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U.S.

HISTORY STUDY GUIDE

Semester 1

Three Cultures 1. The First Americans A. Asian Migration-Bering Strait Land Bridge -Bering Strait 1. Hunting & Food Gathering 2. Importance of the development of agriculture B. Empires of Central & South America (Olmec, Maya, Aztecs, Inca) C. North American Tribes 1. Desert-Hohokan, Anasazi, Pueblo 2. Mound Builders-Adena, Hopewell, Mississippian 3. Northwest Coast-Kwakiuti 4. Eastern Woodlands-Iroquois D. Native-American Culture 1. Trading Networks 2. Land Use 3. Religious Beliefs 4. Social Organizations (kinship & division of labor) 2. West African Civilizations-Late 15th Century A. Sahara Highway B. Spread of Islam C. Impact of Portuguese Trade

D. West African Kingdoms-Songhai, Benin, Kongo E. West African Culture 1. Family & Government 2. Religion 3. Economic Livelihoods 3. European Society-Late 15th Century A. Social Hierarchy 1. Feudal Society (Nobility & Peasantry) 2. Emergence of the bourgeoisie 3. Nuclear Family B. Impact of the Roman Catholic Church 1. Spread of Christianity 2. Crusades to the Holy Land-11th-13th Century 3. Reformation C. Changes in Europe 1. Growth of Commerce 2. Population Growth 3. Rise of Nation States (Portugal, Spain, England, France) 4. The Renaissance D. Geographic Revolution 1. Sailing Technology (compass & astrolabe) 2. Prince Henry the Navigator 4. Explorations of Christopher Columbus to the New World

A. Original Objective B. Spanish Crown Objectives (Gold, Land, & Religion) & Beginning of Spanish Colonization of the New World C. Impact on Native-Americans D. Introduction of African Slave Labor E. Impact on Europe F. Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 - Line of Demarcation G. The Columbian Exchange

Spainish & English Colonialization 1. Spanish Empire in the New World A. conquistadores 1. Hernando Cortes - Defeat of the Aztecs, 1519-1521 2. Francisco Pizarro - Defeat of the Incas, 1530-1533 B. Spanish Exploration of Central & North America Balboa, Ponce de Leon, De Soto, Vasquez de Coronado, Cabrillo C. Impact of Magellans Circumnavigation, 1519-1522 D. Impact of Spains New World Empire 1. Spanish Pattern of Conquest -reconquista peninsulares, creoles,and mestizo class 2. Encomienda System 3. Congregaciones 4. Indian Resistance - Popes Rebellion, 1680-1694

2. Early English Settlement in North America A. Exploration (John Cabot, 1497-1498 & Francis Drake, 1577-1580) B. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 1. Phillip IIs hatred of England (Sea Dogs & Aid to Dutch Rebels) 2. Defeat of the Spanish Invasion Fleet, 1588 & Impact on England C. Settlement of Southern Colonies 1. Sir Walter Raleighs Lost Colony, 1585-1590 2. Jamestown, 1607 a. Virginia joint-stock company b. Early Problems & importance of John Smith c. Emergence of Tobacco -cash crop d. System of Labor (Headright System & indentured servants) Introduction of African labor, 1619 e. Indian Resistance f. Virginia - Royal Colony, 1624 g. Development of Democracy 1. voting rights - free landowning men 2. House of Burgesses, 1619 1. Conflict Between East & West - Bacons Rebellion, 1676 2. Carolinas Charleston, 1663 3. Georgia James Oglethorpe, 1732/33 3. New England Colonies A. Impact of the Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther & John Calvin) and English Reformation - King Henry VIII

B. Plymouth Colony, 1620 1. Separatists 2. Mayflower Compact 3. Puritans and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630 - City Upon a Hill & Holy Commonwealth - Puritan Work Ethic & Importance of the Family - Dissent in Massachusetts (Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson) - Indian Resistance (Pequot War, 1637 & King Philips War, 1675) 4. New Hampshire, 1623, Connecticut, 1636, and Rhode Island, 1636 4. Settlement of the Middle Colonies A. Dutch Settlement of New Netherland B. English Takeover of New York and New Jersey, 1664 C. Pennsylvania - William Penns Holy Experiment - Religious Tolerance - Treatment of Native-Americans D. Delaware, 1638

American Economic & Social Growth 1. British Trade Policy, 17th and 18th Century A. Mercantilism B. Balance of Trade C. Navigation Acts 1. 1651-Trade within the empire must be conducted on British ships

2. 1660-Enumerated Goods (Cash Crops) could only be exported to England 3. 1663-All trade between the British North American Colonies & Europe required to be conducted through Great Britain D. Molasses Act, 1733 & Salutary Neglect 2. Dominion of New England, 1685-1688 3. Glorious Revolution, 1688 4. British American Colonial Government, 17th and 18th Century A. British Crown, Privy Council, & Board of Trade B. Royal Governor & Council of Advisors C. Colonial Legislative Bodies & power of the purse 5. Emergence of a Southern Agricultural Economy A. Cash Crops (tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo, naval stores) B. Indentured Servants C. Development of the Plantation System C. Introduction of African Slave Labor 1. Triangular Trade 2. Middle Passage 3. Treatment of African Slaves 4. Resistance to Slavery a. Passive Resistance b. Stono Rebellion, 1739 6. Trade & Commerce in the North, 17th and 18th Century A. Diversified Economy (fishing, fur trade, naval stores, livestock & grain production)

B. Growth of Urban Areas (Seaports) C. Influx of Immigration D. Slavery in the Middle & New England colonies 7. Impact of the Enlightenment on the American Colonies, 18th Century A. Science and knowledge B. Political Philosophy (English & French Political Philosophers) 8. Impact of the Great Awakening on the American Colonies, 1730s-1750s (Americans) A. Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God B. George Whitfield 9. Benjamin Franklins Albany Plan of Union, 1754 A. Franklins Plan of Union Proposal (Trade and Defense concerns) B. Historical significance (First historical attempt to unify colonial trade & defense policies) 10. Mason-Dixon Line, 1760 (Settlement of boundary dispute between Maryland & Pennsylvania) 11. European Conflict over the North American Colonies A. King Williams War, 1689-1697 B. Queen Annes War, 1702-1713 C. King Georges War, 1744-1748 D. French & Indian War, 1754-1763 1. Outbreak of War in North American, 1754 2. Early French Victories, 1754-1757 3. Change in British Leadership & Victory 4. Treaty of Paris, 1763

