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Zach Kirschenbaum 16.

1: The Expansion of Education The Growth of Public Schools A democratic society functions the best when its citizens are literate, meaning that they are able to read and write. For some Americans, literacy was a necessary first step toward economic and social status. In 1870, only 2% of 17 year olds got their diploma. By 1910, this rose to 8.6%. In the early 1900s, half of the nations children (ages 6-14) attended one-room schoolhouses with one teacher for all ages. The classic Little House novels, These Happy Golden Years, and McGuffey Readers were all texts about early schooling. Immigrants and Education Many immigrants liked public education because they felt that it helped assimilate to, or become apart to, the American culture. They taught students American values, such as thrift, patriotism, and hard work. Also, they taught students games such as baseball. Others disliked public educations because they felt that it would result in loss of heritage. As a result, they sent their kids to private, religious schools. Public education for children was not all that equal. Mexican immigrants in parts of the southwest and Asians in California were sent to separate schools that received less funding. Also, the Native Americans barely received any education. Higher Education Expands Between 1880-1900, more than 150 new American colleges and universities opened. Wealthy philanthropists donated a lot of money to fund higher education. Examples of these people are Leland Stanford, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie. There were some colleges opened especially for women (i.e. Vassar). In addition to these, there were some mens colleges that opened their own womens college (i.e. Radcliffe). Additionally, Boston University was famous for allowing not only female students, but also allowed the first female professor. For African Americans, only few colleges accepted them. By 1900, about 2000 African Americans graduated from colleges. Very few black women went to college because they were a double stereotype.

Different perspectives on African American Education Booker T. Washington: - Former slave that developed an institution in Tuskegee, Alabama - Prepared students to succeed in violent environments - In his 1895 The Atlanta Exposition speech, he said that African Americans did jobs that whites needed them to do in order to prove their equality W.E.B. Du Bois: - Led the next generation ~ first African American to he a PhD from Harvard - Thought that African Americans should get the best available education - Fight for your rights! - In 1905, helped found the Niagara Movement, a group of African Americans that called for full civil liberties, an end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood - One of the NAACP directors