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FISHMEAL PRACTICES Good Aquaculture Manufacturing Practices by Food and Agriculture Organization (of the United Nations), FAO

Recently, the FAO has produced technical guidelines for good aquaculture manufacturing practices (FAO 2001b), providing detailed support for Article 9 of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) on the selection and use of feeds and additives. The guidelines deal with the manufacture of industrially compounded aquafeeds, and cover a range of issues, including ingredient purchasing, processing, bulk storage, handling, monitoring, and documentation (as well as employee training and safety, customer relations, and the delivery of finished goods to the farmer. The main objective of the guidelines is to encourage adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices during the procurement, handling, storage, processing and distribution of compound aquaculture feeds or any aquafeeds for farmed finfish and crustaceans. The guidelines by FAO (2001b) included the following points: Feed millers must recognize their responsibility to provide high-quality products to their customers, and their intent should be to provide products of consistent quality by implementing sound quality control procedures. Ensuring quality is a direct responsibility of all feed mill employees, and each will be held accountable for following accepted procedures designed to implement effective Good Manufacturing Practices for the production of manufactured aquaculture feeds. Good aquafeeds can be made only from high-quality feed ingredients; thus, inferior, spoiled, or otherwise damaged or contaminated ingredients must be avoided. The protection of both human and animal health is also prime considerations in the production of effective cost-effective aquafeeds. Training and technical assistance are vital to allow both new and experienced employees to handle tasks and solve problems in a manner that ensures the manufacture of consistently high quality feed products. Each mill employee should expend the effort necessary to implement this program because quality assurance is vital to the effectiveness of the aquafeeds being manufactured and to the companys success.

It is also the feed millers responsibility to teach the farmer, through label instructions and technical literature and instruction, the correct methods of handling and applying aquafeeds for particular species and farming systems.

The feed manufacturer should clearly state its commitment to its customers and employees to implement good manufacturing practices and carry out an on-going program to improve feed product performance and minimize environmental impacts.

To the extent practicable, the feed manufacturer should work with farmers not only to enhance production but also to improve aquacultural practices that may have adverse environmental or other impacts.

At present no guidelines exist concerning good on-farm feed manufacturing practice or concerning good on-farm feed management practices. It is important to stress the important role and responsibility of the shrimp feed manufacturer concerning the provision of adequate information and technical support to their customers (i.e. the farmers) concerning on-farm feed management and use, including adequate record keeping with regard to the latter.

Best Agriculture Practices (BAP) Standard a. Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) Based on BAP, (2011) the objective of the standard is to promote responsible practices across the aquaculture industry. The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) coordinates the development of Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) certification standards for hatcheries, farms, processing facilities and feed mills. The Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards address environmental and social responsibility, animal welfare, food safety and traceability in a voluntary certification program for aquaculture facilities. Best Aquaculture Practices BAP certification defines the most important elements of responsible aquaculture and provides quantitative guidelines by which to evaluate adherence to those practices. The BAP program outlines standards for each type of facility, from hatchery and feed mill to farm to processing plant. It currently certifies shrimp farms and hatcheries; salmon, tilapia, channel catfish and Pangasius farms; seafood processing plants and feed mills. To be certified as operating according to the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards, aquaculture facilities must first apply to the Best Aquaculture Practices program of Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) and provide administrative and operational data. Individual facilities then undergo an audit by a representative of an ISO-accredited certification body for demonstrated compliance with the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards. The audit process includes physical inspection, documentation reviews, personnel interviews and results from laboratory analyses. The timing for annual Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) audits is decided by the auditor in conjunction with facility management. Where a company owns several farms in one area, audits are normally coordinated to make most efficient use of the auditors time and minimize inconvenience to the facility.

b. Company in Malaysia complying practices One of fishmeal factory in Malaysia complies to Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standard to achieve an established high quality product for animal feed. The name of the company was Charoen Pokphand Foods (M) Sdn. Bhd. This company was incorporated in 1974 primarily in the Poultry Integration Industry and its now one of the market leaders of the sector and fully expanding their productivity in Aquatic Feed, Aquatic Breeding, Aquatic Farming, Aquatic Foods and Aquatic Probiotic across the country. Their main office is located in Kuala Lumpur and we have branches in Selangor, Perak, Pulau Pinang, Johor, Sabah and Sarawak. This company had achieve as The Best Aquaculture Practices certificate in Port Klang Processing Plant (for Aquatic food), Sedili Farm (for Aquatic farming), Mersing Hatchery and Sedli Hatchery (for Aquatic breeding). The logo of BAP certificate is shown as below:

Figure 1.0 Best Aquaculture Practices certificate

Identification of Feeding Practices that Reduce Environmental Impacts

Replacement of fish meal and fish oil in shrimp aquafeeds with alternative more sustainable feedgrade plant/animal protein and lipid sources. Replacement of fresh food organisms in aquafeeds with processed feed materials and processed agricultural by-products. Development of improved fish meal formulation programs and on-farm feed management practices that take advantage of natural food availability, and by so doing reduce existing dietary nutrient levels and consequent feed wastage.

Development of improved feed manufacturing technology to produce more water-stable fish meals, and minimizes nutrient loss through leaching and feed disintegration. Development of technical guidelines for good on-farm feed manufacturing practices and feed management practices for use by small-scale and large-scale producers.

REFERENCES 1. Salmon Farms : Best Aquaculture Practices, Certification Standards and Guidelines., (2011). 2. C.P. Group. Citing Websites. Retrieved by December 12, from http://aqua.cpmalaysia.com/3/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=169&bID=151&Itemid =96 . 3. FAO 2001b. Good Aquaculture feed Manufacturing Practice. FAO Technical Guidelines for
Responsible Fisheries No. 5.1. Rome, FAO, 50p.

4. Tacon, A.G.J. 2002. Thematic Review of Feeds and Feed Management Practices in Shrimp
Aquaculture. Report prepared under the World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. Pp.33-35.