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Vable

Assumption 8 on material homogenity across the cross-section is not valid. The learning objective of this chapter is: Understand the incorporation and implications of material in-homogeneity across the cross-section in the theories for axial members, circular shafts in torsion, and symmetric bending of beams.

y

y

x

z x

xx = E

du (x) dx

N =

xx dA

A

M z = y xx dA = 0

A

or

N =

du ( x ) E dA dx

A

Location of origin:

yE dA

A

= 0

4-1

M. Vable

N = du du E dA = d x dx

A

E1 dA + E2 dA +

A1 A2

+ +

n

En dA

An

du N = dx NE i ( xx ) i = -------------------

Ej Aj

j=1

Ej Aj

j=1

N ( x2 x1 ) u 2 u 1 = -------------------------

Ej Aj

j=1

i Ei Ai

i=1 c = ------------------------

Ei Ai

i=1

4.3 A wooden rod (EW = 2000 ksi) and steel strip (Es = 30,000 ksi) are fastened securely to each other and to the rigid plates as shown in Figure P4.3. Determine (a) the location h of the line along which the external forces must act to produce no bending. (b) the maximum axial stress in steel and wood.

20 kips h 30 in 60 in 30 in

0.2

Figure P4.3

4-2

M. Vable

4.8 A for use in a building is modeled as shown in Figure P4.8. The column is constructed by reinforcing concrete with nine steel circular bars of diameter 1 inch. The modulus of elasticity for concrete and iron are Ec= 4,500 ksi and Ei = 25,000 ksi. Determine the maximum axial stress in concrete and steel.

150 k 150 kips 9 ft

200 k

200 kips 9 ft

9 ft

12 in

Figure P4.8

4-3

M. Vable

Composite Shafts

x = G

d (x) dx

T =

x dA or

A

T =

d 2 G dA dx

A

+x

+T Outward normal

T = d dx

G1

A1

dA +

G2

A2

dA +

+ +

n

Gn

An

dA

d T = dx G i T ( x ) i = -----------------------n

Gj Jj

j=1

T ( x2 x1 ) 2 1 = -----------------------n

Gj Jj

j=1

Gj Jj

j=1

4-4

M. Vable

4.12 A solid steel (G = 80 GPa) shaft 3 m long is securely fastened to a hollow bronze (G = 40 GPa) shaft that is 2 m long as shown Figure P4.12. Determine (a) the magnitude of maximum shear stress in the shaft. (b) the rotation of section at 1 m from the left wall.

Text =10kN-m

2m 1m

Figure P4.12

4-5

M. Vable

Composite Beams

y En Ei

E2 E1

xx = Ey

dv dx

2

(x)

N =

xx dA

A

= 0 dv dx

2 2

M z = y xx dA

A

or

Mz =

Ey

A

dA

Location of origin:

yE dA

A

= 0

Mz = dv dx

2 2

E1 y

A1

dA +

E2 y

A2 n

dA +

En y

An

dA

Mz =

dv dx

2

Ej ( Izz )j

j=1

E i yM z ( xx ) = -------------------------i

n

Ej ( Izz )j i Ei Ai

jn= 1 i=1 c = ------------------------

Ei Ai

i=1

4-6

M. Vable

sx t =

dN s d = dA dx d x xx

As

sx t =

j=1 j=1 j=1

Q comp =

Ey dA

As

Q comp V y sx = xs = ---------------------------------n

Ej ( Izz )j

j=1

Q comp =

Ej ( Qz )j

j=1

ns

4-7

M. Vable

4.16 The cross-section of a composite beam with a coordinate system that has an origin at C is shown . The normal strain at point A due to bending about the z-axis is xx = 200 , and the modulus of elasticity of the materials are E1 = 8000 ksi and E2 = 2000 ksi (a) Plot the stress distribution across the cross-section. (b) Determine the maximum bending normal stress in each material. (c) Determine the equivalent internal bending moment Mz.

4 in y 1 in z 4 in

1 in

4-8

M. Vable

4.20 A wooden rod (EW = 2000 ksi) and steel strip (Es = 30,000 ksi) are fastened securely to rigid plates as shown. Determine (a) the maximum intensity of the load w, if the allowable bending normal stresses in steel and wood are 20 ksi, and 4 ksi.respectively. (b) the magnitude of the maximum shear stress in the beam corresponding to the load in part (a).

y x w

6 ft

6 ft Steel

2i

0.25 in

Wood 4 in

4-9

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