach and mustard greens, romaine lettuce 4. Green peas Vitamin C 1. Citrus fruits and juices, kiwi fruit, strawberries, cantaloupe 2. Broccoli, peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes

Vitamin-D

Name Vitamin A

Folate

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3. Leafy greens such as romaine lettuce, turnip 4. greens, spinach

Minerals: These are the elements that remain largely as ash when plant or animal tissues are burnt. They consist about 40% of body weight. These are water-soluble and the excess is excreted through urine. They are called as major minerals and trace minerals depending upon the amount required in the body. Functions of minerals: 1. They regulate acid base balance. Phosphorous and calcium are acid forming elements while calcium; potassium, sulphur and chlorine are alkaline forming. 2. It helps in contraction and relaxation of muscles. 3. Fluoride is needed for teeth and bones. 4. Iodine in thyroxine and iron in hemoglobin aid the oxidation process in the body. a) Calcium: i. It provides rigidity to bones. ii. Calcium is needed for the normal functioning of muscles. iii. Heart has got enough calcium in the fluid that batches the heart muscles and is responsible for the muscles contractions and relaxations. iv. It is responsible for the formation of blood clot. v. Calcium regulates cell permeability. b) Iron: i. Iron is responsible tissue respiration. ii. Iron is present in muscles as myoglobin, which stores O2 in the muscles and uses it for concentration. iii. It helps in oxidation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates within the cell. iv. It provides proper color and composition to blood by mixing with proteins. c) Iodine: i. Iodine controls the oxidation of carbohydrates and energy metabolism. ii. It controls the functioning of the nerves.

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Sources of Minerals: Name Calcium

Iron

Sources 1.Yogurt 2. Milk (lactose free and lactose reduced milk) 3. Natural cheeses such as Mozzarella, Cheddar, Swiss, and Parmesan 4. Soy-based beverage with added calcium Tofu, if made with calcium sulfate 5. Breakfast cereal with added calcium 6. Canned fish with soft bones such as salmon, Sardines (high in salts) 7. Fruit juice with added calcium 8. Pudding made with milk 9. Soup made with milk 10. Dark-green leafy vegetables such as collards, 11. turnip greens 1. Shellfish like shrimp, clams, mussels, and oysters 2. Lean meats (especially beef), liver and other organ meats 3. Ready-to-eat cereals with added iron 4. Turkey dark meat (remove skin to reduce fat) 5. Sardines 6. Spinach 8. Cooked dry beans (such as kidney beans and pinto beans), peas (such as blackeyed peas), and lentils 9. Enriched and whole grain breads 1. Baked white or sweet potato, cooked greens (such as spinach), winter (orange) squash 2. Bananas, plantains, dried fruits such as apricot sand prunes, 3. Orange juice 4. Cooked dry beans (such as baked beans) and lentils 5. Seafood such as fish, crabs, lobsters, prawn. 6. Sea salts. 7. It is present in water.

Potassium

Iodine

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Related Health Problems Anorexia it is a type of eating disorder, which is basically characterized by the sufferer's obsession with food; the intentional restriction of their intake of it plus a general psychological obsession caused by starvation. Person suffering from Anorexia generally have1. Psychological difficulties 2. Mental illnesses 3. Depression Causes of anorexia 1. Physiological or psychological in origin. 2. Mix of both. 3. Conducive neurophysiologic conditions. 4. Genetic. 5. Mercury, lead, beryllium and arsenic poisoning. 6. Deficiencies in important vitamins and minerals, such as magnesium and the B vitamins. 7. Zinc deficiency. Treating anorexia1. Hospitalization, psychotherapy 2. Anorexia treatment-centers 3. Family counseling. 4. Psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants 5. Support groups such as Overeaters Anonymous, which deals with eating disorders. 6. Treatment of any present vitamin and dietary-mineral deficiencies. Bulimia: Bulimia nervosa, is commonly called as bulimia, it is a psychological condition in which the person engages in repeated binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: 1. Vomiting 2. Inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics or other medication 3. Excessive exercising 4. Fasting A person is unable to controlling the urge to binge. Bulimia is a pathology having to do with body image and the desperate desire to appear thin. Some anorectics may embody bulimic behaviors into their illness. While bulimia person suffers more from mental discomfort. Obesity It is a state in which the natural energy reserve of a human, which is stored in fat, is expanded far beyond usual levels to the point where it is believed to pose a health risk to the human. In humans, the current measurement of obesity is the body mass index (BMI). A person with a BMI over 25 is considered overweight; a BMI over 30 is considered obese.