1760s The Coming Revolution 1. Impact of the French & Indian War on the American Colonies A. British Post-war Problems 1. Administration of New North American Colonial Territories (Canada & Florida) 2. War Debts 3. Costs of defending the extended empire 4. Pontiacs Rebellion, 1763 & Proclamation of 1763 B. Change in British Colonial Policy 1. Sugar Act, 1764 - indirect tax 2. Currency Act, 1764 3. Quartering Act, 1764 2. Stamp Act, 1765-1766 A. Direct tax imposed without colonial consent B. Colonial Resistance 1. Formation of Sons of Liberty Groups 2. Stamp Act Congress, October, 1765 3. Non-importation Agreements C. Repeal, 1766 & Declaratory Act 3. Townshend Acts, 1767 A. Indirect tax on everyday household items B. writs of assistance C. Colonial opposition

D. Boston Massacre, March, 1770 E. Repeal (Tea Tax -symbol of royal authority) 4. Gaspee Incident, 1772 5. Formation of Committees of Correspondence 6. Tea Act, 1773 A. British East India Co. -monopoly on colonial tea trade B. Colonial opposition C. Boston Tea Party, December, 1773 D. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts), 1774 1. Port of Boston Act 2. Administration of Justice Act 3. Massachusetts Government Act 4. Quartering Act 5. Quebec Act 7. 1st Continental Congress, September, 1774 A. 12 of 13 colonies attended B. Proclamation of British Rights & demanded repeal of the Coercive Acts C. Economic Sanctions 1. non-importation agreements 2. Export ban effective January 1, 1775 D. Creation of committees of safety and inspection E. Agreed to meet again in may, 1775 to discuss future action 8. Response by King George III and Parliament, 1775

9. Beginning of the American Revolution, April 19, 1775 A. British objectives at Lexington & Concord B. Skirmish on Lexington Green & at Concord North Bridge C. British & American Casualties 10. Ethan Allen -Green Mountain Boys & capture of Ft. Ticonderoga, May, 1775

American Revolution 1. Impact of the French & Indian War on the American Colonies A. British Post-war Problems 1. Administration of New North American Colonial Territories (Canada & Florida) 2. War Debts 3. Costs of defending the extended empire 4. Pontiacs Rebellion, 1763 & Proclamation of 1763 B. Change in British Colonial Policy 1. Sugar Act, 1764 - indirect tax 2. Currency Act, 1764 3. Quartering Act, 1764 2. Stamp Act, 1765-1766 A. Direct tax imposed without colonial consent B. Colonial Resistance 1. Formation of Sons of Liberty Groups 2. Stamp Act Congress, October, 1765

3. Nonimportation Agreements C. Repeal, 1766 & Declaratory Act 3. Townshend Acts, 1767 A. Indirect tax on everyday household items B. writs of assistance C. Colonial opposition D. Boston Massacre, March, 1770 E. Repeal (Tea Tax -symbol of royal authority) 4. Gaspee Incident, 1772 5. Formation of Committees of Correspondence 6. Tea Act, 1773 A. British East India Co. -monopoly on colonial tea trade B. Colonial opposition C. Boston Tea Party, December, 1773 D. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts), 1774 1. Port of Boston Act 2. Administration of Justice Act 3. Massachusetts Government Act 4. Quartering Act 5. Quebec Act 7. 1st Continental Congress, September, 1774 A. 12 of 13 colonies attended B. Proclamation of British Rights & demanded repeal of the Coercive Acts

C. Economic Sanctions 1. nonimportation agreements 2. Export ban effective January 1, 1775 D. Creation of committees of safety and inspection E. Agreed to meet again in may, 1775 to discuss future action 8. Response by King George III and Parliament, 1775 9. Beginning of the American Revolution, April 19, 1775 A. British objectives at Lexington & Concord B. Skirmish on Lexington Green & at Concord North Bridge C. British & American Casualties 10. Ethan Allen -Green Mountain Boys & capture of Ft. Ticonderoga, May, 1775 11. Meeting of the 2nd Continental Congress, May, 1775 A. All 13 colonies attended with different views toward independence B. Formation of the Continental Army, June, 1775 (Gen. Washington-Commander) C. Requests for foreign assistance (France, Spain, Holland) D. Olive Branch Petition, July, 1775 12. Battle of Bunker Hill, June, 1775 & impact on the war 13. Invasion of Canada, Aug. - Dec. 1775 14. Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, February, 1776 A. Defeat of North Carolina Loyalists B. Lexington & Concord of the South 15. British Evacuation from Boston, March, 1776 16. Declaration of Independence, 1776

A. Thomas Paines Common Sense B. Lees Resolution, June, 1776 C. Draft Committee of Five D. Adoption of the document, July 4, 1776 E. Patriots/Whigs vs Loyalists/Tories F. American/British Advantages & Disadvantages in fighting the war G. Financing the war 1. Domestic and Foreign Loans 2. Printing of Continental Dollars - inflation 17. New York Campaign, Summer-Fall, 1776 Washingtons Defeats (Battles of Long Island, Manhattan, White Plains) 18. Washingtons Victories (Trenton, Dec.1776, Princeton, Jan. 1777) 19. 1777: Year of Decision A. Saratoga Campaign 1. British plan 2. Defeat of Lt. Col. St. Leger - Battle of Oriskany, Aug. 1777 3. Gen. Burgoynes surrender of 5,000 British Army, Oct. 1777 B. Gen. Howes Capture of Philadelphia 1. Battle of Brandywine Creek, Sept. 1777 2. Battle of Germantown, Oct. 1777 C. British offer to repeal the Intolerable Acts D. French Alliance, February, 1778 20. Washingtons Winter Camp, Valley Forge, 1777-78

