TAB 1.
Materials; Design Concepts; Safety Provisions  Design for Shear Simplified Method Serviceability Design for Bending Moment: Conventional & Unified Design Methodology
13 14 31
63
TAB 2.
Design for Shear: Detailed Method Shear Strength (Continued) Development of Reinforcement
139 172
TAB 3.
Combined Bending & Axial Load Length Effects on Columns Footings and an Overview of SlabonGrade Design
191
211
251
TAB 4.
Design for Torsion Continuous Beams; TSections.............. Seismic Design & Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures
280
295 338
TABS.
Two Slab System
435
10:00 Design for Bending Moment: Conventional and Unified Design Methodology Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 12:00 Lunch1:00 Howard Johnson Hotel
.Dr, Charles G. Salmon 3:00 3: 15 Break Design for Shear: Simplified Method • • General concepts Simple procedure
Tuesday., 8:00
June 2
Dr. Charles G. Salmon 10:00 Break 10: 15 Development of Reinforcement • • • • • Development length Modification factors Hooks Bar cutoff Moment capacity
1:00
Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 3:00 3: 15 Break Shear Topics • • • Axial tension or compression Shearfriction Brackets
Wednesday, June 3 8:00 Combined B~nding and Axial Load • • • 10:00 Break 10:15 Length Effects on Compression Members Dr. Charles G. Salmon 12:00 Lunch1:00 Howard Johnson Hotel Length Effects on Compression Members (Continyed) Miscellaneous topics Dr. Charles G. Salmon 2:45 3:00 Break Footings and an Overview of SlabonGrade Design Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 5:00 Adjourn for the Day Short Columns Interaction Diagram Biaxial Bending and Compression
Thursday, June 4 8:00 Design for Torsion . Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 10:00 Break 10:15 Continuous Beams; Tsections; . Moment and Shear Coefficients; Effective Stiffness; Example Dr. Charles G. Salmon 12:00 LunchHoward Johnson Hotel 1:00 Continuous Beams (continued) Dr. Charles G. Salmon 2:45 .3:00 Break Seismic Design & Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Dr. S.K. Ghosh 5:00 Adjourn for the day
Friday, June 5 8:30 Twoway Slab Systems • • 10:00 Break 10:30 .Twoway Slab Systems (continued) • • Moment and shear Transfer Howard Johnson Hotel Direct design Equivalent frame method (through lateral distribution)
....,..
Example 15.f(cont'd)
At
Code Reference
min
1.76 in.2
Governs
The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of 12 in. The longitudinal bars should be inside the stirrups. There should be at least one longitudinal bar in each comer of the stirrups. Select 10 bars: Area of each longitudinal bar = 1.76 = 0.176 in.2 10 Use No.4 bars
4.10 bars
Design of ledge reinforcement not shown here. See Part 17 for design of beam ledges.
(t~.;
i07ttltt:...i.in",Use.No. 4 bars in sides and top tomet~ C(tsp~~re?t:beam.)~lote thlll.t two of the ten. C:GHlij.tli.;J,·!ongitudinal ars(bars next to vertical face of led~e) required for torsion are to be b \k:('~;.~e ;e.ombined with the ledge reinfci..cement. 'Desigfi'ofthe ledge reinforcement is not shown here. See Part 17 of this dOCUmC!!lor designgf ,keam ledges. f 1'0UEe Table 101 to determine required. flexural reinforcement.
566 (12) ~ 001084
,,_,~.~r.,
i,J".
'A
s
,. "Hn~
=4:58 in~2
fye
." '
60
J~:,:
Y..Xt) ;
,paT;, :;:n:DVl(;':" .', 'At.midspan,i'provide (2110) of the longitudinal torsion reinforcement in addition to the flexural reinforcement.
1514
Code Reference
C~)(1.76) + (4.~8)
1.88 in.2
Use 4 No. 10 bars (As = 5.08 in.2 > 4.93 in.2) Extend 2 No. 10 bars to end of girder (As = 2.54 in.2 > 1.88 in.2) Note that the longitudinal torsion reinforcement must be adequately anchored. 12. Check required area of beam stirrups used as "hanger" reinforcement for beam ledge. Sufficient stirrups in beam section must be available to act also as hanger reinforcement for the beam ledge. See Part 17 for design of beam ledges. Reaction from one double tee stem (for 10 ftwide double tee, stems are 5 ft on center.) Ru
21.1 kips/stem
Av (per effective width of ledge) = Ru = 21.1 = 0.414 in.2/stem <l>fyv 0.85 (60) (Note that
<I>
The effective width of ledge over which hanger forces can be distributed may be evaluated from Ref. 17.5. For the ledge loading dimensions of this example, be = 26 in.
Av = s
0.414 26
6'
2'
For No.3 stirrups, Smax = _Q:!!_ = 6.8 in. 0.016 The No.3 stirrups @ 6 in., computed earlier in Step 6, must be used for the full span length to act also as hanger reinforcement for the beam ledge.
1515
University of WisconsinMadison
Department
of Engineering Professional
Development
Biographical Sketches
Staff Speakers Session Leaders
'
\_;.
