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IS 310

Chapter 5 Data Storage Technology

Chapter Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe the distinguishing characteristics of primary and secondary storage Describe the devices used to implement primary storage Compare secondary storage alternatives Describe factors that affect magnetic storage devices Explain how to choose appropriate secondary storage technologies and devices Storage Device Characteristics Consist of a read/write mechanism and a storage medium Storage medium: device or substance that actually holds data Device controller provides interface between storage device and system bus Storage

Reason and use tradeoffs - COST vs CAPACITY vs SPEED


Memory Hierarchy

Design Constraints Speed Capacity Cost Registers to off-line optics Fixed Cost - Total Cost - Cost per Storage Device Characteristics Speed location Volatility erasability Access method Portability Cost and capacity Speed Most important characteristic differentiating primary and secondary storage Primary storage extends the limited capacity of CPU registers Secondary storage speed influences execution speed Access time Blocks and sectors Data transfer rate = 1 second/access time (in seconds) x unit of data transfer (in bytes)

Volatility

Primary storage devices are generally volatile Cannot reliably hold data for long periods Secondary storage devices are generally nonvolatile Holds data without loss over long periods of time
Access Method

Serial access (linear) Random access (direct access) Parallel access (simultaneous)
Portability

Typically implemented in two ways Entire storage device (USB flash drive) Storage medium can be removed (DVDs) Typically results in slower access speeds
Cost and Capacity

Cost increases: With improved speed, volatility, or portability As access method moves from serial to random to parallel access method Primary storage: expensive (high speed and combination of parallel/random access
methods) Capacity of secondary storage devices is greater than primary storage devices Primary Storage Devices Critical performance characteristics Access speed Data transfer unit size Must closely match CPU speed and word size to avoid wait states Storing Electrical Signals Directly By devices such as batteries and capacitors Trade off between access speed and volatility Indirectly Uses energy to alter the state of a device Inverse process regenerates equivalent electrical signal Modern computers use memory implemented with semiconductors (RAM and NVM) Random Access Memory Characteristics Microchip implementation with semiconductors Capability to read and write with equal speed Random access to stored bytes, words, or larger data units Basic types Static RAM (SRAM): implemented entirely with transistors

Dynamic RAM (DRAM): uses a single transistor and capacitor


Primary Memory Evolution

Core memory RAM semiconductor Data in, select, control and sense lines Static RAM (SRAM) (flip-flops) Dynamic RAM (DRAM) (capacitors/transistors) EDO RAM SyncDRAM/DDR Rambus
Primary Storage Devices
Static RAM

Implemented with transistors. Basic unit of storage is a flip-flop circuit. A flip-flop is an electrical circuit that remembers its last position. One position represents 1, the other position represents 0.

Primary Storage Devices Dynamic RAM Uses transistors and capacitors. Lose their charge quickly. Require a fresh infusion of power thousands of times per second. Each refresh operation is called a refresh cycle. Primary Storage Operations Synchronous DRAM

Read-ahead RAM that uses the same clock pulse as the system bus. Read and write operations are broken into a series of simple steps and each step can
be completed in one bus clock cycle. Random Access Memory To bridge performance gap between memory and microprocessors Read-ahead memory access Synchronous read operations Primary Storage Devices Random Access Memory Random Access Memory describes primary storage devices with these characteristics:

Microchip implementation using semiconductors

Ability to read and write with equal speed Random access to stored bytes, words, or larger data units

Nonvolatile Memory

Random access memory with long-term or permanent data retention Usually relegated to specialized roles and secondary storage Slower write speeds and limited number of rewrites Generations of devices (ROM, EPROM, and EEPROM)
Nonvolatile Memory (continued) Flash RAM (most common NVM) Competitive with DRAM in capacity and read performance Relatively slow write speed Limited number of write cycles NVM technologies under development Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM) Phase-change memory (PCM) Memory Packaging Dual in-line packages (DIPs) Early RAM and ROM circuits Single in-line memory module (SIMM) Standard RAM package in late 1980s Double in-line memory module (DIMM) Newer packaging standard A SIMM with independent electrical contacts on both sides of the module Error Correction