A. Problems of Washingtons Army B. Impact of Baron von Steuben - Drillmaster 21. Battle of Monmouth Courthouse, June, 1778 & Shift in British War Strategy 22. War in the South, 1778-1781 A. Capture of Savannah, Dec. 1778 & American/French effort to recapture, 1779 B. Capture of Charleston, May, 1780 (Loss of 5,000 American Army) C. Battle of Camden, August, 1780 (Defeat of U.S. Gen. Gates) D. Francis Marion (Swamp Fox) - Guerrilla Warfare in Coastal South Carolina E. Battle of Kings Mountain, October, 1780 (Defeat of 1,000 Loyalists) F. Battle of Cowpens, January, 1781 G. Battle of Guilford Courthouse, March, 1781 (Cornwallis lost 1/3 of his army) H. Battle of Yorktown, October, 1781 & impact on the war 23. War in the Northwest Territories, 1778-1779 (Gen. George Roger Clark) 24. War at Sea A. American Naval victories (Capt. John Paul Jones) B. Use of Privateers 25. Teason of Gen. Benedict Arnold 26. End of the American Revolution A. Cease Fire (Armistice) and Negotiations, 1782 B. Treaty of Paris, Sept. 1783

KEY TERMS: 1. Treaty of Paris, 1763

2. Pontiacs Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763 3. Sugar Act, 1764 4. Stamp Act and Repeal, 1765-1766 5. Samuel Adams 6. Sons of Liberty 7. nonimportation agreements 8. Declaratory Act, 1766 9. Townshend Acts, 1767 10. writs of assistance 11. Liberty Incident, June, 1768 12. Boston Massacre, March, 1770 13. Committees of Correspondence 14. Gaspee Incident, 1772 15. Tea Act, 1773 and Boston Tea Party 16. King George III 17. Intolerable Acts, 1774 18. martial law 19. 1st Continental Congress, Sept. 1774 20. Minutemen 21. Skirmish at Lexington & Concord, April 19, 1775 22. Ethan Allen and the Capture of Ft. Ticonderoga, May, 1775 23. 2nd Continental Congress 24. Gen. George Washington and the Continental Army, June, 1775

25. Battle of Bunker Hill, June, 1775 26. Olive Branch Petition, July, 1775 27. Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, Feb. 1776 28. Thomas Paines Common Sense 29. Lees Resolution, June 7, 1776 30. Thomas Jefferson 31. John Locke 32. Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776 33. Loyalists vs Patriots 34. Gen. William Howes New York Campaign, Summer-Fall, 1776 35. Battle of Trenton, & Battle of Princeton, Dec. 1776-Jan. 1777 36. Battle of Brandywine Creek & Battle of Germantown, Sept.-Oct. 1777 37. Battle of Saratoga, Oct. 1777 38. Valley Forge 39. French Alliance, Feb. 1777 40. Battle of Monmouth Courthouse, June, 1778 41. inflation 42. profiteering 43. privateers 44. John Paul Jones 45. Friedrich von Steuben 46. Marquis de Lafayette 47. Gen. Charles Cornwallis and the British Southern Campaign, 1778-1781

48. Francis Marion the Swamp Fox and guerrilla war 49. Battle of Yorktown, Oct. 1781 50. Treaty of Paris, Sept. 1783 51. egalitarianism

Articles of Confederation 1. Early American Government, 1776-1781 A. 2nd Continental Congress 1. Legislative Branch (No Executive or Judicial) 2. Government by committee B. Formation of State Governments, 1776 1. Principle of Separation of Power (Legislative, Executive, Judicial Branches) 2. Protection of civil liberties 3. Separation of church and state 2. Articles of Confederation, 1781-1789 A. John Dickinsons Plan and adoption by the Congress, Nov., 1777 1. Unicameral Legislative body (No Executive or Judicial Branches) 2. 2 to 7 delegates from each state with one vote per state 3. 9 of 13 states needed to approve laws 4. Amendments needed all 13 states to ratify the proposal 5. Powers of the central government

a. Regulate weights & measures b. Create post offices c. Borrow & coin money d. Direct foreign policy e. Declare war & make peace treaties f. Build & equip a navy g. Solicit from each of the states recruits & money for an army 6. Maryland Western Land Controversy & ratification, 1781 B. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1. Structure of government & difficulty in passing laws or amending the Articles 2. Lack of power to regulate finances 3. Lack of power to regulate trade 4. Lack of power to enforce treaties 5. Lack of military power 3. Post-Revolutionary War Problems A. Foreign Policy Problems 1. British military outposts in the Northwest Territory 2. Right of Deposit with the Spanish in New Orleans B. National & State Debts C. Post-war Depression & ShaysRebellion, 1786 4. Western Lands (Settlement & Government) A. Land Ordinance of 1785

1. Township (6 mile X 6 mile tracts) 2. Sections (1 square mile-640 acres) 3. Section #16 Public Education (4 others-Government use) 4. 31 Sections for public sale (Not less than $1.00 per acre) 5. Advantages (Defense, Land Titles, Debt Payment) B. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 1. Territorial governor & 3 circuit judges appointed by Congress 2. 5,000 Free Males of Voting Age-Territorial Legislature & non-voting delegate can represent the territory in the Congress 3. 60,000 Free Inhabitants-Application for state admission 4. Religious freedom, trial rights guaranteed 5. Slavery Prohibited & encouraged public education and fair treatment of Indians 5. Annapolis Convention, Sept. 1786 A. Five of 13 states meet to discuss trade issues B. Call for convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787 to discuss possible amendments to the Articles of Confederation 6. Philadelphia Constitutional Convention, May-Sept. 1787 A. Original Purpose B. 12 of 13 states send delegates (Rhode Island refuses) C. Major compromises 1. Great Compromise a. Virginia Plan - Large states b. New Jersey Plan - Small states

c. Connecticut Compromise, Art. I, Sec. 1 2. Three-Fifths Compromise, Art. I, Sec. 2, Cl. 3 3. Commerce Compromise, Art. I, Sec. 8, Cl. 3 4. Slave Trade Compromise. Art. I, Sec. 9, Cl. 1 7. Fundamental Principles of Government under the Constitution A. Federalism 1. Delegated Powers-Art. I, Sec. 8 2. Reserved Powers-10th Amendment 3. Concurrent Powers & the Supremacy Clause, Art. VI, Cl. 2 B. Separation of Powers 1. Three Branches of Government a. Legislative Branch - Article I b. Executive Branch - Article II c. Judicial Branch - Article III 2. System of Checks & Balances C. Protection of Civil Liberties 1. writ of habeas corpus - Art. I, Sec. 9, Cl. 2 2. bills of attainder - Art. I, Sec. 9, Cl. 3 1. ex post facto laws Art. I, Sec. 9, Cl. 3 2. trial by jury, Art. III, Sec. 2, Cl. 3 3. treason, Art. I, Sec. 3, Cl. 1 6. Bill of Rights, 1789, 1791 D. Adaptability of the Constitution 1. Congressional Acts (Art. I, Sec. 8, Cl. 18)