S. K. GHOSH CONSULTANT S.K. GHOSH ASSOCIATES, INC. MT. PROSPECT, IL AND REDWOOD CITY, CA
Dr. S. K. Ghosh heads his own consulting practice, S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc., Mt. Prospect, IL and Redwood City, CA. He was formerly Director, Engineering Services, Codes and Standards, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, and is Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Ghosh is known internationally for his work in earthquake engineering. He has influenced seismic design provisions in the United States for many years by serving on or chairing numerous committees and advisory panels. He played a major role in the development of the shearwall design provisions of 1994 UBC and the precast concrete design provisions of 1997 UBC. Dr. Ghosh has lectured extensively in the U.S., Canada, and abroad on the analysis, response, and design of concrete buildings. He specializes in the analysis and design, including earthquake resistant design, of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Dr. Ghosh is active on many national technical committees and is a fellow of ACI. He is a member of ACI Committee 318, Standard Building Code, and of the ACI Technical Activities Committee. In addition to authoring many publications in the area of seismic design, he has investigated and reported on recent earthquakes including the Mexico earthquake of 1985, the Lorna Prieta earthquake of 1989, the Northridge earthquake of 1994, and the Kobe earthquake of 1995.
'
\.._;
BRUCE D. KIEFFER PROGRAM DIRECTOR· UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSINMADISON DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MADISON, WISCONSIN Bruce D. Kieffer is a program director for the Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) at the University of WisconsinMadison. He received both undergraduate and graduate degrees in architecture from the University of WisconsinMilwaukee. At EPD, Mr. Kieffer has responsibility for coursework in the areas of architecture, structures, project management and construction management. Bruce has also taught architectural design and technology at Ball State University in Indiana. A registered architect, Mr. Kieffer has worked professionally in business organizations, universities and government agencies, as well as in private practice. He is a member of the Wisconsin State Licensing Board for Architects and Engineers. Bruce is also a past member of the Governor's Study Committee on Solar Rights. He has served on other appointed committees and was chairman of a technical task force that developed the energy standards for the Wisconsin One and TwoFamily Uniform Dwelling Code. Mr. Kieffer has won numerous residential and commercial design awards and grants from both the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Energy Department. He has also been an energy consultant to other design firms and governmental agencies.
TABt
'~
A. Fattah Shaikh
. A. Fattah Shaikh
• • • •
Basic Concepts Types of Cracks Shear Span to Depth Ratio Shear Resistance  Concrete  Reinforcement ACI Code Procedures  Simplified Method  Detailed Method
• •
VM
@j)
®
v
f1 = V
V
f1 Ie emall
f1
1
f1 
Y2 o, + ~ (Y2 tan 2a
O"t)2
+v
v Y20"t
1M2
w
dz
Ih
(a)
C1
y
fCl
C
_
\.\:1 \~
f cly
_
act
* * * t dbl

"
'\ : :
~_
vb dz Y
_
, ..&7C:1 1.'
f
7
:
vb dz e
f
:/
I .:
".
f c2y
kd

h·
T
_!,'_
'(__
(b)
N.A.
(c)
vy.
v
b(arm)
AT NEUTRAL AXIS: y
V
b(arm)
=0
V bd
=> ACI
:3
® @ ® OJ
l tl
l
®
l
OJ
OJ
®
@
I d
or
a d
2 •
a
I
(J
v =p
M =Va
Basic definition of shear span a
(Wang
M =aV
or
a =V
k1
bd
~~
v;
+_ ....
Deep Beams Sheartension and shearcompression failures
............ ........
_ ....,...
__
....... _
Flexural failures
 ~ 1.0 d
Deep Beam
1.0
s : ~ 2.5
Short Beam
2.5 ~ ~ ~ 6 d : ~6
Intermediate Beam
ACI 11.8.1
~< d
5.0
Long Beam
Deep Beam
v,,=~
5.0
4.0
";::.r:
G;u
"tl ~
.Q
3.0
2.0
. . .. "":r . .,_.",. ..
...
:.:!~·:·:tf: . \
.. : : ."
. ." : ..
..yo"
.",..
",
.. ..
..
...
~3.5
Derivation of ACI shear strength equation for beams without shear reinforcement, that is, V, = Vc (Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.5.1)
= aggregate
Vez
= shear resistance
............. _c
c
E s.....
..
..
Vcu Va Vd
= = =
uncracked cone. shear resist aggregate interlock shear resist dowel action shear resist
35io 45io
20%
NOTE: Due to a large variation in parameters affecting shear resistance, ACI uses . empirical equations with Ve ranging from
2~bd
to 3.5~bd
I
'j
Inclinedstirrups
I
Singleloop or U stirrup
v V ~ V
A~.J
I I
Vertical stirrups
Section AA
v,
i
I I
Ns
s attributable
Shear strength
Iv
i!
to shear reinforcement.
f_
Av fy (sin
• TRUSS ANALOGY
I I I I II
Truss Analogies
IIIIIII
(Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.6.2)
10
= 0.85)
11.1.3
v.,
Maximum v., at a distance d from face of support in usual situations (three exceptions) 2 3
Y,.=Yc+Ys
JF; < 100 psi
( 50 b.s) fy
bwS
Allow 10% increase for joists Lightweight concrete when fet is specified: Use smaller of fer/6.7 or JTc for .ffc Lightweight concrete when fer is not specified: Use 0.75JTc to 0.85.ffc in cases of all lightweight to sand lightweight concrete
V.
&
Avf,d =  s
(.
