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# Fluid mechanics

(February 2009)

Continuum mechanics

## Laws[show] Solid mechanics[show] Fluid mechanics[show] Rheology[show] Scientists[show]

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Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. (Fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas.) Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms, that is, it models matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather than from a microscopic viewpoint. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many unsolved or partly solved problems. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex. Sometimes it can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is

devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Also taking advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow is particle image velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow.

Contents
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1 Brief history 2 Relationship to continuum mechanics 3 Assumptions o 3.1 The continuum hypothesis 4 NavierStokes equations o 4.1 General form of the equation 5 Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluids o 5.1 Equations for a Newtonian fluid 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

##  Brief history

Main article: History of fluid mechanics

The study of fluid mechanics goes back at least to the days of ancient Greece, when Archimedes investigated fluid statics and buoyancy and formulated his famous law known now as the Archimedes' Principle. Rapid advancement in fluid mechanics began with Leonardo da Vinci (observation and experiment), Evangelista Torricelli (barometer), Isaac Newton (viscosity) and Blaise Pascal (hydrostatics), and was continued by Daniel Bernoulli with the introduction of mathematical fluid dynamics in Hydrodynamica (1738). Inviscid flow was further analyzed by various mathematicians (Leonhard Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange, Laplace, Poisson) and viscous flow was explored by a multitude of engineers including Poiseuille and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen. Further mathematical justification was provided by Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes in the NavierStokes equations, and boundary layers were investigated (Ludwig Prandtl, Theodore von Krmn), while various scientists (Osborne Reynolds, Andrey Kolmogorov, Geoffrey Ingram Taylor) advanced the understanding of fluid viscosity and turbulence.

## Fluid mechanics is a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics, as illustrated in the following table.

Elasticity Solid mechanics Continuum mechanics
The study of the physics of continuous materials Describes materials that return to their rest shape after an applied stress.

The study of the Plasticity physics of continuous Describes materials materials with a that permanently Rheology defined rest shape. deform after a The study of sufficient applied materials with both stress. solid and fluid characteristics.

Fluid mechanics

The study of the physics of continuous materials which take the shape of their Newtonian fluids container.

Non-Newtonian fluids

In a mechanical view, a fluid is a substance that does not support shear stress; that is why a fluid at rest has the shape of its containing vessel. A fluid at rest has no shear stress.

 Assumptions
Like any mathematical model of the real world, fluid mechanics makes some basic assumptions about the materials being studied. These assumptions are turned into equations that must be satisfied if the assumptions are to be held true. For example, consider an incompressible fluid in three dimensions. The assumption that mass is conserved means that for any fixed closed surface (such as a sphere) the rate of mass passing from outside to inside the surface must be the same as rate of mass passing the other way. (Alternatively, the mass inside remains constant, as does the mass outside). This can be turned into an integral equation over the surface. Fluid mechanics assumes that every fluid obeys the following:

Conservation of mass Conservation of energy Conservation of momentum The continuum hypothesis, detailed below.

Further, it is often useful (at subsonic conditions) to assume a fluid is incompressible that is, the density of the fluid does not change. Similarly, it can sometimes be assumed that the viscosity of the fluid is zero (the fluid is inviscid). Gases can often be assumed to be inviscid. If a fluid is viscous, and its flow contained in some way (e.g. in a pipe), then the flow at the boundary must have zero velocity. For a viscous fluid, if the boundary is not porous, the shear forces between the fluid and the boundary results also in a zero velocity for the fluid at the boundary. This is called the no-slip condition. For a porous media otherwise, in the frontier of the containing vessel, the slip condition is not zero velocity, and the fluid has a discontinuous velocity field between the free fluid and the fluid in the porous media (this is related to the Beavers and Joseph condition).

##  The continuum hypothesis

Main article: Continuum mechanics

Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. The continuum assumption, however, considers fluids to be continuous. That is, properties such as density, pressure, temperature, and velocity are taken to be well-defined at "infinitely" small points, defining a REV (Reference Element of Volume), at the geometric order of the distance between two adjacent molecules of fluid. Properties are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another, and are averaged values in the REV. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored. The continuum hypothesis is basically an approximation, in the same way planets are approximated by point particles when dealing with celestial mechanics, and therefore results in approximate solutions. Consequently, assumption of the continuum hypothesis can lead to results which are not of desired accuracy. That said, under the right circumstances, the continuum hypothesis produces extremely accurate results. Those problems for which the continuum hypothesis does not allow solutions of desired accuracy are solved using statistical mechanics. To determine whether or not to use conventional fluid dynamics or statistical mechanics, the Knudsen number is evaluated for the problem. The Knudsen number is defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a certain representative physical length scale. This length scale could be, for example, the radius of a body in a fluid. (More simply, the Knudsen number is how many times its own diameter a particle will travel on average before hitting another particle). Problems with Knudsen numbers at or above unity are best evaluated using statistical mechanics for reliable solutions.

##  NavierStokes equations

Main article: NavierStokes equations

The NavierStokes equations (named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes) are the set of equations that describe the motion of fluid substances such as liquids and gases. These equations state that changes in momentum (force) of fluid particles depend only on the external pressure and internal viscous forces (similar to friction) acting on the fluid. Thus, the Navier Stokes equations describe the balance of forces acting at any given region of the fluid. The NavierStokes equations are differential equations which describe the motion of a fluid. Such equations establish relations among the rates of change of the variables of interest. For example, the NavierStokes equations for an ideal fluid with zero viscosity states that acceleration (the rate of change of velocity) is proportional to the derivative of internal pressure. This means that solutions of the NavierStokes equations for a given physical problem must be sought with the help of calculus. In practical terms only the simplest cases can be solved exactly in this way. These cases generally involve non-turbulent, steady flow (flow does not change with time) in which the Reynolds number is small. For more complex situations, such as global weather systems like El Nio or lift in a wing, solutions of the NavierStokes equations can currently only be found with the help of computers. This is a field of sciences by its own called computational fluid dynamics.

##  General form of the equation

The general form of the NavierStokes equations for the conservation of momentum is:

where

is the fluid density, is the substantive derivative (also called the material derivative), is the velocity vector, is the body force vector, and

is a tensor that represents the surface forces applied on a fluid particle (the stress tensor).

Unless the fluid is made up of spinning degrees of freedom like vortices, symmetric tensor. In general, (in three dimensions) has the form:

is a

where

## are normal stresses, are tangential stresses (shear stresses).

The above is actually a set of three equations, one per dimension. By themselves, these aren't sufficient to produce a solution. However, adding conservation of mass and appropriate boundary conditions to the system of equations produces a solvable set of equations.

