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All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by the Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that this is a draft version of a document and will be subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

6

6.1

Walls

General

Walls are defined as being vertical elements whose lengths are four times greater than their thicknesses. Their design does not differ significantly from the design of columns in that axial loads and moments about each axis are assessed and designed for. Generally, the method of designing walls is as follows: 1. Determine design life. 2. Assess actions on the column. 3. Determine which combinations of actions apply. 4. Assess durability requirements and determine concrete strength. 5. Check cover requirements for appropriate fire resistance period. 6. Determine cover for fire, durability and bond. 7. Analyse structure for critical combination moments and axial forces. 8. Check slenderness and determine design moments. 9. Determine area of reinforcement required. 10. Check spacing of bars <BS EN 1990 & NA Table NA 2.1> <BS EN 1991 (10 parts) & UK NAs> <BS EN 1990 & NA Tables NA A1.1 & NA A1.2(B)> <BS 85001> <Approved Document B BS 199212> <BS EN 199211 Cl. 4.4.1> <BS EN 199211 Section 5> <BS EN 199211 Section 5.8> <BS EN 199211 Section 6.1> <BS EN 199211 Sections 8 & 9>

Example 6.2 shows the design of a simple linear shear wall as typically used in medium rise buildings. Similar principals may be applied to walls that are shaped as C, L, T, Z and rectangles in-plan but issues of limiting flange dimensions and shear at corners need be addressed. The example shows only ULS design as, apart from minimum areas of steel to control cracking, SLS issues are generally non-critical in medium-rise structures. For shear walls in high-rise structures, reference should be made to specialist literature (ref to CIRIA R102 Design of shear wall buildings).

6.2

Wall A is 200 mm thick and in addition to providing vertical support to 200 mm flat slabs at roof level and floors 1 to 3, it helps to provide lateral stability to the four storey office block. Assuming the stair itself provides no lateral stability, the wall is to be designed for the critical section at ground and first floor level using BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10). The concrete is C30 / 37. The wall is supported on pad foundations and the ground floor is ground bearing.

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Figure 6.2 Section XX The example is intended to show how a shear wall providing part of the lateral stability in one direction in a medium rise structure might be designed by hand. Axial loads and first order moments are determined. The designs consider slenderness in order to determine design moments, MEd in the plane perpendicular to the wall. The effects of allowing for imperfections are also illustrated.

6.2.1

Actions

kN / m2 qk gk Paving 40 mm Waterproofing Insulation Suspended ceiling Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Variable action 1.00 0.50 0.10 0.15 0.30 5.00 7.05 0.60 0.03 0.30 0.15 0.30 5.00 5.78 2.50 0.03 0.30 0.15 5.00 5.48 2.50 <Section 2.3.2>

Roof

Floor slabs Carpet Raised floor Suspended ceiling Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Variable action Ground floor slab (ground bearing) Carpet Raised floor Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Variable action

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Stairs 150 waist @ 30 Treads 0.15 0.25 25 4 / 2 = Screed 0.05 22 = Plaster Tiles and bedding Variable Cavity wall 102 mm brickwork 50 mm insulation 100 mm blockwork Plaster 2.37 0.02 1.40 0.21 4.00 5.00 0.42 5.42 1.10 <BS EN 199114 & NA> 4.40 1.88 1.10 0.21 1.00 8.59 2.50

Wind

Wk =

Consider whole wall @ level 154.3 13.7 78.7 246.7 100.6 11.6 78.7 41.6 232.5 479.2 232.5 711.7 232.5 944.2 63.6 13.2 76.8 1021.0 29.0 29.0 225.1 60.6 196.1 60.6 135.5 Gk @ level 13.1 1.2 14.3 246.7 43.5 5.0 12.1 60.6 74.9 14.3 Qk