V. = Av/, V. not
11
(Continued)
ITEM STRENGTH DESIGN (cP = 0.85) For O.ScP Yc < CODE
u se s = SOb Av!,
= d. ~ 24 m, 2
I1.S.S.1,
11.S.4.1
except for slabs, footings, joists, and small beams shallower than 10 in., 2t times flange thickness, or bw/2; for these cases, no shear reinforcement required unless v., > cPYc.:
t: e s
8
d = 2 ~ 24' in.
For [cP Yc
= ~ < 24 in.
+ cjJ(4~bwd)]
<
11.S.4.1
For [cjJYc
11.S.6.8
= ~<
12 in.
11.S.4.3
12
r <I>
= 0.85
A. = Normal Wt. Cone. A. ~ 0.85 Sand Lt. Wt. Cone. A. = 0.75 A" Lt. Wt. Cone.
vc = A 2 ...rr:bw d
V = A 19 vf'_ + 2500 P
c . c
I
_tzr:
_l!_
u
Vd b,.j _ M ""'''_1
No
Yes
Revi5e Section
No
Yes
No
Yes
(AJm'n
= 50
bw
= (: 't' fyd
Vc)
S ~ (~)mln
use s < ~
:> 24" 2
If Vu <I>
v, ~ 4 v'P; b
use s S;
otherwise. use s S; ~
( END)
o Shear
Design Example
The problem mayalso be solved graphically as shown in Fig. 37. q>Vs for #3 stirrups atd/2, d/3, and d/4 are scaled vertically from q>Vc· The horizontal intersection of the <l>Vs values (22 kips, 33 kips, and 45 kips) with the shear diagram automatically sets the distances where the #3 stirrups should be spaced at d/2, d/3, and d/4. The exact numerical values for these horizontal distances are calculated as follows (although scaling from the sketch is close enough for practical design):
12'0" r~ =
wu
8 kips/It
~ Column , ,
~
I
Span
I ,
I
!
""7
I
14"
I
>1
Ir
6 @ 6"
'1'
I2
8"
.1.
12"
.1
!
I
I
i'\.
f
,
I 1.17'
2.0'
_Face of  column
hf =
l Il...fEw =
27"ll
'[d ~ !'
24"
12"
II
~~B6.6kiP.
I,
I I
slope
= 8 kips/ft
70.6 kips 64.7 kips (31.7 + 33) 53.7 kips (31.7+22) ~
i
4JVc + ~Vs = 31.7 + 45 = 76.7 kips> 70.6 kips
.t
= 4JVc
221kips
33 kips
Ulll~
31.7 kips
I I,
I
<.
s = d/2
4.74'
41.
#3~~
~V~l1S.8kiOS
~~~UoC...Wao'.
i
Stirruos Required
V 4» s
1.17' 2.74'
Stirrups ReQuired
No
s = d/4
.!
I
, I,.
s=d/3 1.38'·
•I
(86.6  64.7)'18 = 2.74 ft (32.9 in.) (64.7  53.7)/8 = 1.38 ft (16.6 in.)
14
A more practical solution may be to eliminate the 2 @ 8 in. and use 9@ 6 in. and 5 @ 12 in.
• Axial Compression:
V ::'2
.
Nu
)
V 'c
If" ( 1 +
2000 A
9
bd
w
ACI Eq.
(114)
~::.:
vc =0
V
c
=
11.3.1.3
V "c
2 ~ ( 1+
Nu ) b d 500 A w
9
ACI Eq.
(118)
Notes:
N
_u
in psi
Nu is
+ for
compression
Nu is  for ten.sion
15
•
Serviceability
Charles G. Salmon
Serviceability
Charles O. Salmon, Ph.D, P.E. Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison June 1, 1998
14.1
Rev 3/98
= f3a Ele
ML2
(14.2.1)
E Ie
modulus of elasticity moment of inertia in a standard section in the member coefficient that depends on: (a) degree of fixity at supports (b) variation in moment of inertia along the span (c) distribution of loading
f3a =
14.2
'Rev
3/98
tv1a
........
L/i

14.3
Rev 3/98
Aj cj
4j
" I I I I I I I I II , I i
if I I .,,., , I I III
r I,IIJ II,III
if I , I , I I II , I , ,I
t~
j
I
J 8
.
It,
IW~~~~
I J . I••• I
I I
.  601.·
~.
&!_._•.J
See:.firJl1
eG
14.4
Rev 3/98
"~"
~ I
using
srL),s,s
'Ac.I:ual del/ef:.fiDI?
.
I
.I
,i~C~Cki'l!
load.
.
14. 5
Rev 3/98
s, = cracking moment
moment for the loading condition
= maximum
of inertia for
normal weight concrete;ACI  9.5.2.3) Yt . distance from neutral axis to extreme tension fiber
14 . 6
Rev 3/98
(14.4.5)
where Ie1 and Ie2 are the effective moments of inertia at the two ends of the span.
14.7
Rev 3/98
and
(14.4.4)
1 4 . 8 . Rev 3/98
calculated value."
"...under controlled laboratory conditions, there is a 90 percent chance that the deflections of a particular beam will be within the range of 20 percent less than to 30 percent more than the
14.9
Rev 3/98
where
(bai)
= instantaneous
deflection
1+50p
= 1 year
=
3 months
14.10
Rev 3/98
Recommended Values for Maximum Reinforcement Ratio p for Deflection Control 1· Members NOT supporting or NOT attached to construction likely to be damaged by large deflections: Rectangular beams 0.35pb . Tsections or box beams  0.40pb 2. Members supporting or attached to construction likely to be damaged by large deflections: Rectangular beams 0.25pb Tsections or box beams  0.30pb 3. For members of lightweight concrete, use 0.05 Pb less than indicated in 1. or 2.
