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UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA

DPC 420
Research paper TITLE: EFFECTS OF Violent movies on
television that Negatively influence the lives of the YOUTHS IN the SOPHIA COMMUNITY

NAME:

Rondi sue 04/0832/1152

Lecturer: dr paloma mohamed Date: 2008-07-29

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION.........Page Statement of the Problem ......................Page Significance of the Study..................... .Page

2 5 7

Purpose of Study.............................. .Page 7 Research Hypothesis......................... Page 9 CHAPTER 11 - BACKGROUND.........Page 10 Literature Review...................................Page 10 CHAPTER 111 METHODOLOGY.......Page 29 Instrumentation.......................................Page 29 Procedure and Time Frame.....................Page 30 Independent Variable. ............................Page 30 Dependent Variable................................Page 30 Content Validity.....................................Page 31 Reliability...............................................Page 31 Findings..................................................Page 32 Conclusion............................................. Page 90 Recommendations..................................Page 94 Limitations of Study...............................Page 96 CHAPTER 1V BIBLIOGRAPHY........ Page 99 APPENDIX............................................Page 100 Cover Letter............................................Page 100 Questionnaire..........................................Page 101 INTRODUCTION

The advent of television had dawned during the 1930s. But, World war II had put a halt to televisions public realization. However, BBC made its first broadcast in England in 1936. In 1926, Logie Baird pioneered the medium through a mechanical process. Both he and Charles Jenkins for a short period manufactured and sold what were called receivers. Nevertheless, it was short lived as this mechanical television was updated using an electronic method. This new method had an improved transmission and reception with cleaner images. Thus, with the prevalence of a second World War, BBC had to discontinue its services to the public arena. Two prominent Americans; Philo T. Farnsworth and Vladmir Zworykin were instrumental in inventing the improved electronic Television. Farnsworth, a selfeducated engineer pioneered a scanning system, image dissection, a method of scanning to create visual images. This method is still used today. Zworykin, a Russian immigrant who migrated to the United States in 1919 was an engineer by profession who worked with Westinghouse. He invented the ionoscope camera tube that scanned pictures which had displayed images on screen. As a result, television became a popular medium in 1946. Two years later in 1948, Americans had found a new hobby with the numbers of stations increasing that same year from seventeen to forty-eight stations. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) cited growth of stations from eight to twenty-three and sales of television sets skyrocketed to over five-hundred percent. This medium surpassed radio set sales and the viewing audience grew to four-thousand percent all in 1948. Coaxial cable and microwave relay links were later set up by American Telephone and Telegraph

Company (AT&T). The rest is history as television had improved links to countries around the world through satellite and down linking transmissions. The Networks of American Broadcasting such as Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and American Broadcasting Companies (ABC, Inc.) have infused the homes of families worldwide. Television executives are conscious of the influential power that TV has over the lives of the young. Seemingly, these executives are not bothered by how the television content negatively influence many of the youths in this current generation. This is all about the advertising dollar for the Television stations and their ratings that grasp companies who advertise their commodities on these TV shows that youths view. These commodities entice many of these youths to purchase these companies products. The concern of the degradation of moral values portrayed on television is blinded by economic value of advertising. Thus, the unrealistic side of television is seen by the young and old alike who get lost in the fantasy world of the media production personnel. Media organizations had devised regulatory codes stipulating how television should be envisioned to guard its audience from any of its dangers. Governmental agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission, and professional organizations such as the National Association of Broadcasters have written professional regulations and codes designed to clarify the function of television to protect the viewing public from possible harm. The revolution of each generation saw changes in perceptions creating gaps between each of them. Thus, the young viewing audience is likely to see their social settings differently from their parents and fore parents. Television had and still continues to mould the views

of each generation as programmes are created to fuel inevitable changes to feed young hungry minds from the Baby Boomers to the Generation X.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research tried to look at the manner in which the media have vastly influenced youths in this current generation and how the media target their audience; adolescents. The media have changed basic institutions such as the family and its beliefs and values have been modified over the years. Adolescents today have metamorphosed from the previous adolescents of yesteryear in their modes of dress, speech, opinions and beliefs. Their perception is far different from their parents previous perception of the world. The world is becoming smarter with more matured youths. Yet, paradoxically, they are living with the idea of invincibility in their lives. It is a paradox that as the world becomes smarter technologically and the young are moving with the fast paces of the world, they are not all heeding the wisdom handed down from elderly sages. Many of these future adults are cognitive of the differences between right from wrong, yet, are beguiled to perform the opposite of acceptable societal standards and it seems the media, especially the visual one, have influenced the mentality of the young. Displayed music videos portray a different society from a generation ago. The beliefs and moral values held by the various religious systems of our society have been eroded with the onset of newer genres of music, movies, advertisements, television episodes, video games and even the internet. Although the internet was not the focus in this research process. Television it is believed, alters its viewers perception of the world and is believed to be recreating this new generation, especially with new programmes referred to as Reality TV. An erosion of Guyanese culture by American televised content is evident. One Reality TV programme The Batchelor could give young women the misconception

of love and there is need to be highly competitive to win the heart of a young male at any cost. Young women are seen on the show with no qualms of seductively kissing their potential partner in pursuit of winning him from other female suitors. At one point in time, the show aired during the prime time period when the entire family would have been watching television. It is a fast courtship which unrealistically is not evidenced with a long term relationship. Other displays on the television revealed unbridled violence and sexual acts in movies and television series. Music videos are filled with violence and sex especially against women. The mode of dress in music videos leaves little to the imagination. These videos can give young men the notion that they are irresistible to all women and just as the musicians, they can allure these women at their commands. These portrayal of women as sex objects can incite a young male to rape a young female if she refuses his demands. At the same time, if the young woman spurns his offers, he may be left with a low selfesteem that he is unattractive to women and may develop a disillusioned view of himself. Today, there is a surge in violence in our society never before witnessed. Teenage mothers are the norm, AIDS and HIV are serious epidemics plaguing Guyana, despite the education of promoting safe sex or abstinence among teens. Violence has been ranging from gang robbing and shooting private citizens and business persons to violence against women physically and sexually. Therefore, this research tried to delve into the violent content of movies aired by local television stations and its negative influence on youths in the Sophia community.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