##  Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluids

A Newtonian fluid (named after Isaac Newton) is defined to be a fluid whose shear stress is linearly proportional to the velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of shear. This definition means regardless of the forces acting on a fluid, it continues to flow. For example, water is a Newtonian fluid, because it continues to display fluid properties no matter how much it is stirred or mixed. A slightly less rigorous definition is that the drag of a small object being moved slowly through the fluid is proportional to the force applied to the object. (Compare friction). Important fluids, like water as well as most gases, behave to good approximation as a Newtonian fluid under normal conditions on Earth.
[1]

By contrast, stirring a non-Newtonian fluid can leave a "hole" behind. This will gradually fill up over time this behaviour is seen in materials such as pudding, oobleck, or sand (although sand isn't strictly a fluid). Alternatively, stirring a nonNewtonian fluid can cause the viscosity to decrease, so the fluid appears "thinner" (this is seen in non-drip paints). There are many types of non-Newtonian fluids, as they are defined to be something that fails to obey a particular property for example, most fluids with long molecular chains can react in a non-Newtonian manner.[1]

##  Equations for a Newtonian fluid

Main article: Newtonian fluid

The constant of proportionality between the shear stress and the velocity gradient is known as the viscosity. A simple equation to describe Newtonian fluid behaviour is

where
is the shear stress exerted by the fluid ("drag") is the fluid viscosity a constant of proportionality

## is the velocity gradient perpendicular to the direction of shear.

For a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity, by definition, depends only on temperature and pressure, not on the forces acting upon it. If the fluid is incompressible and viscosity is constant across the fluid, the equation governing the shear stress (in Cartesian coordinates) is

where
ij is the shear stress on the ith face of a fluid element in the jth direction vi is the velocity in the ith direction xj is the jth direction coordinate.

If a fluid does not obey this relation, it is termed a non-Newtonian fluid, of which there are several types. Among fluids, two rough broad divisions can be made: ideal and non-ideal fluids. An ideal fluid really does not exist, but in some calculations, the assumption is justifiable. An Ideal fluid is non viscous- offers no resistance whatsoever to a shearing force.

One can group real fluids into Newtonian and non-Newtonian. Newtonian fluids agree with Newton's law of viscosity. Non-Newtonian fluids can be either plastic, bingham plastic, pseudoplastic, dilatant, thixotropic, rheopectic, viscoelatic.

## REYNOLD NUMBER Definition

Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is in relative motion to a surface (the definition of the Reynolds number is not to be confused with the Reynolds Equation or lubrication equation). These definitions generally include the fluid properties of density and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic dimension. This dimension is a matter of convention for example a radius or diameter are equally valid for spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For aircraft or ships, the length or width can be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes (such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical objects) have an equivalent diameter defined. For fluids of variable density (e.g. compressible gases) or variable viscosity (non-Newtonian fluids) special rules apply. The velocity may also be a matter of convention in some circumstances, notably stirred vessels.

[4]

where:

is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s) L is a characteristic linear dimension, (travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic diameter when dealing with river systems) (m) is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m or kg/(ms)) is the kinematic viscosity ( = / ) (m/s) is the density of the fluid (kg/m)

## Note that multiplying the Reynolds number, the ratio, .[5]

by

yields

which is

 Significance

##  Flow in Pipe

For flow in a pipe or tube, the Reynolds number is generally defined as:[6]

where:

DH is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe; its characteristic travelled length, L, (m). Q is the volumetric flow rate (m3/s). A is the pipe cross-sectional area (m). is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s). is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m or kg/(ms)). is the kinematic viscosity ( = / ) (m/s). is the density of the fluid (kg/m).

##  Flow in a non-circular duct (annulus)

For shapes such as squares, rectangular or annular ducts (where the height and width are comparable) the characteristic dimension for internal flow situations is taken to be the hydraulic diameter, DH, defined as 4 times the cross-sectional area (of the fluid), divided by the wetted perimeter. The wetted perimeter for a channel is the total perimeter of all channel walls that are in contact with the flow. [7] This means the length of the water exposed to air is NOT included in the wetted perimeter

For a circular pipe, the hydraulic diameter is exactly equal to the inside pipe diameter, as can be shown mathematically. For an annular duct, such as the outer channel in a tube-in-tube heat exchanger, the hydraulic diameter can be shown algebraically to reduce to DH,annulus = Do Di

where Do is the inside diameter of the outside pipe, and Di is the outside diameter of the inside pipe. For calculations involving flow in non-circular ducts, the hydraulic diameter can be substituted for the diameter of a circular duct, with reasonable accuracy.

##  Flow in a Wide Duct

For a fluid moving between two plane parallel surfaces (where the width is much greater than the space between the plates) then the characteristic dimension is twice the distance between the plates.[8]

##  Flow in an Open Channel

For flow of liquid with a free surface, the hydraulic radius must be determined. This is the cross-sectional area of the channel divided by the wetted perimeter. For a semi-circular channel, it is half the radius. For a rectangular channel, the hydraulic radius is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Some texts then use a characteristic dimension that is 4 times the hydraulic radius (chosen because it gives the same value of Re for the onset of turbulence as in pipe flow),[9] while others use the hydraulic radius as the characteristic lengthscale with consequently different values of Re for transition and turbulent flow.

##  Object in a fluid

The Reynolds number for an object in a fluid, called the particle Reynolds number and often denoted Rep, is important when considering the nature of flow around that grain, whether or not vortex shedding will occur, and its fall velocity.  Sphere in a fluid For a sphere in a fluid, the characteristic length-scale is the diameter of the sphere and the characteristic velocity is that of the sphere relative to the fluid some distance away from the sphere (such that the motion of the sphere does not disturb that reference parcel of fluid). The density and viscosity are those belonging to the fluid.[10] Note that purely laminar flow only exists up to Re = 0.1 under this definition. Under the condition of low Re, the relationship between force and speed of motion is given by Stokes' law.[11]  Oblong object in a fluid

The equation for an oblong object is identical to that of a sphere, with the object being approximated as an ellipsoid and the axis of length being chosen as the characteristic length scale. Such considerations are important in natural streams, for example, where there are few perfectly spherical grains. For grains in which measurement of each axis is impractical (e.g., because they are too small), sieve diameters are used instead as the characteristic particle length-scale. Both approximations alter the values of the critical Reynolds number.  Fall velocity The particle Reynolds number is important in determining the fall velocity of a particle. When the particle Reynolds number indicates laminar flow, Stokes' law can be used to calculate its fall velocity. When the particle Reynolds number indicates turbulent flow, a turbulent drag law must be constructed to model the appropriate settling velocity.