14.11
EXAMPLE: Check deflection against ACI Table 9.5(b). Given: 5 in. slab Assume 60% of 100 psf live load is sustained. f'c = 3000 psi. fy = 40,000 psi
:#5r#/()d { lis
= O.;'!J~i'7.
3,9+
IJ?
~.,..___d:;
~
I.
o.43L
S~('JlIG.e
load
"Jop) CIJJ..f
14.12
(a) Moment
of Inertia
Positive Moment Region: Ig = 125 in.s Ier = 31.9 in.s According to ACI9.5.2.4, only the positive moment properties. need be used. (b) Effective Moment of Inertia Ie
Ie
Mer max
[ Ig + 1 
Mmax
= MD
L
.
 171
f ki t IpS
14.13
moment
region
Mmax
== MD ,
Mmax
Mer
= 0.86
1.71
1.71
> 1; Ie
= Ig =
125 in.4
Mer _
Mmax
 2.17'
Mer
Mmax
= =
. Ie
0.49(125) + 0.51(31.9)
= MD+sustained L ,
Mmax
Mer _
1.71
Mmax
 O.86+0.6( 1.31) ,
Mmax
Mer
>1
Ie = Ig = 125 in."
Deflection
Dead Load
s  /O(Ma+Mb)]
r, = Ig =
=
125 in.4
2
[0.861 (0.59+ 2 10
= 0.05 in.
(d) Immediate Ie
Deflection
Dead LoadLive
Load
= 77.5 in.4
=
(e) Immediate
(~i)L
= (~i)D+L (~i)D
14.15 (f) Creep and Shrinkage Deflection Based on Immediate Deflection Due to All Sustained Loads
Ie
Ig
125 in.4
(Ill) D + sus (L
_

5(12)2144 48(3.12)(10
)125
. _1 ] 1 . 6 5 1 0( 1 . 2 3) 1 2
 0.10 in.
Ilcp+sh
A(lli)D+sust
A  2.0
Ilcp+sh
 2.0(0.10)
 0.20 in.
14.16 (g) Check deflection against Table 9 .5(b), assuming slab is supporting nonstructural elements which may be damaged by excessive deflection.
0.30
in. ]
:N(J
If none of the live load were considered sustained, (lli)L + llcp+sh = 0.16 + 2(0.05)
OK
14"7
£' e,.
$~..rI:?/~tI.1D;;dtiP
1,)S.J.:J')t.2ijeDIJJ
4,~t:A?!
•••••
1iuf211/:; I)eat/.!
s/r;;in
A.s
"L,/
J;,it,a! I,,~J~
dae
to
III/! d;;1fe
t)&cur,.~d
h~f
01 ,5w!il/oed /o;;dn.1 · ~. A.1e ;.j Ioadlo/ ~~Re/aiil/~ hum'''''1:! ckrlo/ 3,910/ ~I u;/)crele
/ • .[)('//';1/;01')
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lAJater cer/)e/)t
.l':d6b
slunp
CcI'J/elJl
1.
5f~5J
lJt .tkl")af, on
~.
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R;ie
i:):f
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(.;
• Creep
creef
eoe!/tc,/t,r!
= t. '27 La , l!amirh!y
('C~/a.
/.
~).~
J..
0./11
.fr;Z'
II 240 %
• C.reep
!JeI!ed;;'r;
~cp =
c.1: b.;.
or 6l:e = kr CI:
ttJhqr~
~':).p
O.'8~
k.:::
'r
1+5op'
~ = ;,..e;J ,,/
°M
A.
. C,
I;elw~e"~ ~C
~.r cIt~r"n7
.
'GIL
,.t14'h
cc = ee,  C'~
PlMJt¢
I .=I1},4
= ~ (i;) J4 2.
1)/ tj..s;, .!
A ;«/.C_ ~,
o'to/r.3Q1 ierweel? C.
4;, = iX 4}~L1.l
~ = o.~o·~,rJikv'er
t'.12~
.f'n7l'k S?I'()l't
l'J.o/6 ~~»i7"()Q..J
F/tOh'I 8r~IJJ()rt,
¢'4
=/)'1f(ff'tffP)~
{o~ (pp')~ _
0. f)/;3 Co"II;;aPPf
e'JdJ
,%
ok 7rl:lJ's ~DI:#..tp~aI
for

6o,s},
h.
35"~t
~,.
(f(>'J > 3%
~? =
(CF
(s..)£(
4 = 1.40 a%H
.: 3.00 
40g humliJ~
~.o~o1/
4o~H~8o%
II:? eo %
Example
18"
r:
14,5:1
11=~I'~
~:6~oooIU
, ..
~
t\~
0
~r....
•••• • •••
4  #8 J.4.::
41I&J
.~
7 16
.
il~8
00
.,,~
Ie" ::t(IS)(e. 7~"J+ G1' (u;,7 e.7~~::;;/2, fIX) In.4c,..a~k11 MOhle,,1 ~A £~ /Y/~t = . Yio=
12 /2
£ e '/. s J7} ::
...
4741'~
Fpr"'
PL
+ L.L
.J
..
; t:'~/
= o.4~J
';:'r
[)L I Li. I
(~;')11 ~e:Jhf
J.c3d
0.4'5" I~B6o
3
I '2 2DO
= o. r;B i".