2. Presidential Executive Orders 3. U.S. Supreme Court - Power of Judicial Review 4. Amendment Process 5. Unwritten Constitution 8. Ratification of the U.S. Constitution, 1787-1790 A. Federalists vs Antifederalists B. Controversy in Virginia - Bill of Rights C. Debate in New York - Federalist Papers 9. Election of 1788 A. Election for the 1st Congress (House & Senate) B. Presidential Election - Electoral College System

Washington/Adams/Jefferson 1. Beginnings of the New Government A. Domestic & Foreign Problems B. Actions of the 1st Congress 1. Bill of Rights, 1789 (1st - 10th Amendments) 2. Judiciary Act, 1789 a. U.S. Supreme Court (5 Associate & 1 Chief Justice) b. U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ( 3) c. U.S. District Courts (13) d. Principle of Judicial Review with State Courts 3. Revenue Tariff, 1789 (5% import duty)

4. Northwest Ordinance (2nd Time) C. Washingtons Cabinet 1. Secretary of State - Thomas Jefferson 2. Secretary of the Treasury - Alexander Hamilton 3. Secretary of War - Henry Knox 4. Attorney General - Edmund Randolph 5. Postmaster General - Samuel Osgood 2. Hamiltons Financial Plan A. Repayment of Debt 1. Foreign Debt ($12 million - France, Spain, Holland) 2. Domestic Debt ($44 million - Continental Bonds & Dollars) 3. State Debts ($25 million - 13 state governments) 4. Controversy & Assumption Bill Compromise B. Bank of the U.S. 1. Advantages of a national bank a. strong national currency b. deposit sites for tax revenues c. branch banks would aid business with money transfers & loans for capital investment d. provide loans to the U.S. government 2. Capital Investment for the Bank of the U.S. a. 25,000 shares - $400.00 per share ($10 million) b. 80% Private Investors / 20% U.S. Government

3. Jeffersons Opposition a. bank would be controlled by wealthy b. unfair competition for state & local banks which were the primary loan source for small farmers c. unconstitutional - not necessary & proper (Art. I, Sec. 8, Cl. 18) 4. Washingtons support & creation by Congress in 1791 (20 Year Charter) C. Support of a Protective Tariff (Creation of a Diversified Economy) D. Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 1. Excise tax for revenue 2. Resistance in Pennsylvania & Use of Federal Militia to enforce law 3. Washingtons Foreign Policy Problems A. Indian Problems in the Northwest Territory 1. General Harmars Failed Expedition, 1790 2. General Wayne - Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794 3. Treaty of Greenville, 1795 B.. French Revolution & the French Alliance, 1778 1. Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793 2. Citizen Genet Controversy C. Problems with Great Britain 1. British forts in the Northwest Territory & trade with Indians 2. freedom of the seas violations & impressment 3. Jays Treaty, 1794 D. Problems with Spain

1. Florida-Georgia Boundary Dispute 2. Right of Deposit in New Orleans 3. Pinckneys Treaty, 1795 4. Rise of Political Parties & Two-Party System (SEE PAGE 174 - TEXTBOOK) A. Jeffersons Republican Party B. Hamiltons Federalist Party 5. Washingtons Farewell Address, 1796 & Evaluation of his Presidency 6. Election of 1796 A. Republican Party (Thomas Jefferson/Aaron Burr) B. Federalist Party (John Adams/Thomas Pinckney) C. Electoral Votes (Adams - 71, Jefferson - 68) 7. Adams & the XYZ Affair A. Problems with France B. Attempts at Negotiation & Talleyrands demands C. Preparations for defense & Quasi War D. Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798 1. Alien Act & Alien Enemies Act 2. Naturalization Act (Increased 5 to 14 years for citizenship) 3. Sedition Act E. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions 1. Protest of the Alien & Sedition Acts 2. Doctrine of Nullification F. Convention of 1800

1. Negotiation with Napoleon 2. Termination of the French Alliance 8. Election of 1800 (Revolution of 1800) A. Republican Party (Thomas Jefferson/Aaron Burr) B. Federalist Party (John Adams/Charles Pinckney) C. Jefferson/Burr - 73, Adams - 65 D. Tie Vote - U.S. House of Representatives (35 Ballots) 9. Jeffersons Presidential Administration, 1801 - 1809 A. Repeal of Federalist Laws (Whiskey Excise Tax, Naturalization Act) B. Secretary of the Treasury -Albert Gallatin & support of Hamiltons Plan C. Judiciary Act, 1801 ( Midnight Judges) & Marbury vs Madison, 1803 D. War with the Barbary Coast States, 1804 E. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 & Lewis and Clark Expedition (Corps of Discovery), 18041806 F. Election of 1804 G. Problems with France & Great Britain 1. freedom of the seas violations a. British Order in Council, 1807 b. Napoleons Orders, 1807 2. impressment a. U.S.S. Cheasapeake Affair, June, 1807 b. Embargo Act, 1807, repeal, 1809 10. Election of 1808

Nationalism & Jackson 1. Beginning of the American Industrial Revolution A. Hamiltons Plan for a diversified economic system B. Samuel Slater - Father of the American Factory System, 1793 C. Eli Whitneys interchangeable parts and mass production D. Impact of the Embargo Act, 1807 and War of 1812 on the growth of of American industry 2. Agriculture in the North & South A. Mid-Atlantic and Northeast B. Northwest C. Southern Cotton Economy and growth of the Plantation System 3. Henry Clays American System A. Protective Tariff of 1816 B. 2nd Bank of the U.S., 1816 C. System of Internal Improvements (Canals & Roads) 1. National Road, 1811 2. Erie Canal, 1825 3. Failure of the Internal Improvements Bill, 1816 4. John Marshalls U.S. Supreme Court Decisions (Expansion of Federal Power) A. Panic of 1819 and McCulloch vs Maryland, 1819 B. Dartmouth College vs Woodward, 1819 C. Gibbons vs Ogden, , 1824 5. U.S. Foreign Policy under James Monroe, 1817-1825