##  Packed bed

For flow of fluid through a bed of approximately spherical particles of diameter D in contact, if the voidage (fraction of the bed not filled with particles) is and the superficial velocity V (i.e. the velocity through the bed as if the particles were not there - the actual velocity will be higher) then a Reynolds number can be defined as:

##  Stirred vessel

In a cylindrical vessel stirred by a central rotating paddle, turbine or propellor, the characteristic dimension is the diameter of the agitator D. The velocity is ND where N is the rotational speed (revolutions per second). Then the Reynolds number is:

##  Transition Reynolds number

In boundary layer flow over a flat plate, experiments confirm that, after a certain length of flow, a laminar boundary layer will become unstable and become turbulent. This instability occurs across different scales and with different fluids,
[13] usually when , where x is the distance from the leading edge of the flat plate, and the flow velocity is the freestream velocity of the fluid outside the boundary layer.

For flow in a pipe of diameter D, experimental observations show that for 'fully developed' flow (Note:[14]), laminar flow occurs when ReD < 2300 and turbulent flow occurs when ReD > 4000.[15] In the interval between 2300 and 4000, laminar and turbulent flows are possible ('transition' flows), depending on other factors, such as pipe roughness and flow uniformity). This result is generalised to noncircular channels using the hydraulic diameter, allowing a transition Reynolds number to be calculated for other shapes of channel. These transition Reynolds numbers are also called critical Reynolds numbers, and were studied by Osborne Reynolds around 1895 [see Rott].

##  Reynolds number in pipe friction

Pressure drops seen for fully developed flow of fluids through pipes can be predicted using the Moody diagram which plots the DarcyWeisbach friction factor f against Reynolds number Re and relative roughness . The diagram clearly shows the laminar, transition, and turbulent flow regimes as Reynolds number increases. The nature of pipe flow is strongly dependent on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent

##  The similarity of flows

In order for two flows to be similar they must have the same geometry, and have equal Reynolds numbers and Euler numbers. When comparing fluid behaviour at corresponding points in a model and a full-scale flow, the following holds:

quantities marked with 'm' concern the flow around the model and the others the actual flow. This allows engineers to perform experiments with reduced models in water channels or wind tunnels, and correlate the data to the actual flows, saving on costs during experimentation and on lab time. Note that true dynamic similitude may require matching other dimensionless numbers as well, such as the Mach number used in compressible flows, or the Froude number that governs open-channel flows. Some flows involve more dimensionless parameters than can be practically satisfied with the available apparatus and fluids (for example air or water), so one is forced to decide which parameters are most important. For experimental flow modeling to be useful, it requires a fair amount of experience and judgement of the engineer. Typical values of Reynolds number[16][17]

Ciliate ~ 1 x 101 Smallest Fish ~ 1 Blood flow in brain ~ 1 102 Blood flow in aorta ~ 1 103

Onset of turbulent flow ~ 2.3 103 to 5.0 104 for pipe flow to 106 for boundary layers

Typical pitch in Major League Baseball ~ 2 105 Person swimming ~ 4 106 Fastest Fish ~ 1 x 106 Blue Whale ~ 3 108 A large ship (RMS Queen Elizabeth 2) ~ 5 109

##  Reynolds number sets the smallest scales of turbulent motion

In a turbulent flow, there is a range of scales of the time-varying fluid motion. The size of the largest scales of fluid motion (sometimes called eddies) are set by the overall geometry of the flow. For instance, in an industrial smoke stack, the largest scales of fluid motion are as big as the diameter of the stack itself. The size of the smallest scales is set by the Reynolds number. As the Reynolds number

increases, smaller and smaller scales of the flow are visible. In a smoke stack, the smoke may appear to have many very small velocity perturbations or eddies, in addition to large bulky eddies. In this sense, the Reynolds number is an indicator of the range of scales in the flow. The higher the Reynolds number, the greater the range of scales. The largest eddies will always be the same size; the smallest eddies are determined by the Reynolds number. What is the explanation for this phenomenon? A large Reynolds number indicates that viscous forces are not important at large scales of the flow. With a strong predominance of inertial forces over viscous forces, the largest scales of fluid motion are undampedthere is not enough viscosity to dissipate their motions. The kinetic energy must "cascade" from these large scales to progressively smaller scales until a level is reached for which the scale is small enough for viscosity to become important (that is, viscous forces become of the order of inertial ones). It is at these small scales where the dissipation of energy by viscous action finally takes place. The Reynolds number indicates at what scale this viscous dissipation occurs. Therefore, since the largest eddies are dictated by the flow geometry and the smallest scales are dictated by the viscosity, the Reynolds number can be understood as the ratio of the largest scales of the turbulent motion to the smallest scales.

##  Example of the importance of the Reynolds number

If an airplane wing needs testing, one can make a scaled down model of the wing and test it in a wind tunnel using the same Reynolds number that the actual airplane is subjected to. If for example the scale model has linear dimensions one quarter of full size, the flow velocity of the model would have to be multiplied by a factor of 4 to obtain similar flow behavior. Alternatively, tests could be conducted in a water tank instead of in air (provided the compressibility effects of air are not significant). As the kinematic viscosity of water is around 13 times less than that of air at 15 C, in this case the scale model would need to be about one thirteenth the size in all dimensions to maintain the same Reynolds number, assuming the full-scale flow velocity was used. The results of the laboratory model will be similar to those of the actual plane wing results. Thus there is no need to bring a full scale plane into the lab and actually test it. This is an example of "dynamic similarity". Reynolds number is important in the calculation of a body's drag characteristics. A notable example is that of the flow around a cylinder.[18] Above roughly 3105 Re the drag coefficient drops considerably. This is important when calculating the optimal cruise speeds for low drag (and therefore long range) profiles for airplanes.

##  Reynolds number in physiology

Poiseuille's law on blood circulation in the body is dependent on laminar flow. In turbulent flow the flow rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure gradient, as opposed to its direct proportionality to pressure gradient in laminar flow. Using the definition of the Reynolds number we can see that a large diameter with rapid flow, where the density of the blood is high, tends towards turbulence. Rapid changes in vessel diameter may lead to turbulent flow, for instance when a narrower vessel widens to a larger one. Furthermore, a bulge of atheroma may be the cause of turbulent flow, where audible turbulence may be detected with a stethoscope.