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Health risk1. Heart disease 2. High blood pressure and high cholesterol 3. High triglyceride levels in the blood (metabolic syndrome) 4. Increased risk of other diseases like carpal tunnel syndrome. Genetic factors 1. High-energy food 2. Reducing physical activity 3. Increased calorie intake 4. Viral infection - The virus AD-36 has been identified as a cause of obesity in animals. Treatment of obesity 1. Dietary restriction and physical exercise 2. Drugs promoting weight loss 3. Surgical methods Diabetes 1. Juvenile diabetes a) Adult onset b) Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy) 2. Insipidus Causes 1. Hyperglycemia or too high blood glucose levels occurs if the quantity of insulin is not adequate to cause the cells to take up the glucose from the blood, or if those cells, which demand insulin to absorb glucose no longer, respond up to a minimal standard to it. 2. Hypoglycemia means an extremely low blood glucose level. It can arise in diabetics who have too much insulin (from injections or from insulin release stimulating drugs -- usually pills) for the amount of food they eat and exercise they get. Diabetes Treatment 1. Through complex therapy, education and life-style. 2. keeping blood glucose levels as near as feasible to nondiabetic values 3. Insulin injections, insulin pump, pills, and implants. 4. Common drugs in pill form for example- biguanides, sulfonylureas and Tolinase

Diabetes Insipidus: it is often called as water diabetes. Person has to urinate often, get very thirsty and hungry, and feel weak. This disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of dilute urine, which disrupts the body's water regulation. Symptoms: 1. Drinking large amounts of water. 2. Likely to urinate frequently, 3. Bedwetting. 4. Dehydrated

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5. Irritable or listless. Diagnosis 1. Urinalysis and a fluid deprivation test. 2. osmolality 3. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain. RDA DIETARY GUIDELINES Name RDA for Protein (g)RDA for Calcium (mg)RDA for Iron (mg)RDA for Vitamin A (RE) RDA for Vitamin C (mg) Small children 5, 10, 12. 200, 257, 300. 2.5, 3.0, 3.4. 113, 197, 225 11, 13, 14. Teenagers 267, 286, 400. 3.3, 3.5, 4.5. 150 224 300. 14 15 18

1. Total Fat (g) - Total fat not to exceed 30 percent of calories over a school week. 2. Saturated Fat (g) - Saturated fat to be less than 10 percent of calories over a school week.

Sociocultural aspects of food The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and whole-wheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. People of different region and religion food intake habit vary in vast differences and this sometimes keeps them away from balanced diet. Physiological and psychological satisfaction of food food intake depends truly on the physical and mental activities a person is carrying out and on his/her taste. Meal/food Management Type of meal1. Dinner- lower in saturated fat 2. Breakfast - cereal containing more folic acid. 3. To reduce the fat intake choose lower % Daily Value food 4. To increase nutrient consumption (such as calcium, other vitamins and minerals, fiber)- higher %DV. 5. Pregnant women should eat foods ingrained with folic acid. 6. Older adults and people with little exposure to sunlight may need a vitamin D 7. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains 8. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily

Choosing food: 1. Foods should be free from harmful bacteria, viruses, Parasites. 2. Do not eat or drink unpasteurized juices, raw sprouts, raw (unpasteurized) milk and products made from unpasteurized milk.

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3. Do not eat raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, fish, and shellfish 4. Choose and prepare foods with less salt 5. Aim for a moderate sodium intake Food selection and Purchase 1. Check the food label. a) Nutrition Facts b) Ingredient list. c) % Daily Value 2. When shopping, buy perishable foods last, and take them straight home. 3. Read the label and follow safety instructions on the package Food Preparation Temperature: Uncooked and undercooked animal foods are unsafe. Proper cooking makes most uncooked foods safe. 1. Reheat sauces, soups, marinades, and gravies to a boil. 2. Reheat leftovers thoroughly to at least 165 F. 3. If using a microwave oven, cover the container and turn or stir the food to make sure it is heated evenly throughout. 4. Cook eggs until whites and yolks are firm. 5. Dont eat raw or partially cooked eggs, or foods containing raw eggs, raw (unpasteurized) milk Temperature level Food Whole Poultry 180 F Poultry Breast, Well-Done Meats 170 F Stuffing, Ground Poultry, Reheat Leftovers 165 F Meats-Medium, Raw Eggs, Egg Dishes, Pork and Ground 160 F Meats Medium-Rare Beef Steaks, 145 F Roasts, Veal, Lamb Hold Hot Foods 40 F 40 F Refrigerator Temperatures 0 F Freezer Temperatures Dangerous Zone 40 F to 140 F is suspected for bacterial growth.

Food Storage and Preparation 1. Chill- Refrigerate perishable foods 2. Keep hot foods hot (140 F or above) 3. Cold foods cold (40 F or below). 4. Whether raw or cooked, never leave meat, poultry, eggs, fish, or shellfish out at room temperature for more than 2 hours (1 hour in hot weather 90 F or above). 5. Be sure to chill leftovers as soon as your are finished eating. 6. When in doubt, throw it out.