A. Rush-Bagot Agreement, 1817 B. Convention of 1818 C. 1st Seminole War,1816 and the Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 D. Monroe Doctrine, 1823 6. Sectionalism and the Compromise of 1820 A. Dispute over the expansion of slavery in the Louisiana Territory B. Henry Clays Compromise 1. Admission of Missouri and Maine to balance free & slave states 2. 36 Degrees 30 Latitude North Line 7. Controversial Presidential Election of 1824 (Adams, Jackson, Clay, Crawford) 8. Election of 1828 and Beginning of Jacksonian Democracy A. Beginning of universal male suffrage and age of the common man B. Views of Andrew Jackson 1. Belief in expansion of political democracy 2. Limitation of the power of the Federal government 3. Preservation of the union 4. Belief in the power of the Presidency C. Jacksons Spoils System 1. Victorious political party filling public offices with party supporters 2. Jacksons defense of the spoils system 3. Problems with the spoils system (incompetence & abuse) D. Development of the political party nominating convention E. Jacksons use of the kitchen cabinet

9. Controversial Policies of the Jackson Administration A. Indian Removal 1. Indian Removal Act, 1830 2. Sauk & Fox Indians and the Black Hawk War, 1832 3. Removal of the Five Civilized Tribes in the South Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Tribes, 2nd Seminole War, 1835-1842, and the Cherokee Trail of Tears(Worcester vs Georgia, 1832) B. Nullification Crisis, 1832-1833 1. 1828 Tariff of Abominations and Calhouns South Carolina Expositon & Protest 2. Hayne-Webster Debate, 1830 3. Tariff of 1832 and South Carolinas Ordinance of Nullification, Nov. 1832 4. Jacksons threat of military force and Force Act, 1833 5. Clays Compromise Tariff of 1833 C. 2nd Bank of the U.S. Controversy 1. Jacksons views on the national bank a. Monopoly of the rich b. Involved in questionable political activities c. Unconstitutional 2. Election of 1832 (Jackson-Democrat vs Clay-National-Republicans) a. Nicholas Biddle - President of the 2nd Bank of the U.S. b. Re-charter Bill, 1832 and Jacksons veto c. Jacksons election victory and destruction of the bank d. Creation of pet banks

D. Specie Circular, July, 1836 10. Creation of the Whig Party, 1834 and the Election of 1836 11. President Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 12. Election of 1840 and William H. Harrisons Log Cabin Campaign

2nd Great Awakening & Reform 1. Religious Reform Movements in the early 19th century A. 2nd Great Awakening & Revivalism B. The Unitarian Movement C. The African-American Church 2. Transcendentalism A. Goals of the transcendentalists B. Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau 3. Public Education Reform - Horace Mann 4. Asylum and Prison Reform - Dorothea Dix 5. Utopian Communities A. New Harmony, Indiana B. Brook Farm 6. The Abolitionist Movement A. Early support for emancipation in the North-late 18th & early 19th centuries B. American Colonization Society, 1817 C. William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator, 1831 (Immediate emancipation without compensation)

D. David Walker - Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829 and Radical Abolitionists E. Frederick Douglass - The North Star, 1847 7. Slavery in the South A. Growth of Slavery in the early 19th century B. Rural Slavery C. Urban Slavery D. Slave Revolts in the South 1. Gabriel Prosser - Richmond, VA, 1800 2. Denmark Vesey - Charleston, SC, 1822 3. Nat Turner - Southampton County, VA, 1831 & Southern Reaction a. State Legislature of Virginia Slavery Debate, 1832 b. Passage of Southern Slave Codes E. Pro-Slave Agruments F. Gag Rule, 1836 - 1845 8. Women in the 19th Century A. Cult of Domesticity and lack of legal rights B. Women Abolitionists C. Temperance Movement D. Educational Opportunities for Women 1. Troy Female Seminary, 1821 2. Mount Holyoke College, 1837 3. Oberlin College (1st Co-ed College), 1837 E. Health Reform

1. Elizabeth Blackwell - New York Infirmary for Women & Children 2. Amelia Bloomer F. Womens Rights Movement 1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott - Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 2. Sojourner Truth 9. Changes in the Industrial Workplace in the early 19th Century A. Putting-Out System B. Lowell System C. Industrial Workforce-masters, journeymen, apprentices, unskilled labor D. Problems of Urban workers - conditions, wages, hours E. Weapon of labor - strike & use of strikebreakers by factory owners F. National Trades Union, 1834 1. Commonwealth vs Hunt, 1842

Manifest Destiny 1. The Market Revolution in the early 19th century A. Specialization and its impact on the market revolution B. capitalism & entrepreneurship C. New Inventions - Goodyear, Howe, Singer, Deere, McCormick D. Communications Revolution - Samuel Morses telegraph, 1837 E. Transportation Revolution 1. Fultons steamboat 2. roads & canals

3. railroads 4. Linking of markets East and West 2. Western Settlement in the Mid-19th century A. Reasons for Western Settlement 1. Abundance of land 2. New Markets for merchants & manufacturers 3. Expansion of Far East Trade (China & Japan) 4. Fresh start after the Panic of 1837 B. Mountain Men - Western Fur Trade, 1810s - 1830s C. Santa Fe Trail D. Texas 1. Mexican Independence, 1821 2. Stephen F. Austin & empresarios 3. U.S. attempts to purchase Texas by Adams & Jackson 4. Texas Independence War, 1835-1836 a. Problems between Mexico & Texas settlers b. Battles of the Alamo & Goliad, March, 1836 c. Battle of San Jacinto, April, 1836 d. Treaty of Velasco & the Republic of Texas, 1836-1845 e. Annexation of Texas controversy E. Oregon Trail 1. Christian Missionaries, 1830s 2. Movement of settlers to Oregon, 1840s

3. Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851 F. Mormon Migration to Utah 1. Joseph Smith - Book of Mormon & Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 2. Brigham Young & Settlement in Utah, 1847 G. Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842 1. Settlement of British-American boundary dispute over Maine & Minnesota 2. Continued joint occupation of Oregon H. Election of 1844 (D) Polk (W) Clay 1. Manifest Destiny 2. Oregon - Fifty-Four Forty or Fight 3. Annexation of Texas 3. Treaty of 1846 & the Creation of the Oregon Territory 4. Formal Annexation of Texas, December, 1845 5. The Mexican War, 1846-1848 A. Texas boundary dispute with Mexico (Nueces R. vs Rio Grande R.) B. Northern Abolitionist Opposition to the War 1. 2. Reasons for opposition (political, moral, & foreign policy) Wilmot Proviso, 1846