(6.0 / 2 + 2.5 / 2) (4.4 + 1.5 / 2) (7.05 + 0.6) = (6.0 / 2) (1.3 / 2) (7.05 + 0.6) = 3.3 4.4 5.42 = @ above 3rd floor

rd

(6.0 / 2) (1.3 / 2 + 4.4 + 1.5 / 2) (5.78 + 2.5) = (2.5 / 2 1.5 / 2) (5.78 + 2.5) a. b. say 1.1 4.4 (8.59 + 2.5) @ above 2nd floor

2nd floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. @ above 1st floor 1st floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. @ above ground floor Ground floor assume 1 m all round = 2 (1.3 / 2 + 4.40 + 1.5 / 2) (5.48 + 2.5) = 250 mm wall to foundation 4.4 0.2 0.6 25 = @ above foundation

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Gk = 944.2 Gk /m = 944.2 / 4.4 = 214.6 kN / m Qk = n 196.1 where n = 1.1 n / 10 where n =no. of storeys qualifying for reduction* <BS EN 1991-1-1 6.3.1.2(11) & NA> =3 = 1.1 3 / 10 = 0.8 Qk /m = 156.9 / 4.4 = 35.7 kN /m Qk = 0.8 196.1 = 156.9 kN

Consider wind loads, NS

Figure 6.3 Lateral stability against wind loads NS Check relative stiffness of lift shaft and wall A to determine share of load on wall A. Lift shaft: Wall A: ILS IWallA = 2.44 / 12 2.04 / 12 0.2 1.63 / 12 = 1.36 m4 = 0.2 4.43 / 12 = 1.41 m4

Wall A takes = 1.41 / (1.41 + 1.36) = 51% of wind load. Check shear centre to resolve the effects of torsion. Determine centre of reaction of lift shaft 2.4 2.4 = 2.0 2.0 = 1.6 0.2 = Area 5.76 4.00 0.32 1.44 x 1.2 1.2 2.3 Ax 6.912 4.800 0.732 1.38

Includes storeys supporting Categories A (residential & domestic), B (office), C (areas of congregation) and D (shopping) but excludes E (storage and industrial), F (traffic), G (traffic) and H (roofs).

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x Figure 6.4 Lift shaft x = Ax / A = 1.38 / 1.44 = 0.956 m i.e. from face of lift shaft to CoG of shaft = 2.40 0.956 = 1.444 m Shear centre, Cw of walls, from centreline of wall A = or ILS (1.44 + 24.00 + 0.05) ILS + IWallA = 1.36 25.49 1.36 + 1.41 = 12.56 m from wall A

Figure 6.5 Shear centres Note: centre of action and shear centre (almost) coincide. There is no torsion to resolve in the stability system for wind in a NS direction. (Had there been significant torsion this would have been resolved into +/ forces in a couple based on the shear walls.)

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Wall A takes 51% of wind load so characteristic wind load on wall A, Wk = 51% wk Lx = 51% 1.1 30.7 = 17.2 kN / m at just above ground floor, characteristic inplane moment in wall A, Mk = 17.2 1412 / 2 = 1709.8 kNm Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall, characteristic wind load in each end, Wk = 1709.8 / 3.4 = 502.9 kN

For medium rise shear walls there are a number of methods of design. Cl. 9.6.1 suggests strut-andtie (see Section xx). Another method [ref to Concrete Buildings Design manual] is to determine elastic tensile and compression stresses from NEd/bL +/ 6MEd/bL2 and determine reinforcement requirements based on those maxima. The method used here assumes a couple, consisting of 1.0 m of wall either end of the wall. The reinforcement in tension is assumed to act at the centre of one end and the concrete in compression (with a rectangular stress distribution) acts at the centre of the other end. The forces generated by the couple add or subtract from the axial load in the 1 m ends of the walls. The method is useful for typical straight shear walls of say 2.5 to 5.0 m in length.