(c::'_;_)Cb'lG = WL
.48 eZ
48(36.1to)1220t:'/
'2.r;(40/'72'J
= /.:X//;',
(6;.),D
o.4~ ;".
• .Add/no!);;/
~ 5"!I~:1rJ , mos.
3
I'I')DJ .
'2.D
I YI:Jr
I. '2.
/,0
1.4
E")C:2mp C!'eep
le
l,f.z+
/4.9,/ /
149. J
"
"~/)d il;r,;,A~e Pel/echor; ;k," 8~tb 0/ &.14.5:1 /lye ;z.f 1o;;~1t= ~o d~..r ~ter 1;;/1,;/ h'/tJuf, ~tlrl"'_' I/um/~~ :: /b %
~7b
kr ~
J
= /+~of' =
(4),p ~.e~
O.B~
"
Ct =
k f'=o
e.n:
;::Or
70 % II *'
(C~ = o. eo
(Cr');L =o.fJ7
= k,r ~
(..:1..:)p
=0.
/,..n;
in.
~A 111.9.1  2
14.2;
2
~~ = f1!)
()\7
rr
l~ ~
pi:: 0
I~)
e.L _ ~'1
r 5~ +t
/tit
1t:;%
f/,
(~=
0·70
)t
/o~ 11].;1;'.
..
14,9./ 3 1.f.2b
.6.C,t>u~
= kl' T
I
(Ll,,:),/)
k,. =
~
I I 50f'
:: 1.0
*/,8
Lle.p+Jh
••
14.2;
J~.y;7 .. 1
11'£
• N
VI
••
It
It
14,30
l
~t
\\I
Q
II
A. Fattah Shaikh
CONSIDERATIONS: • • • Strength Steel Content Control Detailing (Bar Size, No.) Spacing and Concrete Cover Crack Width Control Steel Content/Section Size £:> Deflections Use of Compression Steel TBeam Design Aids General Comments: Appendix B ACI 31895 on Unified Flexural Design
Interdependent
•
• • • • • •
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
FASCE. FACI, FPCI
Professor, University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
Nominal Strength
Material Strength
N
Strength reduction factor ACI
f: ' fy
9.3
Stres,s factol'5
ACI
A.3 '
Design Strength)
Max. Allowable
.._
<t>xN
I{I
u
5',' D
30 __
~~,~
Required Strength
~
Load factors
ACI 9.2
Calculate stresses
(analysis) ,
Service Loads
Ws
(from codes)
'" /
~.. .....
". ..,.......
.............
....~
'
~..;.
~.,. .." .
,.,.
,"
....
.. '"
1
II
...... , ...
FlAT PLATE
Ma.imum Sclan:
Umiting Cril.non: Rebar: PT: (lml 28ft Puncttiftg SM.,
(1.01
lt~
o.zz em
OS psf
.a/m')
(2." IIO/m')
<f;if
<:f~~
~~ '.~
'
eon."oll
PT:
.._ ..........
!lJ:'
.....
I w·n'jI
Rebar: PT:
o.ea psf
0.7'1.
(Z.J4 Ieg/mJ,
CU7 kV/m')
4
..
.,~' ..'~
5
,..,.., omc.
"3..
;1:
I.
to LLof75
01'
...
• or ....
I~
ill':~'" rt ... ,
'"
..
..:;:::"/.?':.
'ill '.'
w
'.~:
..
:.:
l( ..I
PT:
O.IS pst
0."'.
..e~" ~"
6
WAFFlE SLAB
Criterion:
Mhimutn Soan:
LImiting
I .~
Rebar:
PT:
qft "Um, Rebar Congestion 0.• em (3.1' k9/m2, G.38 PSf (1.7lkg/m'l
~1l" i
~ ~
~~
Soan:
PT:
o.a psf
G.3I_
C3.lIlrO/ml, (1.71lrO/m2,
Numbers ' ..... 10 ' •• 4IOCIO psi (21 Hjmm'). lin. LL • 50 pst (2.31 IIHlm',. otfice suoerimpoud COlumns 20 I 20 1ft. (501. 501
mm,.
ex. •
(ZIO
1·12
Simpli(ied Design
= 20 pst
49 ~~
D.B
D.1
C06t
Index D.'
D.4
 .......
,
3D Square Bay Size
One..,_
"
....
Twoway.
I
I I I I I
JoIat'50
15
211
ZS
3D
35
4D
45
lJ~
= 100 psiJ
___
3
"Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Building of Moderate Size and Height", Second Edition; Portland Cement ASSOCiation. Editor5: David A Panella and S. K. Ghosh, 1993.
111
= 20 psf
C=4000PSi
0.9 ,.....
0.8
as
_ ....__ ............ •• • •

If
= 50 ps/3
"Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Building of Moderate Size and Height", Second Edition; Portland Cement Association. Editors: David A Fanella and S.K. Ghosh, 1993.
Nominal Strength
Mu f (service loads and load factors) Mn = f (material strength and sect.ion size) • Nominal Moment Strength:
5
1"'1
I"
b·.r
1 J
d
(b) Strain diagram at Mn
Equilibrium
.; x moment: Mn
A s fy
= ( C or T )(d
 kz x)
M n  A s fy
A s fy f' b
c
6
·' 1
0.006
o
•o
cu
0.004
•••
•
••
••
o •
• .0:.
~p0
•••
0.