##  Reynolds number in viscous fluids

Creeping flow past a sphere: streamlines, drag force Fd and force by gravity Fg. Where the viscosity is naturally high, such as polymer solutions and polymer melts, flow is normally laminar. The Reynolds number is very small and Stokes' Law can be used to measure the viscosity of the fluid. Spheres are allowed to fall through the fluid and they reach the terminal velocity quickly, from which the viscosity can be determined. The laminar flow of polymer solutions is exploited by animals such as fish and dolphins, who exude viscous solutions from their skin to aid flow over their bodies while swimming. It has been used in yacht racing by owners who want to gain a speed advantage by pumping a polymer solution such as low molecular weight polyoxyethylene in water, over the wetted surface of the hull.

It is, however, a problem for mixing of polymers, because turbulence is needed to distribute fine filler (for example) through the material. Inventions such as the "cavity transfer mixer" have been developed to produce multiple folds into a moving melt so as to improve mixing efficiency. The device can be fitted onto extruders to aid mixing.

 Derivation
The Reynolds number can be obtained when one uses the nondimensional form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations:

Each term in the above equation has the units of a "body force" (force per unit volume) or, equivalently, an acceleration times a density. Each term is thus dependent on the exact measurements of a flow. When one renders the equation nondimensional, that is when we multiply it by a factor with inverse units of the base equation, we obtain a form which does not depend directly on the physical sizes. One possible way to obtain a nondimensional equation is to multiply the whole equation by the following factor:

where:

is the mean velocity, or , relative to the fluid (m/s). is the characteristic length, , (m). is the fluid density (kg/m)

If we now set:

## Finally, dropping the primes for ease of reading:

This is why mathematically all flows with the same Reynolds number are comparable. Notice also, in the above equation, as : the viscous terms vanish. Thus, high Reynolds number flows are approximately inviscid in the freestream.
Laminar

Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.[1] At low velocities the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no cross currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluids.[2] In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines parallel to the pipe walls.[3] In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection. When a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a pipe or between two flat plates, either of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity of the fluid: laminar flow or turbulent flow. Laminar flow is the opposite of turbulent flow which occurs at higher velocities where eddies or small packets of fluid particles form leading to lateral mixing.[2] In nonscientific terms laminar flow is "smooth", while turbulent flow is "rough." The type of flow occurring in a fluid in a channel is important in fluid dynamics problems. The dimensionless Reynolds number is an important parameter in the equations that describe whether flow conditions lead to laminar or turbulent flow. In the case of flow through a straight pipe with a circular cross-section, at a Reynolds number below the critical value of approximately 2040[4] fluid motion will ultimately be laminar, whereas at larger Reynolds number the flow can be turbulent. The Reynolds number delimiting laminar and turbulent flow depends on the particular flow geometry, and moreover, the transition from laminar flow to turbulence can be sensitive to disturbance levels and imperfections present in a given configuration. When the Reynolds number is much less than 1, Creeping motion or Stokes flow occurs. This is an extreme case of laminar flow where viscous (friction) effects are much greater than inertial forces. The common application of laminar flow would be in the smooth flow of a viscous liquid through a tube or pipe. In that case, the velocity of flow varies from zero at the walls to a maximum along the centerline of the vessel. The flow profile of laminar flow in a tube can be

calculated by dividing the flow into thin cylindrical elements and applying the viscous force to them.[5] For example, consider the flow of air over an aircraft wing. The boundary layer is a very thin sheet of air lying over the surface of the wing (and all other surfaces of the aircraft). Because air has viscosity, this layer of air tends to adhere to the wing. As the wing moves forward through the air, the boundary layer at first flows smoothly over the streamlined shape of the airfoil. Here the flow is called laminar and the boundary layer is a laminar layer. Prandtl applied the concept of the laminar boundary layer to airfoils in 1904

Laminar Flow
The resistance to flow in a liquid can be characterized in terms of the viscosity of the fluid if the flow is smooth. In the case of a moving plate in a liquid, it is found that there is a layer or lamina which moves with the plate, and a layer which is essentially stationary if it is next to a stationary plate.

## Index Poisuille' s law concepts

There is a gradient of velocity as you move from the stationary to the moving plate, and the liquid tends to move in layers with successively higher speed. This is called laminar flow, or sometimes "streamlined" flow. Viscous resistance to flow can be modeled for laminar flow, but if the lamina break up into turbulence, it is very difficult to characterize the fluid flow. The common application of laminar flow would be in the smooth flow of a viscous liquid through a tube or pipe. In that case, the velocity of flow varies from zero at the walls to a maximum along the centerline of the vessel. The flow profile of laminar flow in a tube can be calculated by dividing the flow into thin cylindrical elements and applying the viscous force to them.

## HyperPhysics***** Mechanics ***** Fluids

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Viscosity
The resistance to flow of a fluid and the resistance to the movement of an object through a fluid are usually stated in terms of the viscosity of the fluid. Experimentally, under conditions of laminar flow, the force required to move a plate at constant speed against the resistance of a fluid is proportional to the area of the plate and to the velocity gradient perpendicular to the plate. The constant of proportionality is called the viscosity .

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## Flow Resistance for a Tube

The flow resistance of a tube is defined from the relationship

where the script F is the volume flowrate through the tube. This volume flowrate can also be expressed by
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## Index Poisuille' s law concepts

where vm is the maximum flow velocity at the center of the tube. The resistance denoted by the script R can be calculated from:

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## Fluid Velocity Profile

Under conditions of laminar flow in a viscous fluid, the velocity increases toward the center of a tube.

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## Effective Fluid Speed in a Tube

In order to get the net resistance to flow for laminar fluid flow through a tube, one must account for the fact that different lamina of the flow travel at different speeds and encounter different resistances.

Index

## Poisuille' s law concepts

but the effective velocity is not a simple average because of the nonlinear velocity profile. The total volume flowrate can be calculated by integration of the flow of the successive lamina.

Turbulence

## For other uses, see Turbulence (disambiguation).

Flow visualization of a turbulent jet, made by laser-induced fluorescence. The jet exhibits a wide range of length scales, an important characteristic of turbulent flows.

## Turbulence in the tip vortex from an airplane wing

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic and stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman described turbulence as "the most important unsolved problem of classical physics."[1] Flow in which the kinetic energy dies out due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity is called laminar flow. While there is no theorem relating Reynolds number (Re) to turbulence, flows at Reynolds numbers larger than a five hundred thousand are typically (but not necessarily) turbulent, while those at low Reynolds numbers usually remain laminar. In pipe flow, for example, turbulence can first be sustained if the Reynolds number is larger than a critical value of about 2040[2]; moreover, the turbulence is generally interspersed with laminar flow until a larger Reynolds number of about 3000. In turbulent flow, unsteady vortices appear on many scales and interact with each other. Drag due to boundary layer skin friction increases. The structure and location of boundary layer separation often changes, sometimes resulting in a reduction of overall drag. Although laminar-turbulent transition is not governed by Reynolds number, the same transition occurs if the size of the object is gradually increased, or the viscosity of the fluid is decreased, or if the density of the fluid is increased.