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Global imperfections can be represented by forces Hi at floor level where Hi = i(Nb Na)

where

i

where

= (1 / 200)hm

where m

= 0.67 2 / l0.5 1.0 = 0.67 2 / 14.70.5 1.0 = 0.67 0.52 1.0 = 0.67 = [0.5(1 + 1 / m)]0.5 = no. of members contributing to the total effect = 25 vertical elements on 4 floors = 100 = 0.71 = 0.67 0.71 / 200 = 0.0024 = axial forces in members below and above = axial load from each level = 30.4 14.5 1.3 2.5 3.6 4.8 = 2 (30.4 + 14.5) = axial load from roof level = 420.3 (7.05 + 0.6) + 89.8 0.9 4.0 = 420.3 (5.78 + 2.5) + 89.8 3.3 4.0 = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN = 420.3 m3 = 89.8 m = 3286.4 + 252.2 kN = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN

Area Perimeter (Na Nb) At 3rd floor (Na Nb) At 2nd floor (Na Nb) At 1st floor (Na Nb)

Mk

HiR = 0.0024 (3286.4 + 252.2) = 7.9 + 0.6 = 8.5 kN Hi3 = Hi2 = Hi1 = 0.0024 (3615.7 + 1050.8) = 8.7 + 2.5 = 11.2 kN

= 8.5 13.2 + 11.2 (9.90 + 6.60 + 3.30) = 112.2 + 221.8 = 334.0 kNm As before, wall A resists 51% of this moment. Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall, GkH = 0.51 334.0 / 3.4 = 50.1 kN i.e. GkH = 50.1 kN / m

As Hi derives mainly from permanent actions its resulting effects are considered as being a permanent action too.

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Figure 6.8 Plan of wall A and location of sections A A and B B Section A A @ 1st floor.

The slab frames into the wall. For the purposes of assessing fixed end moments, the width of slab contributing to the moments in the wall is assumed to be the length of the wall plus distances half way to adjacent supports either end. Therefore, consider the fixed end moment for 1.50/2 + 4.40 + 1.30/ 2 = 5.8 m width of adjoining slab framing into the 4.4 m long shear wall (see Figure 6.8).

Figure 6.10 Subframe section A A @ 1st floor FEM ** Assuming variable action is a leading action: = nl2/8 = 5.8 (1.35 5.78 + 1.5 2.5) 6.02 / 8 = 5.8 11.6 62 / 8 = 302.8 kNm = EI / l = E 4400 2003 / (12 3300) = E 8.88 105 <BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10) & NA>

kw

**

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ks M

= E 5800 2003 / (2 12 6000) = E 3.22 105 = 302.8 8.88 / (2 8.8 + 3.22) = 121.2 kNm = 302.8 0.42 i.e. 121.2 / 4.40 = EI / 2l

Similarly, assuming variable action is an accompanying action: = 5.8 (1.35 5.78 + 0.7 1.5 2.5) 62 / 8 = 5.8 10.4 62 / 8 = 271.4 kNm = 25.9 kNm / m @ ULS 271.4 0.42 / 4.40

Section A A @ ground floor. By inspection not critical nominal moment. Section B B @ 1st. Consider the landing influences half of wall (2.2 m long) and that this section of wall is subject to supporting half the slab considered before at 1st floor level at Section AA.

Figure 6.11 Section B B FEM kw ks M Assuming variable action is a leading action: = 302.8 / 2 = 151.4 kNm =I/l = 2200 2003 / (12 1650) = 8.88 105 = 3.22 105 / 2 = 1.61 105 = 151.4 8.88 / (2 8.88 + 1.61) = 151.4 0.46 = 69.6 kNm i.e. 63.8 / 2.2

Similarly, assuming variable action is an accompanying action: = 5.8 (1.35 5.78 + 0.7 1.5 2.5) 62 / 8 = 5.8 10.4 62 / 8 = 271.4 kNm = 28.4 kNm / m @ ULS 271.4 0.46 / (2 2.2)