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Perishable food storage 1. Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, or storing 2. Keep raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, and shellfish away from other foods, surfaces, utensils, or serving plates. 3. Store raw meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish in containers in the refrigerator so that the juices dont drip onto other foods. Cleanliness: Common precautionary measures: 1. Clean - Wash hands and surfaces often 2. Wash your hands with warm soapy water for 20 seconds before you handle food or food utensils. 3. Wash your hands after handling or preparing food, especially after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, or eggs. 4. Right after you prepare these raw foods, clean the utensils and surfaces you used with hot soapy water. 5. Replace cutting boards once they have become worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves. 6. Wash raw fruit and vegetables under running water before eating. 7. Use a vegetable brush to remove surface dirt if necessary. 8. Always wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or playing With pets

Clothing and Textiles


Wardrobe Management Wardrobe management It is needed because it will help you to use your resources wisely and will help you in reducing time, money and energy to be spent. Planning it will help in understanding current needs and consumer will be able to make a sound decision on purchasing. Basic planning steps are1. Evaluating your present wardrobe. 2. Organizing it. 3. Color plan for each family member 4. Look for variety 5. Go for flexibility 6. Buy basic style and good quality stuff 7. Taking care of the present clothes Growing kid wardrobe planning needs1. Clothing should be easy to care for, durable and flexible 2. Buying only necessary things as size change makes them of no use Textiles Textile fiber is very long in relation to its thickness. It consists of cell arranged in its longitudinal direction. The strength and elasticity of the fiber depends on the force between these cells. Classification of fibers 1. Natural fibers

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a) Vegetable fibers e.g. cotton and flax. b) Animal fibers e.g. wool and silk. 2. Man made fibers a) Regenerated fiber e.g. viscose rayon and acetate. b) Synthetic fibers e.g. polyester and nylon. Chemical composition: 1. Cellulose 2. Protein 3. Mineral 4. Thermo plastic Production of Fibers: a) Spunbond Technology: direct spinning of polymer granules into continuous filaments and the subsequent production of an areal textile bonded fabric made of them. Properties of the fabrics: 1. Scope of areal weights within approx. 10 - 150 g/m2 2. Uniform distribution of fibers in the areal textile fabric determining the characteristic values of the properties that are in the longitudinal and lateral directions in the ratio of approx. 2:1 3. High final strength of the textile fabric caused by the high strength of continuous filaments 4. Characteristic fineness of individual filaments within the scope of 1 - 5 den Meltblown Technology: Bonded fabrics of the Meltblown type are produced by technology based on the Exxon patent. Polypropylene is the most frequent initial raw material used. Characteristics1. The fabric may be produced in white or in color 2. Hydrophobic or hydrophilic 3. Calendered or non-calendered 4. Persistent stable electrostatic charge. Properties: 1. Very fine fibers 2. Variable areal weight 3. High specific surface assuring excellent filtering 4. Thermally insulating and sorptive properties. 5. The fibers are of undefined length and random orientation their diameter varies longitudinally. 6. Lower strength in tension and also bulkiness of non-calendered products are also characteristic for the fabric.

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Housing
Housing Types of Housing Class classification 1. Residential- homeowner holds freehold title to a dwelling unit and block of land. 2. Condominium - homeowner holds title to an individual dwelling unit, an undivided interest in common areas of a multi-unit project, and sometimes the exclusive use of certain limited common areas. Style description: 1. Detached 2. Row Unit 3. Semi-Detached 4. Apartment Type description: 1. One Level (1LEVEL) 2. 1 _ Storey (1.5STY) 3. Storey (2STOREY) 4. Storey (3STOREY) 5. Bungalow (BUNGLOW) 6. Double Side by Side (DBL-SXS) 7. Duplex-Up/Down (DUP-UD) 8. Hi Ranch (HIRANCH) 9. Link Home (LINK) 10. Mobile (MOBIL) 11. Split Level ( SPLIT ) Housing functions There is no need, or prospect, that housing authorities will contradict housing functions simply because they are transferring their housing stock. 1. Continue to discharge its official housing responsibilities and transfer its own housing policies 2. Ensure that suitable targets can be set for the delivery of housing functions in the post transfer setting 3. The capability to fulfil its strategic housing role 4. Strike the right balance between control and efficiency 5. Deliver high quality services to the public 6. Secure local ownership of decisions 7. Ensure that housing functions are delivered in a coherent way that allows appropriate referral on to other relevant services 8. Maintain high morale among housing authority staff affected by transfer 9. Avoid irrevocable contracting-out decisions.

Family and Consumer Sciences Education


Philosophical and Professional Concerns Family and Consumer Sciences Education programs make ready students for adult roles, family responsibilities, and careers related to family. Prosperous families do

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not just happen; they demand constant effort. Preparing individuals for the work of the family is basic and necessary philosophical and professional concern. Quality of life is the perception of and the level of satisfaction of confidence with one's conditions, relationships and surroundings, 5. Standard of living is the actual level of living being experienced 6. Well-being is the state of being well, happy, healthy or prosperous. Dual careers A dual career means working for homemaking/wage earning by both husband and wife. It offers: 1. Couples the benefits of economic independence and career control 2. A working spouse gave them the freedom to leave their jobs if they weren't satisfied. 3. That having a working spouse had a positive impact on their careers. 4. Respondents cited more income as a benefit of the dual-career marriage, the fact that couples valued highly the option to take career risks, change jobs, start a business, switch to a new industry was another revealing finding of dual Careers Differences: Both women and men want to control over their advancement path Characteristics of consumer Consumer Science education aims at: 1. Balancing personal, home, family and work lives. 2. Promoting optimal nutrition and wellness across the life span. 3. Successful life management, employment, and career development. 4. Functioning effectively as providers and consumers of goods and services. 5. Managing resources to meet the material needs of individuals and families. 6. Strengthening the well being of individuals and families across the life span. 7. Becoming responsible citizens and leaders in family, community, and work settings. 8. Appreciating human worth and accepting responsibility for one's actions and success in family and work life. Using critical and creative thinking skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments. Planning, implementation and Evaluation Community Advisory Committees The liability to the committees is to identify community health concern. Each committee spent approximately a year conducting a community health assessment. The assessments include: 3. Examining data on health status 4. Indicators from the Mass As a result of this assessment a comprehensive set of initiatives designed to reduce family and community violence, prevent substance abuse. FHA/HERO: FHA/HERO prepares students to be intricate in adult life. It aims to promote personal growth and leadership through family and consumer sciences education It focuses on: -