Contents
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Features Examples of turbulence Heat and momentum transfer Kolmogorov's Theory of 1941 See also References and notes Further reading o 7.1 General

## 7.2 Original scientific research papers and classical monographs

 Features
Turbulence is highly characterized by the following features: Irregularity: Turbulent flows are always highly irregular. This is why turbulence problems are always treated statistically rather than deterministically. Turbulent flow is always chaotic but not all chaotic flows are turbulent. Diffusivity: Turbulence is highly associated with rapid mixing. One of the useful effects of turbulence, it tends to accelerate the homogenization of any nonuniform fluid mixture. The process which brings any non-uniform state of a system into a uniform one is called mixing and when the system is in its uniform state, the system becomes a homogeneous system. A mixing process requires sufficient input of energy which is readily available in a turbulent flow. The characteristic which is responsible for the enhanced mixing and increased rates of mass, momentum and energy transports in a flow is regarded as diffusivity. Turbulent diffusion is usually described by a turbulent diffusion coefficient. This turbulent diffusion coefficient is defined in a phenomenological sense, by analogy with the molecular diffusivities, but it does not have a true physical meaning, being dependent on the flow conditions, and not a property of the fluid itself. In addition, the turbulent diffusivity concept assumes a constitutive relation between a turbulent flux and the gradient of a mean variable similar to the relation between flux and gradient that exists for molecular transport. In the best case, this assumption is only an approximation. Nevertheless, the turbulent diffusivity is the simplest approach for quantitative analysis of turbulent flows, and many models have been postulated to calculate it. For instance, in large bodies of water like oceans this coefficient can be found using Richardson's four-third power law and is governed by the random walk principle. In rivers and large ocean currents, the diffusion coefficient is given by variations of Elder's formula. A chaotic flow is never turbulent if it does not diffuse. For example, jet contrails are not turbulent as they don't diffuse even they are turbulent at the generation[citation needed]. Rotationality: Turbulent flows have non-zero vorticity and are characterized by a strong three-dimensional vortex generation mechanism known as vortex stretching. In fluid dynamics, they are essentially vortices subjected to stretching associated with a corresponding increase of the component of vorticity in the stretching directiondue to the conservation of angular momentum. On the other hand, vortex stretching is the core mechanism on which the turbulence energy

cascade relies to establish the structure function. In general, the stretching mechanism implies thinning of the vortices in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction due to volume conservation of fluid elements. As a result, the radial length scale of the vortices decreases and the larger flow structures break down into smaller structures. The process continues until the small scale structures are small enough to the extent where their kinetic energy is overwhelmed by the fluid's molecular viscosity and dissipated into heat. This is why turbulence is always rotational and three dimensional. For example, atmospheric cyclones are rotational but their substantially two-dimensional shapes do not allow vortex generation and so are not turbulent. On the other hand, oceanic flows are dispersive but essentially non rotational and therefore are not turbulent. Dissipation: To sustain turbulent flow, a constant source of energy supply is required. Otherwise, turbulence dissipates rapidly as the kinetic energy is converted into internal energy by viscous shear stress. Turbulence causes the formation of eddies of many different length scales. Most of the kinetic energy of the turbulent motion is contained in the large-scale structures. The energy "cascades" from these large-scale structures to smaller scale structures by an inertial and essentially inviscid mechanism. This process continues, creating smaller and smaller structures which produces a hierarchy of eddies. Eventually this process creates structures that are small enough that molecular diffusion becomes important and viscous dissipation of energy finally takes place. The scale at which this happens is the Kolmogorov length scale. Energy cascade: Turbulent flow can be realized as a superposition of a spectrum of velocity fluctuations and eddies on an over mean flow. The eddies are loosely defined as coherent patterns of velocity, vorticity and pressure. Turbulent flows may be viewed as made of an entire hierarchy of eddies over a wide range of length scales and the hierarchy can be described by the energy spectrum that measures the energy in velocity fluctuations for each wave number. The scales in the energy cascade are generally uncontrollable and highly non-symmetric. Nevertheless, based on these length scales these eddies can be divided into three categories. Integral length scales: Largest scales in the energy spectrum. These eddies obtain energy from the mean flow and also from each other. Thus these are the energy production eddies which contain the most of the energy. They have the large velocity fluctuation and are low in frequency. Integral scales are highly anisotropic and are defined in terms of the normalized two-point velocity correlations. The maximum length of these scales is constrained by the characteristic length of the apparatus. For example, the largest integral length scale of pipe flow is equal to the pipe diameter. In the case of atmospheric turbulence, this length can reach up to the order of several hundreds kilometers.

## Laminar flow of cigarette smoke

Smoke rising from a cigarette is turbulent flow. For the first few centimeters, the flow is certainly laminar. Then smoke becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases, as its velocity and characteristic length are both increasing. Flow over a golf ball. (This can be best understood by considering the golf ball to be stationary, with air flowing over it.) If the golf ball were smooth, the boundary layer flow over the front of the sphere would be laminar at typical conditions. However, the boundary layer would separate early, as the pressure gradient switched from favorable (pressure decreasing in the flow direction) to unfavorable (pressure increasing in the flow direction), creating a large region of low pressure behind the ball that creates high form drag. To prevent this from happening, the surface is dimpled to perturb the boundary layer and promote transition to turbulence. This results in higher skin friction, but moves the point of boundary layer separation further along, resulting in lower form drag and lower overall drag. The mixing of warm and cold air in the atmosphere by wind, which causes clear-air turbulence experienced during airplane flight, as well as poor astronomical seeing (the blurring of images seen through the atmosphere.) Most of the terrestrial atmospheric circulation The oceanic and atmospheric mixed layers and intense oceanic currents. The flow conditions in many industrial equipment (such as pipes, ducts, precipitators, gas scrubbers, dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, etc.) and machines (for instance, internal combustion engines and gas turbines).

The external flow over all kind of vehicles such as cars, airplanes, ships and submarines. The motions of matter in stellar atmospheres. A jet exhausting from a nozzle into a quiescent fluid. As the flow emerges into this external fluid, shear layers originating at the lips of the nozzle are created. These layers separate the fast moving jet from the external fluid, and at a certain critical Reynolds number they become unstable and break down to turbulence.