1. Lincolns Spot Resolution, 1846 C. Military Campaigns, 1846-1847 1. Mexico - Gen. Taylor & Gen. Scott 2. Southwestern Campaign, Gen. Kearny 3. John C. Fremont & the Bear Flag Revolt

D. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 1. Border dispute with Mexico settled - Rio Grande R. 2. Mexico ceded to the U.S. New Mexico & California Territories for $15 million 3. U.S. agreed to pay $3 million to Americans for claims against Mexico 4. Guaranteed rights to Mexicans living in the newly acquired U.S. territory E. Gadsden Purchase, 1853 - U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for land south of the Gila River for the construction of a transcontinental railroad 6. Debate over the Expansion of Slavery into the Mexican Cession Territories A. Abolitionist View - No Expansion of Slavery B. Polks View - Extend the Missouri Compromise Line C. Calhouns View - Slavery protected by the 5th Amendment (No Restriction) D. Cass & Douglas - Popular Sovereignty 7. Election of 1848 (D) Cass (W) Taylor (Free-Soil) Van Buren 8. California Gold Rush, 1848-1849 9. Debate over the Admission of California, 1849-1850

1850s 1. Differences between the Industrial North and Agricultural South 1. North (Industrial and Manufacturing Economic Interests) -Favored National Bank for business expansion -Protective tariffs to aid Northern manufacturers -Federal subsidies for transportation improvements 1. South (Agricultural Interests cotton, tobacco, sugar)

-Opposed to protective tariffs & internal improvements at public expense -Protection of the cotton kingdom & slavery 2. Debate over the Expansion of Slavery into the Mexican Cession Territories A. Wilmot Proviso - No Expansion of Slavery B. Polks View - Extend the Missouri Compromise Line C. Calhouns View - Slavery protected by the 5th Amendment (No Restriction) D. Cass & Douglas - Popular Sovereignty 3. California Gold Rush, 1848-1849 1. Debate over the Admission of California, 1849-1850 1. Issue of expansion of slavery and balance between slave & free states 2. Workers concerns about slave labor competition 5. Henry Clays Compromise of 1850 A. Admission of California - Free State B. Mexican Cession Territory (except California) - Popular Sovereignty C. $10 Million paid to Texas for claims in New Mexico east of the Rio Grande River D. Abolition of the Slave Trade in Washington, DC E. New Fugitive Slave Act, 1850 (To appease Southern interests with the admission of California) 6. Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act, 1850 A. Personal Liberty Laws B. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad 7. Election of 1852 (D) Pierce (W) Scott 8. Harriet B. Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin, 1852 A. Northern reaction

B. Southern reaction 9. Ostend Manifesto, 1854 A. U.S. attempt to acquire Cuba by negotiation & use force if necessary B. Northern Abolitionist Opposition to expansion and acquisition of Cuba 10. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 A. Proposal by Sen. Stephen Douglas-(D) Illinois & Congressional Opposition B. Pro-Slave vs Anti-Slave Settlement C. Bleeding Kansas 1. Lawrence, Kansas Raid, May, 1856 2. Pottawatomie Massacre, June, 1856 11. Creation of New Political Parties A. Republican Party, 1854 (Opposed western expansion of slavery) B. American Party, 1854 - Know-Nothing Party (Concern over immigration) 12. Caning Incident, May, 1856 (Sen. Sumner Massachusetts & Rep. Brooks South Carolina) 13. Election of 1856 (D) Buchanan ( R ) Fremont (A) Fillmore 14. Dred Scott Decision, 1857 1. U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Scott had no legal rights to sue as a slave 2. Declared the Missouri Compromise, 1820 unconstitutional 15. LeCompton Constitution, 1857 1. Pro-slave state constitution for Kansas and was rejected by the Congress for admission 2. Increased tensions between the North and the South 16. Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 A. 1858 Illinois U.S. Senate Campaign B. Douglas - Freeport Doctrine

17. John Browns Raid, 1859 A. Radical Abolitionist Plot to end slavery in the South B. Buchanans use of U.S. military forces 1. Northern & Southern Reaction 18. Election of 1860 A. Republican Party - Abraham Lincoln (180/1.86 mil) -No expansion of slavery -Supported the passage of a Homestead Act -Supported railroad subsidies for completion of a transcontinental railroad -Favored increased protective tariffs -Favored the creation of a national bank -Promised no immigrant restriction laws B. Northern Democratic Party - Stephen A. Douglas (12/1.38 mil) -popular sovereignty C. Southern Democratic Party - John C. Breckinridge (72/848,356) - Favored the expansion of slavery D. Constitutional Union Party - John Bell (39/592,906) - Favored a strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution and to preserve the union (opposed to secession) 19. Southern Secession, Dec. 1860 - Feb. 1861 (Lower South: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas) 20. Montgomery Convention of Seceded Southern States, Feb. 1861 A. Formation of the Confederate States of America

B. Confederate Constitution & election of President (Jefferson Davis) and Vice-President (A.H. Stephens) 21. Debate and Reluctance of the Upper South to accept Secession, December, 1860 - April, 1861 (North Carolina,Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee) and Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware)

Civil War 1. Election of Abraham Lincoln in November, 1860 and Southern Secession, Dec. 1860 - Feb. 1861 (Lower South: South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas) 2. Montgomery Convention of Seceded Southern States, Feb. 1861 A. Formation of the Confederate States of America B. Confederate Constitution & election of President (Jefferson Davis) and Vice-President (A.H. Stephens) 3. Debate and Reluctance of the Upper South to accept Secession, December, 1860 - April, 1861 A. Crittenden Compromise Proposal, 1861 1. Guarantee of Southern Slavery by constitutional amendment 2. Protection of Fugitive slave laws 3. Guarantee of slavery rights in Washington, DC 4. Establishment of 36-30 Latitude Line to the West Coast to expand slavery into the West