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1. Multiple roles of family member 2. Development of skills for life through character development, creative and critical thinking, interpersonal communication, practical knowledge, and vocational preparation. Question and Answers Q1.Which type of family is known as hunter family? a) Single parent b) Extended c) Nuclear d) Blended Sol: (c) because it is a society in which people must be mobile. Q2.What is the meaning of the term adolescence? a) Period between childhood and adulthood b) Period between childhood and teenage c) Period between birth and death. d) None of these. Sol: (a), it is a period between childhood and adulthood and can be further categorized into early and late adolescence. Q3.Which type of family does include one stepsibling stepparents or half-sibling? a) Nuclear family b) Blended family c) Single parent d) Extended family Sol: (b), in blended family the biological parent of one child is the stepparent of the other. Half-siblings shares only one biological parent. Q4.An extended family consists of? a) Parents and their biological children b) Single parents to form the family c) Same generation people d) Different generation people Sol: (d), in this two or more adult from different generations share the same house. Q5.A family in which person if live apart shares the common decision and values is? a) Nuclear b) Blended c) Extended d) Single parent Sol: (c), Extended family shares the same view and moves ahead with common purpose. Q6.Common changes seen during adolescence are? a) Cognitive development

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b) Physical development c) Sexual gland development d) All of these. Sol: (d), maturation takes place in a child during adolescence. Q7.Primary and secondary characteristics start developing with onset of? a) Liberty b) Puberty c) Severity d) Birth Sol: (b), it is the starting stage of arousal of sexual development. Q8.Rate of development of boys and girls is? a) Different b) Same c) Unknown d) None of these Sol: (a), each adolescent grows in a different way. Q9.Psychological effects of early and late maturation are more on? a) Male b) Female c) Animal d) All of these Sol: (a), a disturbance in maturation leads to state of depression more pronounced in male. Q10.Four stages of a) Sensory motor, b) Sensory motor, c) Sensory motor, d) Sensory motor, cognitive development are? re-operational, concrete operations and formal operations. pre-operational, concrete operations and informal operations. pre-operational, concrete operations and formal operations. pre-operational, sex operations and formal operations.

Sol: (c), in accordance with cognitive development theory of Piaget. Q11.Transference of parental characteristics to their offspring is? a) Meredith b) Hereditary c) Hierarchy d) Kinship Sol: (b), transference of characteristics from parent to their offsprings takes place due to chromosomes (genes) and this effect is called as hereditary. Q12.Which of the following characteristics are hereditary in nature? a) Physical resemblance b) Mental ability c) Aptitudes d) All of these

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Sol: (d), all of the above characteristics are inherited in a child from their parents. Q13.Who is responsible for determining the sex of the child? a) Father b) Mother c) Grandmother d) Grand father Sol: (a), when xy and women xy genes pairs resulting in xy, then a baby boy is born and if yy pair is formed then a girl is born. Q14.Hereditary defects can be reduced by? a) Sympathy b) Rehabilitation c) Genetic counseling d) None of these Sol: (c), it helps in reducing hereditary (genetic) effects by giving proper advice. Q15.Apart from interest and abilities of the individual, which other factors help in determine the future of a child? a) Socio-economic status b) Schooling c) Parents d) All of the above Sol: (d), All of the above factor are important in deciding the choice for a career plan. Q16.An individual behavior is usually affected by? a) Family b) Community/environment c) School d) All of the above Sol: (d), these factors play an important in shaping the behavior of an individual and the process is called behavior modeling. Q17.Main functions of the family consist of? a) Education b) Physical support c) Psychological support d) All of the above Sol: (d), family member extends its support to its member in all the areas of life. Q18.Reward and punishment is a part and parcel of which learning theory? a) Cognitive development theory b) Social development theory c) Behavioral development theory d) None of the above

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Sol: (c), it states that people learn is through constructive reinforcement that includes rules, rewards and consequences. Q19.Cognitive-developmental Learning Theory advocates? a) Dialogue. b) Society c) Activities d) Physical strength Sol: (a), Dialogue stimulates thinking by relating facts and concepts that encourage learning. Q20.Total Human Development model is based upon? a) Exploration through Reading b) Understanding through Problem Solving c) Action through Program Development d) All of the above Sol: (d), THD combines all these factors in order to relate or understand the human development. Q21.Keys to Successful Family Functioning are? a) Promotion of the emotional b) Physical c) Social welfare d) All of the above Sol: (d), these are the factors that contribute to family's internal strengths and the durability of the family unit. Q22.Family task areas include? a) It includes basic, developmental and crisis tasks. b) It include health, wealth gain c) It include mental, emotional support d) It includes education. Sol: (a), it covers all the aspects of an individual prosperity and family functioning. Q23.What are the essential skills for the effective communication in a family? a) Ability to listen to others b) To pay attention to what they say c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (c), communication is the way through which information is exchanged between two or more person.