Unsolved problems in physics Is it possible to make a theoretical model to describe the behavior of a turbulent flow in particular, its internal structures?

Race cars unable to follow each other through fast corners due to turbulence created by the leading car causing understeer. In windy conditions, trucks that are on the motorway gets buffeted by their wake. Bridge supports (piers) in water. In the late summer and fall, when river flow is slow, water flows smoothly around the support legs. In the spring, when the flow is faster, a higher Reynolds Number is associated with the flow. The flow may start off laminar but is quickly separated from the leg and becomes turbulent. In many geophysical flows (rivers, atmospheric boundary layer), the flow turbulence is dominated by the coherent structure activities and associated turbulent events. A turbulent event is a series of turbulent fluctuations that contain more energy than the average flow turbulence.[9][10] The turbulent events are associated with coherent flow structures such as eddies and turbulent bursting, and they play a critical role in terms of sediment scour, accretion and transport in rivers as well as contaminant mixing and dispersion in rivers and estuaries, and in the atmosphere. In the medical field of cardiology, a stethoscope is used to detect heart sounds and bruits, which are due to turbulent blood flow. In normal individuals, heart sounds are a product of turbulent

flow as heart valves close. However, in some conditions turbulent flow can be audible due to other reasons, some of them pathological. For example, in advanced atherosclerosis, bruits (and therefore turbulent flow) can be heard in some vessels that have been narrowed by the disease process.

##  Heat and momentum transfer

When flow is turbulent, particles exhibit additional transverse motion which enhances the rate of energy and momentum exchange between them thus increasing the heat transfer and the friction coefficient. Assume for a two-dimensional turbulent flow that one was able to locate a specific point in the fluid and measure the actual velocity of every particle that passed through that point at any given time. Then one would find the actual velocity fluctuating about a mean value:

and similarly for temperature and pressure , where the primed quantities denote fluctuations superposed to the mean. This decomposition of a flow variable into a mean value and a turbulent fluctuation was originally proposed by Osborne Reynolds in 1895, and is considered to be the beginning of the systematic mathematical analysis of turbulent flow, as a sub-field of fluid dynamics. While the mean values are taken as predictable variables determined by dynamics laws, the turbulent fluctuations are regarded as stochastic variables. The heat flux and momentum transfer (represented by the shear stress ) in the direction normal to the flow for a given time are

where cP is the heat capacity at constant pressure, is the density of the fluid, turb is the coefficient of turbulent viscosity and kturb is the turbulent thermal conductivity.

[11]

##  Kolmogorov's Theory of 1941

Richardson's notion of turbulence was that a turbulent flow is composed by "eddies" of different sizes. The sizes define a characteristic length scale for the eddies, which are also characterized by velocity scales and time scales (turnover time) dependent on the length scale. The large eddies are unstable and eventually break up originating smaller eddies, and the kinetic energy of the initial large eddy is divided into the smaller eddies that stemmed from it. These smaller eddies undergo the same process, giving rise to even smaller eddies which inherit the energy of their predecessor eddy, and so on. In this way, the energy is passed down from the large scales of the motion to smaller scales until reaching a sufficiently small length scale such that the viscosity of the fluid can effectively dissipate the kinetic energy into internal energy. In his original theory of 1941, Kolmogorov postulated that for very high Reynolds number, the small scale turbulent motions are statistically isotropic (i.e. no preferential spatial direction could be discerned). In general, the large scales of a flow are not isotropic, since they are determined by the particular geometrical features of the boundaries (the size characterizing the large scales will be denoted as L). Kolmogorov's idea was that in the Richardson's energy cascade this geometrical and directional information is lost, while the scale is reduced, so that the statistics of the small scales has a universal character: they are the same for all turbulent flows when the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. Thus, Kolmogorov introduced a second hypothesis: for very high Reynolds numbers the statistics of small scales are universally and uniquely determined by the viscosity () and the rate of energy dissipation (). With only these two parameters, the unique length that can be formed by dimensional analysis is

This is today known as the Kolmogorov length scale (see Kolmogorov microscales). A turbulent flow is characterized by a hierarchy of scales through which the energy cascade takes place. Dissipation of kinetic energy takes place at scales of the order of Kolmogorov length , while the input of energy into the cascade comes from the decay of the large scales, of order L. These two scales at the extremes of the cascade can differ by several orders of magnitude at high Reynolds numbers. In between there is a range of scales (each one with its own characteristic length r) that has formed at the expense of the energy of the large

ones. These scales are very large compared with the Kolmogorov length, but still very small compared with the large scale of the flow (i.e. ). Since eddies in this range are much larger than the dissipative eddies that exist at Kolmogorov scales, kinetic energy is essentially not dissipated in this range, and it is merely transferred to smaller scales until viscous effects become important as the order of the Kolmogorov scale is approached. Within this range inertial effects are still much larger than viscous effects, and it is possible to assume that viscosity does not play a role in their internal dynamics (for this reason this range is called "inertial range"). Hence, a third hypothesis of Kolmogorov was that at very high Reynolds number the statistics of scales in the range are universally and uniquely determined by the scale r and the rate of energy dissipation . The way in which the kinetic energy is distributed over the multiplicity of scales is a fundamental characterization of a turbulent flow. For homogeneous turbulence (i.e., statistically invariant under translations of the reference frame) this is usually done by means of the energy spectrum function E(k), where k is the modulus of the wavevector corresponding to some harmonics in a Fourier representation of the flow velocity field u(x):

where (k) is the Fourier transform of the velocity field. Thus, E(k)dk represents the contribution to the kinetic energy from all the Fourier modes with k < |k| < k + dk, and therefore,

where is the mean turbulent kinetic energy of the flow. The wavenumber k corresponding to length scale r is k = 2 / r. Therefore, by dimensional analysis, the only possible form for the energy spectrum function according with the third Kolmogorov's hypothesis is
E(k) = C2 / 3k
5/3

where C would be a universal constant. This is one of the most famous results of Kolmogorov 1941 theory, and considerable experimental evidence has accumulated that supports it.[12] In spite of this success, Kolmogorov theory is at present under revision. This theory implicitly assumes that the turbulence is statistically self-similar at

different scales. This essentially means that the statistics are scale-invariant in the inertial range. A usual way of studying turbulent velocity fields is by means of velocity increments:
;

that is, the difference in velocity between points separated by a vector r (since the turbulence is assumed isotropic, the velocity increment depends only on the modulus of r). Velocity increments are useful because they emphasize the effects of scales of the order of the separation r when statistics are computed. The statistical scale-invariance implies that the scaling of velocity increments should occur with a unique scaling exponent , so that when r is scaled by a factor ,