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<Concise Table 5.1> Effective length, l0 = 0.75 (3300 200) = 2325 <5.8.3.2(1)> = 3.46 l0 / h = 3.46 2325 / 200 = 40.2 <5.8.3.1(1), Limiting slenderness, lim = 20 ABC / n0.5 Exp. (5.13N)> where A = 0.7 B = 1.1 C = 1.7 rm where = M01 / M02 rm = say = 0.25 = 1.95 n = NEd / Acfd where NEd = 214.6 1.25 + 31.2 1.5 0.7 + 502.9 1.5 + 98.2 1.5 0.7 = 268.3 + 32.8 + 754.4 + 103.1 = 1158.6 kN Acfd = 200 1000 0.85 30 / 1.5 = 3400 kN n = 0.34 lim = 20 0.7 1.1 1.95 / 0.340.5 = 51.5 As < lim wall is not slender and no secondary moments

At ground to 1st consider maxima. Vertical loads Vertical load due to in-plane bending and wind Gk = 214.6 kN / m Qk = 35.7 kN / m

Wk = 502.9 kN / m Vertical load due to in-plane bending and imperfections GkH = 50.1 kN / m Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as leading action M = 31.6 kN / m @ ULS Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as accompanying action M = 28.4 kN / m @ ULS

a) At ULS, for maximum axial load, Wk is leading variable action. NEd = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk1 + 1.50Qki = 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 502.9 + 1.5 0.7 35.7 = 357.3 + 754.4 + 37.5 = 1149.2 kN / m MEd = M + eiNEd e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis = 28.4 kNm / m = l0 / 400 = 2325 / 400 = 5.8 mm ei e0 = h / 30 20 mm = 20 mm MEd = 28.4 + 0.0058 1149.2.1 0.020 1149.2 = 28.4 + 6.7 23.0 = 35.1 kNm/m

<5.8.8.2(1) 6.1.4>

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b) At ULS, for minimum axial load, Wk is leading variable action. NEd = 1.0 214.6 1.35 50.1 1.5 502.9 + 0 35.7 = 607.4 kN / m (tension) MEd = 28.4 + 0.0058 607.4 0.020 602.4 = 28.4 + 3.5 23.0 = 31.9 kNm / m c) At ULS, for maximum out of plane bending assuming Qk is leading variable action. NEd = 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 35.7 + 1.5 0.5 502.9 = 357.3 + 53.6 + 377.2 = 788.1 kN / m MEd = 31.6 + 0.0058 788.1 0.020 788.1 = 31.6 + 4.6 15.8 = 36.2 kNm / m or NEd = 1.0 214.6 1.35 50.1 0 31.2 1.5 0.5 502.9 = 214.6 67.6 0 377.2 = 230.2 kN / m (tension) MEd = 31.6 + 0.0058 230.2 = 33.0 kNm / m Consolidate c) into a) and b) to consider two load cases: NEd = 1149.4 kN / m, MEd = 36.2 kN / m (out of plane) and NEd = 607.4 kN / m, MEd = 36.2 kN / m (out of plane)

cnom = cmin + cdev where = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur]] cmin where = diameter of bar = 20 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers cmin,b = for XC1 = 15 mm cmin,dur cdev = 10 mm 25 mm to lacers cnom = 15 + 10 = (35 mm to vertical bars) <Exp. (4.1)>

Assuming 1 hour fire resistance required for, as a worst case, fi = 0.7 and fire on both sides. Min. thickness = 140 mm, min. axis distance = 10 mm i.e. not critical <BS EN 199212: Table 5.4>

For compressive load: d2 / h = (25 + 10 + 16 / 2) / 200 = 0.215 interpolate between charts 15.5d and 15.5e for NEd / bhfck MEd / bh2fck

= 1149.4 103 / (200 1000 30) = 0.192 = 36.2 106 / (2002 1000 30) = 0.030

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= 0 minimum area of reinforcement required = 0.002 Ac = 0.002 200 1000 = 400 mm2 / m = 200 mm2 / m each face max. 400 mm cc, min. 12 mm diameter Try T12 @ 400