Q24.What is the need for the establishment of family members roles and responsibility? a) For recognition b) For playing

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c) To deal with normal and unexpected change d) Tor communication Sol: (c), it helps in establishing clear and flexible relationship with each other and with their responsibilities towards the family. Q25.Resiliency is found in children because of? a) Social competence b) Problem-solving skills c) A sense of purpose and future d) All of the above Sol: (d), focus is made on family strength and promotion of these skills is done in order to avoid resiliency. Q26.According to the principle of cephalocaudle direction of developments is? a) Development proceeds from the head downward. b) Development proceeds from the legs upward. c) Development proceeds from the mouth downward. d) Development proceeds from the eyes downward. Sol: (a), According to this principle, the child gains control of the head first, then the arms, and then the legs. Q27.Principle of proximodistal development states that? a) Development proceeds from the center of the body outward. b) Development proceeds from the center of the body inward. c) Development proceeds from the center of the body bi-directional. d) Development proceeds from the center of the body multidirectional. Sol: (a), it is based on the assumption of physical development order of child before birth. Q28.Which type of family results in healthier relationships? a) Rigid and do not adapt changes b) Rigid and do adapt to changes c) Flexible and do not adapt changes d) Flexible and adapt changes Sol: (d), it has been proven by various researches that this creates harmony among family members. Q29.How do people learns according to social learning theory principle? a) Through modeling and imitation b) Through rewards and consequences c) Through active dialogue and thinking d) Through speaking Sol: (a), it emphasis on the fact that human learn through relationships. Q30.Sudden growth in adolescence leads to?

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a) Awkwardness b) Genius c) Selfish d) Anger Sol: (a), physical growth spurt often perplexes the child making entry into the pubertal period resulting in awkwardness. Q31.Management is? a) Dynamic process b) Static process c) Reversible process d) Irreversible process Sol: (a), it consists of making up a series of decision which leads to the attainment of the desired goals and thus is a dynamic process since decision depends upon time at which they are taken up. Q32.Management consists of? a) Planning, preparing, working, staffing, controlling b) Planning, organizing, implementing, evaluating, controlling c) Working, organizing, implementing, evaluating, feedback d) Planning, organizing, implementing, evaluating Sol: (b), these are five Ps or pillars of the management process. Q33.Planning helps in _ the gap in achieving your goal? a) Abridging b) Bridging c) Maintaining d) Sustaining Sol: (b), because it helps in bridging the gap from where you are and where you want to go. Q34.Organizing, is a technique of arranging things in an a) Disorderly manner b) Orderly manner c) Ineffective manner d) Improper manner Sol: (b), it is done in order to carry out the task in an effective manner so that the efficiency is increased. Q35.What is the crux of the management? a) Planning b) Implementing c) Organizing d) Decision making Sol: (d), it is needed at every step of management. Q36.Steps involved in decision-making are? a) Certification, formulation, evaluation, selection

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b) Identification, evaluation, selection c) Identification, formulation, evaluation, selection d) Identification, formulation, evaluation Sol: (c), identification or the problem, formulation of alternative, evaluation of consequences and selection of the best course is needed in making the best decision. Q37.Simplification of work principle includes? a) Changes in the hand and body motion b) Changes in the work, storage, space and equipment c) Changes in the end products d) All of the above Sol: (d), all of the above mentioned factor help in simplification and management of work. Q38.Why conservation of time and energy is needed in humans? a) Unlimited resource b) Limited resource c) For saving money d) None of the above Sol: (b), these are limited human resource and thus need to be conserved for future use. Q39.Energy is _ to do a job? a) Incapacity b) Capacity c) Duty d) Sincerity Sol: (b), Energy comes from the human body due to intake of food and is spent in doing work. Q40.Different family stages are? a) Beginning, expanding and retirement. b) Adolescence and teenage c) Marriage and birth to new baby d) All of the above Sol: (a), it covers almost all the stages of family life from birth till death of person. Q41.What helps us in keeping track of our money? a) Budget b) Family members c) Neighbors d) Friends Sol: (a), it comes from the definition of budget and in making budget we keep record of all our financial activities. Q42.Traditional IRA is?