## should have the same statistical distribution as

,

with independent of the scale r. From this fact, and other results of Kolmogorov 1941 theory, it follows that the statistical moments of the velocity increments (known as structure functions in turbulence) should scale as
,

where the brackets denote the statistical average, and the Cn would be universal constants. There is considerable evidence that turbulent flows deviate from this behavior. The scaling exponents deviate from the n/3 value predicted by the theory, becoming a non-linear function of the order n of the structure function. The universality of the constants have also been questioned. For low orders the discrepancy with the Kolmogorov n/3 value is very small, which explain the success of Kolmogorov theory in regards to low order statistical moments. In particular, it can be shown that when the energy spectrum follows a power law
,

with 1 < p < 3, the second order structure function has also a power law, with the form
.

Since the experimental values obtained for the second order structure function only deviate slightly from the 2/3 value predicted by Kolmogorov theory, the value for p is very near to 5/3 (differences are about 2%[13]). Thus the "Kolmogorov -5/3 spectrum" is generally observed in turbulence. However, for high order structure functions the difference with the Kolmogorov scaling is significant, and the breakdown of the statistical self-similarity is clear. This behavior, and the lack of universality of the Cn constants, are related with the phenomenon of intermittency in turbulence. This is an important area of research in this field, and a major goal of the modern theory of turbulence is to understand what is really universal in the inertial range

References
^ Batchelor, G. (2000). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. ^ a b Geankoplis, Chrisite John (2003). Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles. Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference. ISBN 013101367X. 3. ^ Noakes, Cath & Sleigh, Andrew (January 2009). "Real Fluids". An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. University of Leeds. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 4. ^ Avila, K.; D. Moxey, A. de Lozar, M. Avila, D. Barkley, B. Hof (July 2011). "The Onset of Turbulence in Pipe Flow". Science 333 (6039): 192196. Bibcode 2011Sci...333..192A. doi:10.1126/science.1203223. 5. ^ Nave, R. (2005). "Laminar Flow". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 6. ^ Anderson, J.D. (1997). A history of aerodynamics and its impact on flying machines. Cambridge U. Press. ISBN 0-521-66955-3. 7. ^ Rogers, D.F. (1992). Laminar flow analysis. Cambridge U. Press. ISBN 0-521-44152-1.
1. 2. Mekanika zat cair dan gas Dari Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas Artikel ini kebutuhan tambahan kutipan untuk verifikasi. Harap membantu memperbaiki artikel ini dengan menambahkan kutipan ke sumber terpercaya. Unsourced bahan mungkin cacat dan dibuang. (Februari 2009) Continuum mekanika

## Hukum [tampilkan] Mekanika padat [tampilkan]

Mekanika fluida [tampilkan] Reologi [tampilkan] Para ilmuwan [tampilkan] vde Mekanika fluida adalah studi tentang cairan dan kekuatan pada mereka. (Cairan termasuk cairan, gas, dan plasma.) Mekanika Fluida dapat dibagi menjadi statika fluida, studi tentang fluida diam, kinematika fluida, penelitian cairan dalam gerakan, dan dinamika fluida, studi tentang efek gaya pada fluida gerak. Ini adalah cabang dari mekanika kontinum, subjek yang model materi tanpa menggunakan informasi yang terbuat dari atom, yaitu, model peduli dari sudut pandang makroskopik bukan dari sudut pandang mikroskopis. Mekanika fluida, dinamika fluida terutama, adalah bidang penelitian aktif dengan masalah yang belum terpecahkan atau sebagian memecahkan banyak. Mekanika fluida dapat matematis kompleks. Kadang-kadang terbaik dapat diselesaikan dengan metode numerik, biasanya menggunakan komputer. Sebuah disiplin modern, disebut computational fluid dynamics (CFD), yang dikhususkan untuk pendekatan ini untuk memecahkan masalah mekanika fluida. Juga mengambil keuntungan dari sifat yang sangat visual dari aliran fluida adalah partikel velocimetry gambar, metode eksperimen untuk memvisualisasikan dan menganalisa aliran fluida. Isi [Sembunyikan] Riwayat Singkat 1 2 Hubungan dengan mekanika kontinum 3 Asumsi o 3.1 Hipotesis kontinum 4 persamaan Navier-Stokes o 4.1 Umum bentuk persamaan 5 Newton versus non-Newtonian cairan o 5.1 Persamaan untuk fluida Newtonian 6 Lihat juga 7 Catatan 8 Referensi 9 Pranala luar [Sunting] Sejarah Singkat

Artikel utama: Sejarah mekanika fluida Studi tentang mekanika fluida akan kembali setidaknya ke zaman Yunani kuno, ketika Archimedes diselidiki statika fluida dan daya apung dan merumuskan hukum terkenal sekarang dikenal sebagai Prinsip Archimedes. Kemajuan pesat dalam mekanika fluida dimulai dengan Leonardo da Vinci (observasi dan percobaan), Evangelista Torricelli (barometer), Isaac Newton (viskositas) dan Blaise Pascal (hidrostatika), dan dilanjutkan oleh Daniel Bernoulli dengan pengenalan dinamika fluida matematika di Hydrodynamica ( 1738). Inviscid aliran itu dianalisa lebih lanjut oleh berbagai hebat matematika (Leonhard Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange, Laplace, Hahahaha) dan aliran viskos kemudian dieksplorasi oleh banyak insinyur termasuk Poiseuille dan Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen. Pembenaran lebih lanjut matematika diberikan oleh Claude-Louis Navier dan George Gabriel Stokes dalam persamaan Navier-Stokes, dan lapisan batas yang diselidiki (Ludwig Prandtl, Theodore von Krmn), sementara berbagai ilmuwan (Osborne Reynolds, Andrey Kolmogorov, Geoffrey Ingram Taylor) canggih pemahaman viskositas cairan dan turbulensi. [Sunting] Hubungan dengan mekanika kontinum Mekanika fluida adalah vak dari mekanika kontinum, seperti yang diilustrasikan pada tabel berikut. Continuum mekanika Studi tentang fisika mekanika bahan berkelanjutan Padat Studi fisika dari material kontinu dengan bentuk istirahat didefinisikan. Elastisitas Menjelaskan bahan yang kembali ke bentuk istirahat mereka setelah stres diterapkan. Keliatan Menjelaskan bahan yang merusak secara permanen setelah tegangan cukup. Reologi Studi bahan dengan karakteristik solid dan fluida baik. Mekanika zat cair dan gas Studi fisika dari material kontinu yang mengambil bentuk wadah mereka. Non-Newtonian cairan Newtonian cairan Dalam tampilan mekanik, fluida adalah zat yang tidak mendukung tegangan geser, itu sebabnya cairan saat istirahat memiliki bentuk kapal yang memuat. Sebuah cairan pada saat istirahat tidak memiliki tegangan geser. [Sunting] Asumsi