<9.6.2(3),SMDSC>

Figure 6.12 Stresses and strains in wall subject to tension and out of plane moment For tensile load and moment: Working from first principles, referring to Figure 6.12 and ignoring contribution from concrete in tension NEd = (st1 + st2) As / 2 and MEd = (st1 st2) As / 2 (d d2) so st1 + st2 = 2NEd / As and st1 st2 = 2MEd / [(d d2)As] = 2NEd / As + 2MEd / [(d d2)As] 2st1 As = (NEd / st1) + MEd / (d d2)st1 st1 = fyk / m = 500 / 1.15 = 434.8 As = 607.4 103 / 434.8 + 36.2 106 / [(157 43) 434.8] = 2127 mm2 st2 = 2NEd / As st1 = 571.7 434.8 = 136 MPa By inspection all concrete is in tension zone and may be ignored. Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc both sides for at least 1 m each end of wall (2412 mm2)

= 1397 + 730

As, hmin = 0.001As or 25% As vert = 200 mm2 or 0.25 2036 = 509 mm2 / m requires 254 mm2 / m each side Spacing 400 mm Links not required Use H10 @ 300 (262 mm2 / m) both sides. <9.6.3(1) & NA>

<9.6.3(2)> <9.6.4(1)>

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Permanent and variable (see Section6.2.2) <Section 6.2.2> = 1021.0 / 4.4 = 232.0 kN / m Gk Qk = 225.1 / 4.4 = 51.2 kN / m <Section 6.2.4> Wind Mk = 17.2 14.1 [14.1 / 2 + 0.6] = 1855.3 kN / m Resolved into couple 1 m either end of wall Wkw = 1855.3 / 3.4 = +/- 545.7 kN / m <Section 6.2.5> Global imperfections(see Section 6.2.5) Mk = 8.5 13.8 + 11.2 (10.5 + 7.2 + 3.9 + 0.6) = 365.9 kNm GkH = 365.9 0.51 / 3.4 = 54.9 kN / m At ULS for maximum axial tension Wk is lead variable action: NEd = 1.0 232.0 1.35 54.9 1.5 545.7 + 0 51.2 = 660.7 kN / m MEd <6.1.4> = nominal = e2NEd = 0.02 660.7 = 13.2 kNm / m As before NEd MEd As = + fyk / m (d d2)fyk / m = 660.7 103 / 434.8 + 13.2 106 / [(157 43) 434.8] = 1520 + 266 = 1786 mm2 i.e. not critical Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc b.s. for at least 1 m either end of wall.

Assume base extends 0.3 m beyond either end of wall A, i.e. is 5.0 m long and is 1.2 m wide by 0.9 m deep Overturning moments Wind (see Figure 6.6) Mk = 0.51 x 17.2 14.1 [14.1 / 2 + 1.5] = 1057.5 Global imperfections (see Figure 6.7) Mk = 0.51 x [8.5 14.7 + 11.2 (11.4 + 8.1 + 4.8 + 1.5)] = 0.51 x [125.0 + 11.2 25.8] = 0.51 x 414.0 = 211 kNm Restoring moment Mk = (1021.0 + 5.0 x 1.2 x 0.9 x 25 + 0 x 225.1 ) x (0.3 + 2.2) = 2890 kNm At ULS of EQU, Overturning moment = fn(Q,1Qk1 + G,supGk) = 1.5 x 1057.5 + 1.1 x 211.0 = 1818.4 kNm Restoring moment = fn(G,infGk) = 0.9 x 2890 = 2601 kNm i.e. > 1818.4 kNm <BS EN 1990 Table A1.2(A) & NA> <BS EN 1990 Table A1.2(A) & NA> OK <BS EN 1990 Table A1.2(A) & NA>

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