••
• •••••
0 •
•• °
at
0.002
ACI £cu
•
= 0.003
Beams Columns
2000
4000
6000
8000
f ~ (psi)
0.5
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
f ~ (psi)
1
II
G+ bf
T1 1
l
h
Ec;u
= 0.003
~ '( c
T
As
•••
C = T, 0.85f'c ba = Af; fy
a=~
A s fy
0.85f~b
Mn = (C or T) ( d  a/2)
o
f~b
= A f (d _ 0.59 As
sy
.
fy)
= k2/k, k;3
p
= A/bd
f: <
4000 pel ,
~1
= 0.85
~:~O
)]
0.65
P1
0.65 0.50
4000
f:
8000
12000
(psi)
0.1
364 Beams
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
fy p~
.
c;
.fH
O.85f'c
£5 = fy IE.
(a) Cross Section (b) Strain Diagram
• Strain Diagram
Xb
= ,
87000
87000 + f y
• Equilibrium of forces:
with a,
. =
= p, x,
Aab
= p, (bd)
(
& Equation 1
Pb
f'
c
O.85f~ f
y
~1
10
ACI10.3.3:
p ~ O.75.p b
o
I 0.003
O.K.
N.G.
I·
=
.r
ACI10.5:
3/fc ~ 200
fy fy
Use smaller
of the two
=
(p calc.)
BASIS:
p.
min
> 1.62_V_lc
f
y
fiT
11
··1
Problem 3.3 For each .of the beams in the figure, using f' c = 3500 pSi,fy = 60,000 determine the nominal flexural strength Mn.
psi,
l"
C
b
~12"f
Locate neutal axis and compute Mn Balanced Condition x=
b
(a)
(b)
c = 35.7a T = 3(1.27)60 = 228.6 kips 228.6 35.7 x = 7.54 in. a
= 11.5?in.
05.7
x
=
~ = ;
108
= 3.02
. in.
= 6.41 in
=
eb
cb
Mn = 228.6(19.5  3.20)/12
= 311ftkips
350 60
12
I
Design Procedure
f Es
bd
• Mn =
= P fy (1  0.5
pm)
• bd = Mn / Rn
PROCEDURE:
1.
Aeeurne
PI»
Pmln
2. 3. bd
2
S p s 0.75
PI>
(req'd)
=
P
Mn / Rn & Mn
2
= Mu / <P
2
Select b, d: bd Revi6ed
(provided)
~ bd
(req'd)
= ~ ( 1 "1
 2m Rnlfy)
4. 5.
Ae
= (revi6ed
Select reinforcement
13
bd2
Mj<l>
Rn
615
A
S
Mu/<I>
As
·M
.®
4d
Note:
14
min
max
>90 io
15
BEAM
> 1 1/2"
7.7.2
111
T
x
max. agg. size
>
SLAB
(OneWay)
dl7
1.33
Temperature
& Shrinkage
Reinf. Spacing
<

{ 5h
18"
7.12.2.2
7.7.2 . 7.6.5
16
T·
h
'r
•A'•
5
As
(;'5
co'
"2 .
P1X
Equilibrium: T = C6 + Cc• a
6\
0.85 f/ b
c
17
Balanced Condition:
i'
I,
•••• A'
5
1····'J~
d
>
0.00:3
d'~
al1
1
............
E5
>
.....
....
Cc
Cs
As •••• ••••
1 ...
£5 £5
.. T ~
= fy /
> fy /
E5
For
p P
0.85 fie) 1 fy
> 0.85
P1
(fie d )
fyd
( . 87000
.) 87000 fy
18
Frob.3.16 For the beam with compression reinforcement shown, using f' e = 4000 psi with fy = 40,000 psi, compute the nominal strength MI1.Verify whether or not the compression steel has yielded when nominal strength is reached; if it does not yield, use a compression steel stress proportional to the strain in compression steel. Verify that the tension steel does r exceed the maximum permitted by the ACI Code. Because d'/d is small, compression steel probably yields. Assume compression steel yields, Ce= 0.85(4)(18) a = 61.2 a Cs= 6(0.60)[400.85(4)J = 131.8 kips T = 10(1.56)40 = 625 kips
...... 'I
~ 6 #7
d
2t=d'
= :36.1"
10  #11
C=T
a
625131.8 61.2
8.05""
=~
P,
8.05 0.85
9.48 ""
E/
6
O.003(
0.0021
>
[Ey
40 29,000
0.00138]
(.)
1317+ 369 = 1686 ftkip6 Verify that As ~ Max As permitted by ACI Code 0.003 ( 0 . 0 03 + 0.00138
Xb
1d
0.685d
24.75"";
ab
21.0""
Cel> = 61.2(21.0)
CSI> 131.8 kips = ASI> Cel> for ASI> for
= 1285 kips
Max As = 0.75(32.1) + 3.3 = 27.4 sq. in. > [Actual As = 15.6 sq. in.J  OK
19
TBeams
,,
'I
• interior T:
• exterior T:
• isolated T:
20
0.003
la < t)
Mn = (T or C) (d  a/2)
~ Split compression force in two parts
c,
{Cw
'"
0.85 f~ b. a
T  Cf = Cw
a = T  Cf
0.85
fc
T = As fy
bw
M, = C; (d  a/2) + Cf (d  t/2)
21
UNIFIED DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(APPENDIX B 
ACI 31895)
• • •
Purpose Highlights Key Concepts  net tensile strain, Et  strength reduction factor, <t>  moment redistribution
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
FASCE, FACI, FPCI
Professor, University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
PURPOSE
A
• •
UNIFY DESIGN
flexure and compression reinforced and prestressed
B
• •
REMOVE INCONSISTENCIES
reinforcement limits definition of d, dp
Ref: Mast, R. F., "Unified Design Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Flexural and Compression Members", ACI Structur:al Journal, V. 89, No.2, MarchApril 1992, pp. 105199
HIGHLIGHTS
• •
•
. Comments • • • ACI 8.1.3 permits design using Appendix B Appendix B is a legal part of the Code Substitute code sections with corresponding Appendix B sections: 8.4 c:> B.8.4
2
1····1
KEY CONCEPTS
• Net Tensile Strain, Et
. ,..,
j
0.003
_000
....