5. Compromise proposal rejected by President-Elect Lincoln - opposed expansion of slavery into the new territories and concerned by Southern expansion into Mexico and Cuba 6. Constitutional Amendment to protect slavery was passed by the Congress in March, 1861 B. Fort Sumter Incident, April 12, 1861 C. Lincolns Call for Volunteers and secession of the Upper South (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina) D. Secession Movement in the Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware) 4. Advantages of the North and South in fighting the American Civil War A. North-United States of America 1. Population (22 million to 5.5 million) 2. Economic Resources (92% of industry, raw materials, banks & gold supply) 3. Transportation (Most of the railroads & merchant marine fleet) B. South-Confederate States of America 1. Fighting a defensive war 2. Military Leadership 3. Rural lifestyle 4. King Cotton - Southerners perceived that cotton dependency would bring in European allies (Great Britain & France) 5. War Objectives (Primary & Secondary) A. North (Preserve the Union & End Slavery-After January 1, 1863) B. South (Southern Independence & Preserve Slavery)

6. War Strategies A. North - Anaconda Plan 1.Blockade the Confederate Coastline 2. Seize the Mississippi River & interior railroads 3. Capture the CSA Capital - Richmond, VA B. South 1. Fight a defensive war and the wear down the Norths desire to continue the war 2. Capture Washington, DC and Southern Border States (Kentucky, Maryland) 7. Northern & Southern War Mobilization, 1861 A. Finances (Taxes, Bonds, & Foreign Loans) B. Impact on Industry C. Recruitment of soldiers and conscription laws (Northern & Southern opposition) D. Problems with inflation 8. Foreign Involvement (Great Britain & France) 9. Northern Opposition to the War - Copperheads 10. Republican Congressional Action during the Civil War A. Morrill Tariff Act, 1861 - Protective tariff at 25% in 1861, 47% in 1864 B. Homestead Act, 1862 - 160 acres of free land in the Great Plains C. Abolishment of slavery in Washington, DC with compensation, April, 1862 & U.S. Territories, 1862

D. Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862 - 30,000 acres of land for each Congressman & Senator for funds to create agricultural and industrial education programs (land-grant colleges)

E. Pacific Railway Act, 1862 - U.S. government subsidies to the Union & Central Pacific Railroads F. National Banking Act, 1863 11. Military Campaigns, 1861 - 1865 A. 1861-1862 1. War in the East -1st Battle of Bull Run, July, 1861 -McClellans Peninsular Campaign, May-June, 1862 -2nd Battle of Bull Run, August, 1862 -Battle of Antietam, September, 1862 & Lincolns Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation -Battle of Fredericksburg, December, 1862 2. War in the West -Capture of Forts Henry & Donelson, February, 1862 -Battle of Shiloh, April, 1862 -Capture of New Orleans, April, 1862 B. 1863 - Turning Point Year of the War 1. War in the East -Battle of Chancellorsville, May, 1863 -Battle of Gettysburg, July, 1863 2. War in the West -Capture of Vicksburg, July, 1863 -Battle of Chickamauga, September, 1863 -Battle of Lookout Mountain & Missionary Ridge, November, 1863

C. 1864 - Year of Decision 1. War in the East - War of Attrition -Grants Wilderness Campaign, May-June, 1864 -Sheridans Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Summer-Fall, 1864 -Siege of Petersburg, July, 1864 - March, 1865 2. War in the West -Shermans Georgia Campaign, 1864 - Total War -Capture of Mobile Bay, August, 1864 3. Election of 1864 - Lincoln ( R ) McClellan (D) D. 1865 - The End 1. Hampton Roads Peace Conference, January, 1865 2. Congress passes the 13th Amendment, January, 1865 3. Shermans Campaign in South & North Carolina, January - April, 1865 4. Fall of Richmond, April 1, 1865 5. Lees Surrender at Appomattox, April 9, 1865 6. Surrender of other CSA forces, April - May, 1865 12. Civil War Casualties A. North - 369,000 KIA and 280,000 WIA B. South - 258,000 KIA and 100,000 WIA C. U.S. Debt in 1865 $2.7 billion & Collapse of the Southern Economy 13. Lincolns Assassination, April 14, 1865

Key Terms

1. Montgomery Convention (Formation of the Confederate States of America), Feb. 1861 2. Jefferson Davis 3. Alexander H. Stephens 4. Crittenden Compromise, 1860-1861 5. Fort Sumter Incident, April 12, 1861 6. Lincolns Volunteer Call-up & Secession of the Upper South, April-May, 1861 7. Lincolns Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus, April, 1861 8. Union and Confederate War Strategies 9. Unions Anaconda Plan 10. Advantages of the Union and Confederate Forces 11. War Objectives of the U.S. and Confederate Governments 12. 1st Battle of Bull Run, July , 1861 and Impact on the Civil War 13. Gen. George B. McClellan and the Army of the Potomac, July, 1861 14. Gen. U.S. Grant and theCapture of Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson, Feb. 1862 15. Battle of Shiloh, April, 1862 16. Admiral David Farragut and the Capture of New Orleans, April, 1862 17. Gen. McClellans Peninsular Campaign and the Seven Days Battles, June 25-July 1, 1862 18. Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia 19. 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Aug. 1862 20. Battle of Antietam, September, 1862 21. President Lincolns Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, September 22, 1862 22. Copperheads 23. conscription

24. Morrill Tariff Act, 1861 25. Homestead Act, 1862 26. Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862 27. Pacific Railway Act, 1862 28. National Banking Act, 1863 29. 54th Massachusetts Regiment and the Assault on Ft. Wagner, South Carolina, July 18, 1863 30. Fort Pillow Massacre, April 12, 1864 31. Income Tax Act, 1863 32. inflation 33. Clara Barton 34. Andersonville Confederate Prisoner of War Camp 35. Battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 1862 36. Battle of Chancellorsville, May, 1863 37. Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863 38. Battle of Vicksburg, May-July, 1863 39. Lincolns Gettysburg Address, Nov. 1863 40. Battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 1863 41. Battles of Lookout Mountain & Missionary Ridge (Chattanooga), Nov. 23-25, 1863 42. Gen. Grants Total War Strategy, 1864-1865 43. Grants Wilderness Campaign (Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, & Cold Harbor), May-June, 1864 44. Battle of Siege of Petersburg, July, 1864-April, 1865 45. Gen. Shermans Georgia Campaign (Capture of Atlanta & March to the Sea), May-Dec, 1864