Causes of Errors besides me not taking a typing class Hard failure Soft error Error outcomes OK Not OK then corrected Oops
Error Correction -2

Data to memory data to code(k) to memory Memory to corrector memory to recoder code to compare recode to compare Compare to Corrector or detector
Error Correction - 3

Hamming SEC and DED

XOR and Parity Word, Code and Syndrome Word 2k-1>=m+k Error conditions of SEC

0 or 1 more than 1

Overhead costs
Cache Memory

Why Cost Complexity Lines real estate Locality of reference H=hit ratio
Cache Replacement Methods Least Recently Used (LRU) FIFO Least Frequently Used (LFU) Random Cache Write policies Write Through Write Back Multiple Cache Bus watching and write through Hardware transparency Non-cacheable memory Block writing constraints Cache Mapping Fewer cache slots than memory blocks Direct Mapping Associative Mapping Set Associative Mapping 2 and 4 way Set Assoc. Mapping Multiple caches Single vs. Multi-layer caches

L1 and L2

Unified vs. Split Cache Pentium Cache Power PC cache MESI cache

modified/exclusive/shared/invalid

Cache Control Flushing


External Memory

External to CPU and main memory Typically non-volatile storage typical bottleneck in system
Fundamental Principals

Density Size of writing instrument Speed Sequential vs. Random Seek time, rotation speed, Access time, xfer rate Magnetic Storage Exploits duality of magnetism and electricity Electrical current can generate a magnetic field Magnetic field can generate electricity Polarity of magnetic charge represents bit values zero and one Magnetic Storage (continued) Magnetic Decay and Leakage Areal Density Media Integrity

Magnetic Tape Ribbon of plastic with a coercible (usually metallic oxide) surface coating Mounts in a tape drive for reading and writing Compounds magnetic leakage; wraps upon itself Susceptible to stretching, friction, and temperature variations Two geometric approaches to recording data Linear recording Helical scanning

Magnetic Disk Flat, circular platters with metallic coating that is rotated beneath read/write heads Data normally recorded on both sides Tracks, cylinders, and sectors Hard disks and drive arrays Magnetic Disk (continued)

Access time

Head-to-head switching time Track-to-track seek time Rotational delay Most important performance numbers Average access time Sequential access time Sustained data transfer rate

Magnetic Disk (continued) Solid-State Drives Optical Mass Storage Devices Store bit values as variations in light reflection Higher areal density and longer data life than magnetic storage Standardized and relatively inexpensive Uses: read-only storage with low performance requirements, applications with high capacity requirements, and where portability in a standardized format is needed Optical Mass Storage Devices (continued) CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, and BD

CD Bit values represented as flat areas (lands) and concave dents (pits) in the
reflective layer Data recorded in single continuous track that spirals outward from center of disc DVD: standard format for movies and audiovisual content Blu-ray disc (BD): update to DVD-ROM CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, and BD (continued) Recordable Discs Use a laser that can be switched between high and low power and a laser-sensitive dye embedded in the disc Dye is stable when scanned at low power during a read operation Write operation is destructive: recordable formats only written once Should be stored in dark location at room temperature Phase-Change Optical Discs Enables nondestructive writing to optical storage media Materials change state easily from non-crystalline (amorphous), to crystalline, and then back again Reflective layer loses its capability to change state with repeated heating and cooling Current rewritable media wear out after about 1000 write operations Magneto-Optical Drives Uses a laser and reflected light to sense magnetically recorded bit values Reading is based on the polarity of the reflected laser light Technology peaked in the mid-1990s Still a market for MO drives because many organizations created data archives on magneto-optical discs and still need access to these archives