~c
o
,
o
0 000
0
0
Et
= net tensile
Et >
0.005
< 0.357)
     Tension Controlled
(c/dt
< 0.002
> 0.600)
     Compression Controlled
(c/dt
KEY CONCEPTS
• Strength Reduction Factor,.4>
0.90
I_~
L..._I.
0.60
____,j...___~
0.003 0.004
0.001
0.002
COMPRESSION CONTROLLED
<t>
TRANSITION
TENSION CONTROLLED
<t>
= 0.7, 0.75
(1) <t>
= 0.56 + 68 e,
= 0.357 + 0.204
c/dt
= 0.9
0.500 + 0.150
c/dt
(for: f'c
1.00 •
0.80
\ \.
"
""<,
I'
P = 0.75 p,
p
<,
0.60
= 0.63 p,
r,
<,
0.40
<,....
0.20
..
0.002 0.005
0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014
Ct
• TENSION CONTROLLED
l__
e, = 0.0075
For prestressed
flexural member:
Et
= 0.004
e, = 0.005
5
KEY CONCEPTS
e,
> 0.0075
e, 10
2010
pp ~ 0.5
I
Pb
dM = ±20( 1 P
Pb
_pI) '10
EXAMPLE
pp' LlM (i'o) 16" X 16" (typ.) 12" X 16" (typ.)
~
Support
pp
t
8.4 11.7
B.8.4 9.2
~~
t
A
B C
15.5 17.4
lJ A
14
25'
..J'
13
L.t
25'
~I
f", =
fy
Wd= W,
d(l  0.18813,)
d(1  O.300Il,)
Mn
= rcbd2(O.319~1 O.060~12)
Mn
= rcbd2(o.510~1  O.153~12)
~I."I
0.536p,f'cPd d,
= 1.05d
0.1d
d(l  0.19713,)
d,= 1.0Sd
O.ld
d d(l  0.31513,)
0.002
• • • • •
Design Overview Codes & Standards Materials Design Concepts Safety Provisions
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
Professor. FASCE. FACI. FPCI University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
IDESIGNI
Strength
A  Loads
e e
Serviceability
A  Deflections B  Vibrations C  Cracking
Other
A  Durability B  Fire C  Sound Transmission D  Etc.
Dead Live
B  Effects ep
eM eV eT
C  Stresses
e [ e
Axial,
VQ
[
e
. Tr Torsion, J
D  Need to Assess:
e
G
2
DESIGN INFORMATION
Design Aid 11.1.2 Recommended minimum live loads·
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED
LOADS
100
Habitable attics and sleeping areas All other areas Hotels and multifamily houses: Private rooms and corridors serving them Public rooms and corridors serving them Roofs·· Schools: Classrooms Corridors above first floor Sidewalks, vehicular driveways, and yards subject to trucking (2) Stadiums and arena bleachers (3) Stairs and exitways Storage warehouse: ~~ Heavy Stores: Retail: First floor Upper floors Wholesale, all floors Walkways and elevated platforms (other than exitways)
100 75 125 60
CONCENTRATED
Location
LOADS
Load (Ib)
300 200 2000 200 8000 300
Elevator machine room grating (on area of 4 sq. in.) Finish light floor plate construction (on area of 1 sq. in.) Parking structures(4) Office floors Scuttles. skylight ribs. and accessible ceilings Sidewalks Stair treads (on area of 4 sq. in. at center of tread) (1) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
50
For detailed recommendations, see Assembly Seating. Tents and Air Supported Structures, ANSIINFPA 1021978 (Z20.3).
40 100
10 20
(4) Floors in parking structures or portions of buildings used for storage of motor vehicles should be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads shown or the following concentrated loads: (1) for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine passengers, 2.000 pounds acting on an area of 20 sq. in.; (2) mechanical parking structures without slab or deck, passenger cars only. 1.500 pounds per wheel; (3) for trucks or buses. maximum axle load on an area of 20 sq. in.
'Source: ASCE 788 (formerly ANSI A58.1). Local building codes take precedence; see local codes for live load reductions. ""See local codes or model building codes.