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a) b) c) d)

Family fund Personal retirement fund Festival None of the above

Sol: (a), An IRA is a personal retirement fund and is usually tax free the year of the contribution and is subject to tax the year it is withdrawn. Q43.Amount withdrawn from Roth IRA after the age of 59 _years is? a) Tax-payment is needed b) Tax-free c) Cannot be withdrawn d) None of the above Sol: (b), in Roth IRA tax is paid at the time of contribution to the saving and can be withdrawn after individual reaches the age of 59 _years Q44.Why gets a checking account? a) Convenience b) Record Keeping c) Saving Money d) All of the above Sol: (d), Checking account is helpful in keeping track of all the above activities. Q45.Financial institutions are required to disclose the following information on savings account plans they offer? a) Fees on deposit accounts b) The interest rate c) Other terms and conditions d) All of the above Sol: (d), Q46.The annual percent yield (APY), is calculated for period of? a) 366-day b) 365-day c) 363-day d) 364-day Sol: (b), it is fixed in order to avoid the variation in calculating interest period on the deposited amount. Q47.One can receive payment from Annuities? a) Definite period of time b) Regularly for lifetime c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (c), its up to the investors choice. Q48.Express warranties include? (a) Any oral statement

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(b) Any written statement (c) Substantial relevance test (d) All of the above Sol: (d) Q49.According to laws burden of proof re materiality & reliance depends upon? a) Seller b) Buyer c) Community d) Nation Sol: (b), court needs the proof of statement made by the seller and buyer is responsible for producing the proof in court. Q50.In, which case the legislation, applies even if there is no contract at all? a) Defective good b) Damaged good c) Contaminated food d) Alcohol Sol: (c), legislation applies when goods pose an unreasonable danger to the person. Q51.If there is a breach of any warranty (whether express or implied), the normal procedure is? a) Replacement b) Repair c) Not changing it d) All of the above Sol: (b), it is the first thing a seller will go for if damage is fixable. Q 52.what is the process used for the manufacture of alcohol? a) Fermentation b) Sedimentation c) Relaxation d) All of the above Sol: (a), yeast formation is carried out and the method is commonly called as fermentation. Q53.Kind of effects seen on an individual taking drugs and alcohol are? a) Physical or sexual aggression b) Physical gain c) Mental gain d) Boring Sol: (a), because a person lost controls over his senses due to the intake of drugs so he usually turned aggressive. Q54.How parents can prevent teenage pregnancy? a) Open communication b) No communication

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c) Beating d) Leaving alone Sol: (a), it will help her to differentiate between Wright and wrong. Q55.Teenage pregnancy leads to? a) School failure b) Poverty c) Physical or mental illness d) All of the above Sol: (d), because of the untimely responsibilities they have to bear on account of pregnancies. Q56.Suicide is the third leading cause of death for? a) 24-to-34-year-olds b) 5-to-14-year-olds c) 15-to-24-year-olds d) 34-to-64-year-olds Sol: (c) Q57.Main causes that leads to suicide are? a) Stress, b) Confusion c) Pressure to succeed d) All of the above Sol: (d), all these factors put pressure on the teenage and he/she takes suicide as freedom from all responsibilities. Q58.Our income sources can be? a) Steady and temporary sources b) Fixed sources c) Legacy d) Irregular sources Sol: (a), Steady source of income is salary etc. and temporary sources of income are rewards etc. Q59.Our Savings activities mainly consist of? a) Retirement b) Personal c) Investments d) All of the above Sol: (d), saving includes all the money raising efforts from the present income.

Q60.Developing a Spending Plan needs?

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a) List of your short and long term goals b) List of short-term goals c) List of long-term goals d) None of the above Sol: (a), how much you can spend today depends upon how much you want to spare for your tomorrows needs. Q61.Temporary incomes should be should be omitted from your spending plan because? a) They cannot be spent b) They can be included for fixed reference c) They cannot be included for fixed reference d) None of the above Sol: (c), plan could not be carried out effectively because one is not certain when and how much it will come in. Q62.How expenditure record can help us? a) It is helpful in understanding our current spending b) It is helpful in understanding fixed/variable expenses c) It is helpful in developing a budget d) All of the above Sol: (d), we usually use it keep track of our expenses. Q63. The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States is responsible for ensuring? a) Meat Inspection b) Poultry Products c) Egg Products Inspection d) All of the above Sol: (d), it enforces all the acts regarding the above food categories. Q64.LCPS develops policies and inspection methods and administers programs to protect consumers from? a) Misbranded and economically adulterated meat, poultry, and egg products b) Branded and economically adulterated meat, poultry, and egg products c) Misbranded and economically good meat, poultry, and egg products d) None of the above Sol: (a), LCPS stands for Labeling and consumer protection staff. Q65.What is food irradiation? a) Food exposure to thermal energy b) Food exposure to solar energy c) Food exposure to radiant energy d) Food exposure to mechanical energy Sol: (c), Food irradiation is a process in which products are exposed to radiant energy including gamma rays, electron beams, and x-rays.

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Q66.What are the benefits of food irradiation? a) Reduces the risk of food borne illness b) Increases the risk of food borne illness c) Reduces the risk of physical damage d) Reduce the risk of psychological disturbance Sol: (a), by destroying all the harmful bacteria it makes food safer. Q67.Amino acids are joined n long chain by_ to form different proteins? a) Deptide b) Peptide c) Septide d) Meptide Sol: (b), peptides are the linking units for amino acids to form different proteins. Q68.Foods can be classified on the basis of? a) Taste b) Color c) Nutrients d) All of the above Sol: (c), nutrients are the essentials for providing nourishment to the body, so classification eases our selection criterion. Q69.Overnutrion or undernutrition results in? a) Male nutrition b) Malnutrition c) Healthy body d) None of the above Sol: (b), it is deficiency disorder and is caused by the above two conditions. Q70.Different ways of health includes? a) Physical and psychological status. b) Incidence of morbidity c) Mortality and longevity of life d) All of the above Sol: (d), all account for one and the same reason i.e. health. Q71.Simple proteins are made up of? a) Albumin and globulin b) Albumin c) Globulin d) None of the above Sol: (a), egg is simple example of simple protein and consists of both. Q72.Proteins which neither promote growth nor maintain life?