46. Presidential Election of 1864 47. Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Feb. 3, 1865 48. Appomattox Courthouse, April 9, 1865 49. 13th Amendment, 1865 50. Assassination of President Lincoln, April 14, 1965

Reconstruction 1. Reconstruction Plans A. Lincolns Ten-Percent Reconstruction Plan 1. Rebellion of Individuals - Presidential Pardon Power 2. 10% of 1860 Voters - Oath of Allegiance to U.S. & readmission B. Wade Davis Bill, 1864 - Congressional Plan 1. Congressional control over reconstruction 2. Oath of Allegiance from a majority of 1860 voters required for readmission 3. Radical Republicans a. Goals of the Radicals b. Charles Sumner ( R) Massachusetts - State Suicide Theory c. Thaddeus Stevens ( R) Pennsylvania - Conquered Province Theory 2. Lincolns Assassination, April 14, 1865 (Conspiracy Theory - John W. Booth & Radicals) 3. President Andrew Johnsons Reconstruction Plan, 1865 A. Southern states denounce secession, swear allegiance to the Union, & ratify the 13th Amendment B. Readmission of Southern States and Congressional refusal to seat Southern Congressmen &

Senators (Radicals concerns over Southern States - Black Codes) 4. Congressional Actions, 1865 - 1866 A. Freedmans Bureau Act, 1865 & 1866 B. Civil Rights Act, 1866 C. 14th Amendment, 1866, 1868 D. Readmission of Tennessee, 1866 5. Congressional Elections, 1866 6. Radical Reconstruction, 1867 - 1868 A. Reconstruction Acts, 1867 1. Military Occupation of the South 2. Former CSA leaders denied the right to vote & hold office 3. Ex-slaves guaranteed the political rights in new state constitutions 4. Former CSA states required to ratify the 14th Amendment for readmission B. Radical Republicans vs President Johnson 1. Johnsons opposition to Radical Reconstruction 2. Tenure of Office Act, 1867 3. Impeachment Charges & Trial of Andrew Johnson, 1868 C. 15th Amendment, 1868, 1870 7. Readmission of the Southern States -1868 Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina -1870 Texas, Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi 8. Physical, Economic, and Political Reconstruction of the South A. Physical destruction of the South

B. Public Works Programs C. Scalawags, Carpetbaggers, & Freedmen D. Black Participation in Government E. Southern Labor Shortages and Solutions 1. Wage labor system 2. Sharecroppers & tenant farmers 3. Development of Industry (Textile & Tobacco) - New South F. Southern Opposition to Radical Reconstruction 1. Southern vigilante groups and terrorism - Ku Klux Klan 2. Force Acts, 1870-1871 9. End of Reconstruction, 1877 A. Amnesty Act, 1872 and Shift in Southern Political Power B. Scandals of the Grant Administration, Federal & State Governments C. Panic of 1873 D. Currency Dispute - Hard vs Cheap Money 1873

E. Slaughterhouse Cases,

F. Congressional Elections, 1874 - Democratic Majority (House of Representatives) G. Civil Rights Act, 1875 (unconstitutional, 1883) H. Southern Redemption and the Election of 1876 - Hayes ( R) Tilden (D) I. Compromise of 1877 and End of Southern Reconstruction - Home Rule 10. Black Disfranchisement in the South A. Poll Taxes B. Literacy Tests

C. Grandfather Clauses 11. Segregation Laws A. Jim Crow laws, 1881 B. Plessy vs Ferguson, 1896 - Separate, but Equal

The American West 1. Culture of the American Plains Indians A. Nomadic Lifestyle B. Dependence on the buffalo 2. Western Movement - Late 19th Century A. Mining Interests in the West 1. Fifty-Niners - Colorado 2. Comstock Lode - Nevada 3. Boom Towns & Ghost Towns B. Pacific Railroad Act, 1862 1. U.S. Government Subsidies (land & loans) 2. Central Pacific & Union Pacific Railroads 3. Completion of the transcontinental railroad, 1869 C. American Indian Policy & Western Indian Wars, 1864-1890 1. Sand Creek Massacre, 1864 2. Destruction of the buffalo & Concentration Policy 3. Fetterman Massacre, 1866 & Treaty of 1868 4. Red River War, 1874-1875

5. Custers Last Stand, 1876 6. Dawes Act, 1883 - Assimilation Policy 7. Helen Hunt Jackson - A Century of Dishonor, 1881 8. Ghost Dance Movement & Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890 9. Buffalo Soldiers - 24th & 25th Infantry, 9th & 10th Cavalry 3. Cattle Kingdom, 1860s - 1880s A. Early Spanish-Mexican Influences B. Longhorn cattle & Eastern markets C. Importance of the railroad & Joseph McCoys Plan D. The American Cowboy E. End of the Cattle Kingdom, 1880s 1. Competition over the Open Range 2. Drought, 1883 3. Blizzard of 1887 4. Invention of Barbed Wire 4. Settlement on the Great Plains A. Homestead Act, 1862 B. Oklahoma Land Rush, 1889 C. Morrill Land Grant Acts, 1862, 1890 D. Hatch Act, 1887 E. Technological Improvements in Farming F. The Great American Breadbasket G. Problems of the Plains Farmers

1. Scarcity of Housing Materials and Water -Sod Houses, Dry Farming, irrigation 2. Overproduction & falling farm prices 3. Credit problems for farmers 4. Railroad shipping problems H. Monetary Policy -Silver Issue 1. Bland-Allison Act, 1878 2. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890 I. The Grange, 1867 & Farmers Alliances J. Populist Party, 1891 1. Platform Issues - Election of 1892 -Free & unlimited of coinage of silver -16:1 Ratio -Government ownership of railroads, telegraph, & telephone -Return of excess lands held by the railroad companies -Graduated income tax -Federal subsidized grain warehouses to store surplus crops -Political reforms (Direct election of U.S. Senators, secret ballot, initiative, referendum) -Shorter Work Hours -Immigration restrictions 2. Outcome of the Election of 1892 K. Election of 1896 1. McKinley ( R) - Gold Standard 2. Bryan (D) (P) - Silver Issue (bimetallism) L. End of Populism and impact on early 20th century politics