Reynold NOMOR Definisi Bilangan Reynolds dapat didefinisikan untuk sejumlah situasi yang berbeda di mana fluida berada dalam gerak relatif terhadap permukaan (definisi bilangan Reynolds tidak menjadi bingung dengan Persamaan Reynolds atau persamaan pelumasan). Definisi ini

jumlah ditandai dengan keprihatinan 'm' aliran sekitar model dan yang lain aliran yang sebenarnya. Hal ini memungkinkan para insinyur untuk melakukan eksperimen dengan model berkurang di saluran air atau terowongan angin, dan mengkorelasikan data ke aliran yang sebenarnya, menghemat biaya selama eksperimen laboratorium dan tepat waktu. Perhatikan bahwa keserupaan dinamis benar mungkin memerlukan pencocokan nomor berdimensi lain juga, seperti jumlah

dapat dideteksi dengan stetoskop. [Sunting] bilangan Reynolds dalam cairan kental

Merayap mengalir melewati bola: arus, kekuatan tarik dan kekuatan oleh Fd Fg gravitasi. Dimana viskositas secara alami tinggi, seperti solusi polimer dan polimer mencair, aliran laminar biasanya. Bilangan Reynolds sangat kecil dan Hukum Stokes 'dapat digunakan untuk mengukur viskositas fluida. Spheres diperbolehkan untuk jatuh melalui fluida dan mereka mencapai kecepatan terminal dengan cepat, dari mana viskositas dapat ditentukan. Aliran laminar solusi polimer dimanfaatkan oleh hewan seperti ikan dan lumba-lumba, yang memancarkan solusi kental dari kulit mereka untuk membantu mengalir di atas tubuh mereka saat berenang. Telah digunakan dalam balap kapal pesiar oleh pemilik yang ingin mendapatkan keuntungan kecepatan dengan memompa larutan polimer seperti polioksietilena berat molekul rendah di dalam air, di atas permukaan terbasahi lambung. Hal ini, bagaimanapun, suatu masalah bagi pencampuran polimer, karena turbulensi yang diperlukan untuk mendistribusikan pengisi halus (misalnya) melalui materi. Penemuan seperti "mixer mentransfer rongga" telah dikembangkan untuk menghasilkan beberapa lipatan ke dalam lelehan bergerak sehingga untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pencampuran. Perangkat dapat dipasang ke Pengekstrusi untuk membantu pencampuran. [Sunting] Penurunan Bilangan Reynolds dapat diperoleh ketika seseorang menggunakan bentuk nondimensional dari persamaan Navier-Stokes mampat: Setiap istilah dalam persamaan di atas memiliki satuan "kekuatan tubuh" (gaya per satuan volume) atau, sama, kali akselerasi kepadatan. Setiap jangka demikian tergantung pada pengukuran yang tepat dari aliran. Ketika seseorang membuat persamaan nondimensional, yaitu ketika kita kalikan dengan faktor dengan unit invers dari persamaan dasar, kita memperoleh bentuk yang tidak tergantung secara langsung pada ukuran fisik. Salah satu cara yang mungkin untuk mendapatkan persamaan nondimensional adalah memperbanyak persamaan keseluruhan oleh faktor berikut: di mana: adalah kecepatan rata-rata, atau, relatif terhadap fluida (m / s). adalah panjang karakteristik,, (m).

## ***** ***** HyperPhysics Mekanika Fluida R Nave Go Kembali

Kelekatan Resistensi terhadap aliran cairan dan resistensi terhadap pergerakan suatu objek melalui sebuah fluida biasanya dinyatakan dalam hal viskositas fluida. Eksperimental, di bawah kondisi aliran laminar, gaya yang dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan piring dengan kecepatan konstan terhadap perlawanan cairan adalah proporsional ke daerah piring dan tegak lurus gradien kecepatan ke piring. Konstanta proporsionalitas disebut viskositas. Tabel viskositas umum Indeks Poisuille itu konsep hukum

## ***** ***** HyperPhysics Mekanika Fluida R Nave Go Kembali

Arus Perlawanan untuk Tube Hambatan aliran tabung didefinisikan dari hubungan di mana F script adalah laju aliran volume yang melalui tabung. Ini laju aliran volume yang juga dapat dinyatakan oleh Tampilkan

mana vm adalah kecepatan aliran maksimum di tengah tabung. Perlawanan dilambangkan oleh R skrip dapat dihitung dari:

Dinyatakan dalam hal kekuatan resistensi kental, Indeks Poisuille itu konsep hukum

## ***** ***** HyperPhysics Mekanika Fluida R Nave Go Kembali

Kecepatan fluida Profil Dalam kondisi aliran laminar dalam cairan kental, kecepatan meningkat menuju pusat tabung. Profil kecepatan sebagai fungsi dari jari-jari Tampilkan

Cairan diangkut oleh lamina masing-masing diberikan oleh dan penjumlahan dari kontribusi memberikan aliran Tampilkan

Indeks

## 8 Pranala luar [Sunting] Fitur

[11]

, ,

, ,

, .

Referensi 1. ^ Batchelor, G. (2000). 2. ^ B Geankoplis, Chrisite Yohanes (2003). Proses transportasi dan Prinsip Proses Pemisahan. Prentice Hall Profesional Teknis Referensi. 3. ^ Noakes, Cath & Sleigh, Andrew (Januari 2009). "Real Cairan". Sebuah Pengantar Mekanika Fluida. University of Leeds. Diperoleh 23 November 2010. 4. ^ Avila, K.; D. Moxey, A. de Lozar, M. Avila, D. Barkley, B. Hof (Juli 2011). Sains 333 (6039): 192-196. Bibcode 2011Sci ... .. 333 192A. doi: 10.1126/science.1203223. 5. ^ Nave, R. (2005). "Laminar Aliran". Georgia State University. Diperoleh 23 November 2010. 6. ^ Anderson, J.D. (1997). Sebuah sejarah aerodinamis dan dampaknya terhadap mesin terbang. Cambridge U. Tekan. ISBN 0-521-