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a) b) c) d)

Complete protein Partially complete proteins Incomplete protein Derived proteins

Sol: (c), e.g. are Zein and gelatin but nitrogen liberated by these protein can be utilized for the synthesis of amino acids in the body. Q73.In, which form carbohydrates, occur in nature? a) Sugar b) Starches c) Sugar and starches d) Roughage Sol: (c), these are complex organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Q74.Carbohydrate constituent released due to the digestion of carbohydrates in the body is? a) Fructose b) Galactose c) Sucrose d) Maltose Sol: (b), it does not occur free in nature and is a constituent of milk sugar (lactose). Q75.Catalyst is used in the process of hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is? a) Cobalt b) Zinc c) Nickel d) Potassium Sol: (c), hydrogenation is done for converting unsaturated fatty acids to vanaspati gee. Q76.Fatty content of diet should be? a) Low in saturated fat, moderate in total fat b) More of saturated fat c) Low total fat d) None of the above Sol: (a), it will help in reducing problem arising due to cholesterol increase. Q77.BMI stands for? a) Body measure index b) Boy measurement index c) Baby measurement index d) Body mass index Sol: (d), it is used for measuring body to mass ratio. Q78.What is needed to keep bones healthy? a) Calcium

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b) Iron c) Carbohydrates d) Proteins Sol: (a), calcium constitutes the main component of healthy bones. It provides strength to the bones. Q79.Nutrient constituent list can be found generally? a) Back of the packet b) Front of the packet c) Side of the d) Top of the packet Sol: (a), it contains list of all the ingredients and their amount Q80.Temperature zone, which is commonly recognized as danger zone in cooking? a) 0- 100F b) 40- 140F c) 140- 240F d) 100- 140F Sol: (b), it represents the temperature zone most susceptible for bacterial growth. Q81.perishable foods should be? a) Chilled or refrigerated b) Boiled c) Kept as it is d) None of the above Sol: (a) if not chilled it will perish Q82.various sources of folate are? a) Citrus fruit and juice, kiwi fruit, strawberries, cantaloupe b) Cooked dry beans, peas and peanuts, green peas c) Baked white or sweet potato d) None of the above Sol: (b) Q83.Nyctolopia is caused by the deficiency of which vitamin? a) Vitamin D b) Vitamin A c) Vitamin E d) Vitamin K Sol: (b), nyctolopia is commonly known as night blindness and is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin A. Color difference ability of a person is affected. Q84.Goitre may manifest? a) Under activity of thyroid gland b) Over activity of thyroid gland c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above

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Sol: (c), goiter results due the deficiency of iodine. Q85.Why is the wardrobes plan a useful practice? a) To purchase more clothes b) To purchase less clothes c) To manage resources efficiently d) None of the above Sol: (c), it allows time to consider budget and clothing needs. Q. a) b) c) d) Why is one basic neutral color recommended? To add with coordinating garment To save money To have a better utilization of wardrobe with few items All of the above

Sol: (d) Q86.If a garment fits well than? a) When worn the garment is without pulls, gaps, or folds b) When worn the garment is with pulls, gaps, or folds c) When worn the garment shrinks d) When worn the garment is loose Sol: (a), pulls and gaps result from areas that are too small. Folds develop in areas too large from any side. Q87.Textile fabric, which is absent in fabric produced by Spunbond technology? a) Areal textile fibers b) Pearl textile fiber c) Cereal textile fiber d) All of the above Sol: (a), combinations of PP and PE are not used for the production of that type of bonded fabrics. Q90.Fabrics produced by the Meltblown technology are suitable for? a) Filtering materials b) Industrial sorbents c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (c), Q91.Combination of Spunbond type with Meltblown gives? a) SMS b) SSMMS c) SMPS d) Both (a) and (b) Sol: (d), SMS- two Spunbond layers with a Meltblown layer between them and SSMMS- three Spunbond layers with two Meltblown layers between them

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Q92.Name few types of housing option for adult? a) Independent Living b) Assisted Living c) Nursing Homes d) All of the above Sol: (d), beside these continuing care houses are also there for adults living. Q93.Exclusive use of some form of properties is legal in which class of properties? a) Residential class b) Condominium c) Serodinium d) All of the above Sol: (b), it can be easily seen under CC# description of housing rules. Q94.A housing unit built of common wall but detached from other buildings? a) Detached b) Semi-detached c) Row unit d) Apartment Sol: (b), it shares common wall and usually detached from other walls. Q95.Apartment offers commonly? a) Hallways b) Parking lots c) Stairwells d) All of the above Sol: (d), it is a unit lying within a low mid or high-rise building. Q96.In, Which, type of housing slopes to shorter height along the outer walls of house? a) 1 level b) 2 level c) 2 storey d) 1 _ storey Sol: (d), upper level is full height at the center peak but dramatically slopes to shorter height along the outer walls. Q97.which type of housing is separated by small flight of stairs? a) Hi ranch b) Mobile c) Link d) Split Sol: (d) Q98.When there is no variable in determining the housing prices, which are the factors to be considered? a) Price of housing