TABLE 41
Minimum Unifonnly Distributed Live Loads, Lo and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads
Occ:upancyorUse Apartments (see residential) Access floor systems Office use Computer use Armories and drill rooms Assembly areu and theaters Fixed seats (futened to floor) Lobbies Movable seats Platforms (usembly) Stage floors Balconies (exterior) . On one and twofamiiy residences only, and not exceediq 100 sq ft (9.3 ml) Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar recreational areu Corridors First floor Other floors, same u occupancy served except u indicated Dance halls and bll1rooms Decics (patio and root) Same as area served, or for the type of occupancy accommodated Dining rooms and restaurants . Dwellings (see residential) Elevator machine room grating (on area of 4 sq in) (2,580 mm2) Finish light floor plate construction (on area of lsq in.) (645 mm2) Fire escapes On singlefamily dwellings only Garages (pusenger cars only) Trucks and buses Grandstands (see stadium and arena bleachers) Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies Handrails, guardrails and grab bars Hospitals . Oper_ating rooms, laboratories Private rooms Wards Corridors above first floor Hotels (see residential) . Libraries Reading rooms Stack rooms Corridors above first floor Manufacturing Light Heavy Marquees and Canopies Office Buildings File and computer rooms shall be designed for heavier loads bued on anticipated occupancy Lobbies and f1I'Stfloor corridors Offices Corridors above f1I'Stfloor Penal Institutions Cell bloi:ics Corridors Residential Dwellings (one and rwofamily) Uninhabitable attics without storage Uninhabitable attics with storage Habitable attics and sleeping areu All other areu except balconies Hotels and multifamily houses Private rooms and corridors serving them Public rooms and corridors serving them Uniform psf(kN/ml) Cone. lb. (leN)
50 (2.4) 100 (4.79) 150 (7.18) 60 (2.87) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 150 (7.18) 100 (4.79) 60 (2.87) 75 (3.59) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79)
300 (1.33) 200 (0.89) 100 (4.79) 40 (1.92) 50 (2.40) Note 2 100 (4.79)4 See Section 4.4 60 40 40 80 (2.87) (1.92) (1.92) (3.83) 1,000 1,000 1,000 .1,000 (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) Note I
1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 2,000 (8.90) 3,000 (13.40)
100 (4.79) 50 (2.40) 80 (3.83) 40 (1.92) 100 (4.79) 10 (0.48) 20 (0.96) 30 (1.44) 40 (1.92) 40 (1.92) 100 (4.79)
3{
Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads, Lo and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads
Oecupancy or Use Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers Roofs Schools Classrooms Corridors above fll1t floor First floor corridors Scuttles, skylight ribs, and accessible ceilings Sidewalks, vehicular driveways, and yards, subject to trucking Stadiums and Arenas Bleachers Fixed Seats (fastened to floor) Stairs and exitways Storage areas above ceilings Storage warehouses (shall be designed for heavier loads if required for anticipated storage) Light Heavy Stores Retail First floor Upper floors Wholesale, all floors Vehicle barriers Walkways and elevated platforms (other than exitways) Yards and terraces, pedestrians Uniform psf (lcN/mZ) Conc. lbs. (kN)
100 (4.79)4 See Sections 4.3 and 4.9 40 (1.92) SO(3.S3) 100 (4.79) 250 (11.97)' 100 60 100 20 (4.79)4 (2.S7t (4.79) (0.96) 1,000 1,000 1,000 200 8,000 (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) (9.5S) (35.60)'
Note 7
125 (6.00) 250 (11.97) 100 (4.79) 75 (3.59) 125 (6.00) 60 (2.87) 100 (4.79) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) See Section 4.4
'Fleers in garages or portions of building used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads ofTable 41 or the following concentrated load: (I) for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine passengers, 2,000 lb (S.90 leN) actin, on an area of20 sq in. (12,900 mmZ); and (2) mechanical parking structures without slab or declt, passenger car only, 1,500 lb (6.70 leN) per wheel. IGarages accommodating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions for truck and bus loadings. lThe weight of books and shelving shall be computed using an assumed density of 65 lblcu ft (pounds per cubic foot, sometimes abbreviated pet) (10.211cN/m1) and converted to a uniformly distributed load; this load shall be used ifit exceeds 150 Iblsq ft (7.1S'kN/mZ). 41naddition to the vertical live loads, horizontal swaying forces parallel and normal to the length of seats shall be included in the deSign according to the requirements of ANSIINFPA 102. sOther uniform loads in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions for truck loadings shall also be considered where appropriate. 6The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of20 sq in. (12,900 mmZ). 'Minimum concentrated load on stair trc&ds [on area of 4 sq. in. (2,5S0 mmZ)] is 300 lb (1.33 kN).
or member shall be considered accounted for if it produces a more unfavorable effect than the same intensity applied over the full structure or member. *4.7 Impact Loads The live loads specified in 4.2.1 and 4.4.2 shall be assumed to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. Provision shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration and impact forces. 4.7.1 Elevators. All elevator loads shall be increased by 100% for impact and the structural supports shall be designed within the limits of
deflection prescribed by ANSIIASME A17.1 and ANSIIASME AI7.2. 4.7.2 Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100%; (2) light machinery, shaft or motordriven, 20%; (3) reciprocating machinery or powerdriven units, 50%; and (4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33%. All percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer. *4.8 Reduction in Live Loads *4.8.1 Permissible Reduction. Unless the limitations of 4.8.2 are met, members having an influence area of 400 ft2 (37.16 m2) or more shall not
7
Government Body
(Legally Binding Code)
By lnclueton
By Reference
Model Code6
UBC
International Conference of Building Officials 1927
BOCA
Building OffIcials and Code Administrators International, Inc. 1950
SBC
Southern Building Code Congress International 1945
Standards Organizations
ASTM, ANSI, ASCE
Materials Organization6
ACI, PCI, AISC, NFoPA