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b) Quantity of housing c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (c) Q99.Interior design of house depends upon? a) Economic condition of owner b) Taste or owner c) Quality of interior designer d) All of the above Sol: (d), all these factors contribute towards the interior designing quality of a house. Q100.what can be done in order to increase quality of life? a) Research b) Practice c) Providing service d) All of the above Sol: (d), all these are necessary steps for improving the quality standards of ones life. Q101.Youth and adults are becoming increasingly disconnected from their communities as familys experience? a) Increasing mobility b) Distancing from relatives c) Segregation of age levels d) All of the above Sol: (d), all these factors are common in present scenario and effectively hamper the relationship between youth and adults. Q102.Mentoring relationships can be divided into a) Informal b) Formal c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (c), i.e. natural and organizational mentoring respectively Q103.Dual-careers help in raising? a) Funds b) Self reliance c) Risk taking abilities for growth d) All of the above Sol: (d) Q104.CEDAW, regularly reviews the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against a) Women

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b) Child c) Man d) Adult Sol: (a) Q105.Sexual essentialism argues that phenomena such as motherhood and heterosexuality? a) Ecologically driven b) Biologically driven c) Cultural indoctrination d) None of the above Sol: (b) Q106.what is the mission of FHA/HERO type organizations? a) Humanity credit b) Personal growth c) Leadership growth d) All of the above Sol: (d), it aims at promoting all these qualities in an individual through it various programs. Q107.FHA/HERO organization can be joined at which level of graduation? a) First year b) Second year c) Final year d) None of the above Sol:(a), a student with family and consumer science enrollment can join it at first level of graduation or after that.

Q108.The main functions of Community Benefit Planning Process are? a) To assess needs b) Develop and implement collaborative plans c) Allocate resources, and measure impact d) All of the above Sol: (d) Q109.Community advisory committees do? a) Evaluate b) Arrange for recreation c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (a), it evaluates by asking about the community program beneficiary.

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Q110.Primary care practices have intervention has clearly demonstrated outcomes of reducing? a) Alcohol consumption b) Exercise habit c) Eating habit d) None of the above Sol: (a), through awareness Q111.an important complement to community-based prevention and early intervention is? a) Health services utilization b) Food utilization c) Wealth utilization d) All of the above Sol: (a), it has shown substantial reduction in teenage alcohol forming habit. Q112.Low income pregnant women are well served by? a) Hospitals b) Clinics c) Community advisory committees program d) None of the above Sol: (c), they look after their special needs and provides hospitalization. Q113.Gestalt Therapy focuses on? a) Internal tension and blocked energy b) External tension and blocked energy c) Internal tension and unblocked energy d) External tension and unblocked energy Sol: (a), it focuses on stress relief therapy. Q114.Which therapy has been most effective for a variety of psychological problems? a) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy b) Gestalt therapy c) Both (a) and (b) d) None of the above Sol: (a) Q115.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy puts focus on? a) Thoughts b) Beliefs c) Assumptions and behaviors d) All of the above Sol: (d), it aims at relief from negative emotional states. Q116.Specific technique employed in CBT is? a) Cognitive restructuring b) Relaxation exercises

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c) Assertiveness training d) All of the above Sol: (d) Q117.Which therapies are recommended for deaf person? a) Behavioral observation audiometry b) Speech audiometry c) Hearing devices d) All of the above Sol: (d) Q118.Gifted students need counseling classes because? a) For making career choice b) For making food choice c) For making money d) None of the above Sol: (a), it is done for assuring the proper channelization of the energy. Q119.Which law enables the parents to have a right to be considered an equal partner with the school in all decision making of attention deficit hyper-deficient student? a) ADHD b) IDEA c) Both (a) AND (b) d) None of the above Sol: (b), ADHD stands for this deficiency and IDEA is law section name. Q120.Some children with ADHD are unable to perform well in the class because of? a) Hyperactivity or inattentivity b) Hyperactivity c) Attentivity d) None of the above. Sol: (a), so they are mixed up with peer groups for learning us.

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References
1. 2. 3. 4. Craig,G,J : Human development Devedas ,R.P : A Text Book On Child Development Grinder ,R.E : Adolescence Sebald,Hans : Adolescence Asocial Psychological Analysis Prentice 5. Cunning ,A.B : Eat Drink and Grow Clever 6. Davidson,Passenore Brook :Human Nutrition and Dietetics 7. McGrath ,Helen : All About Food, Practical Home Economics 8. Shackelton,Poleman : Practicle Nurse Nutrition Education 9. Gross ,I.H. Crandall,E.W :Text Book of home Science 10. Gupta , S.P : Management Concepts and Environment 11. Nickle Rice Trucker :Management in family living 12. Deulkar ,Durga : Household Textile and Laundry Work 13. Kathariane Paddock Hess :Textile Fibres and Their Use 14. Marjory L.Joseph : Essentials Of Textiles Holt 15. Shackelton ,Poleman : Practical Nurse Nutrition Education 16. American Dietary guideline internet site.

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