This research sought to find out if there is a direct influence in the way young people think, and how they perceive their society. Moreover, the research examined to discover if there was an influence in the actions of the young. The focus was on movies that air from 8PM-12AM during the week.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Guyana has an identity that makes it a unique culture from the West Indian heritage, although Guyana shares similar historical and cultural backgrounds within the West Indies. Despite being geographically South American, Guyana is totally different from its Latin American allies. Guyana has a culture all its own. However, with changing times, this culture seems to be fading away. It is seemingly being replaced by American culture from the content shown on television. This research tried to discover if there was a pattern between violent movies on television and behaviour. Because there is a shift in the behaviour pattern of youths today that was not evident before in the previous Guyanese generations. However, instead of looking at the entire Guyanese society, the focus was narrowed down to one community; Sophia. This community is the representation of the working class society.

This study sought to determine with facts and figures from its research whether or not violent movies have an adverse effect on the lives of the young. Television violence seems to have permeated the veins of our future generation. This research can enlighten

adolescents and parents if there are any negative influences from violent movies that may be pervading their young lives through the visual medium. Parents can take steps to choose what their children view and have discussions with their children about their outlook in our society. Parents can develop that rapport that they can leave their children to make responsible decisions in their absence as to what types of movies they should view. This study can become a longitudinal one with future researchers as it can benefit those who read this research into conducting their own studies on television violence. Parents and children can benefit from a study such as this since it can create an awareness that some parents have not really pondered on of the long term effects of granting too much liberty on their childrens choice of viewed programmes. Some of these parents may be single or both parents may be living together as a family unit, but may be struggling to meet the economic demands of growing children. Hence, they may be unable to always monitor their childrens behaviour in every aspect of their lives. Besides, other researchers can do follow-up studies on this topic to decipher if there have been improvements through empirical research. But to understand the study, the researcher had to view the American media in order to understand its effects on the young in its culture. Then take the research done and apply it to the Sophia society and their youths.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

VIOLENT MOVIES ON TELEVISION NEGATIVELY INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOUR OF YOUTHS IN THE SOPHIA COMMUNITY.

There is a possibility that there can be violent movies on television that may not have a direct negative influence on youths in Sophia. Yet, there can be a direct relationship. Thus, the hypothesis can either be a H1, where there is a direct relationship in the negative influences of violent movies on the behaviour of the Sophia youths. Then there can be a H0 where there is no relationship between violent movies and the behaviour of the Sophia youths. Also there can be an H2, where there may be some other negative influence on the lives of this researched group that causes this group to have a different outlook in life through their behaviour, for example, it may be the possibility of the economic stress on parents who as a result become abusive to the youths that enable their adverse behaviours. Thus, it is possible that televised violent content may not be directly related but a mere coincidence that simply may be a spurious relationship existing there.

LITERATURE REVIEW

January 1949, the amount of television in homes numbered only 2.3 percent. Within five years, over half of American homes had been infiltrated with television. In 1975, the percentage of television in American homes skyrocketed to 97 percent of homes owning one or more than one of the viewing sets. It was said that the ownership matched that of indoor plumbing. (Television as a Social Force, Cater and Adler, (Eds), 1975, Pg 1). The book further noted that with American TV approaching its quarter century anniversary as a household phenomenon, one might think we would have devoted serious attention by now to the effects of this medium on our culture, our society, our lives. There was the claim that the Broadcast Industry is a marketplace that is dissimilar to other private enterprise economy in the American economic system. It offers its product free to the consumer and depends on advertising to supply, by latest count, gross annual revenues of $4.5 billion. As a result TVs prime allegiance is to the merchant, not the viewer.5 Television executives, it is believed, are so desirous of capturing an audience all for the sake of money that their preference is to the companies who pay to advertise with their stations. It is further believed that the aim is to catch a massive audience and have them transfixed to their television sets by the stations promotion of companies subliminal messages to the audience. The advertising companies seduce the audience to have them buy companies products whilst television stations reap gross revenues. The aim of every station is to see who can attract the most with what programming. The television programmes with the largest viewing audiences are guaranteed a long life span. If that programme eventually loses its popularity with the masses and there are competitive shows in which that programme has lost its popularity

to from other competing TV stations, then that show will be eventually cancelled. It will be replaced by another programme that will have an appeal to the current generation. What is pointed out here is that there is no particular need for quality programmes if the viewing audience has an affinity for those programmes, even though those programmes may be deemed tasteless by some members of society. As long as a crowd is drawn, television executives seem to care less of what other members of society think of their programming as long as they are raking in massive revenue. A few good programming may exist with documentaries but, most are not given prime time slots. Some cynics stated that the few good educational shows on were the stations programme managers way of simply tithing to the Federal Regulators. The Surgeon General at that time tried to investigate into the causal relationship between television and the behavior of children for a period of three years which amounted to a mass of $1.8 million and had twenty-three laboratory and field studies. No research prior to that time during the early 1970s had ever been undertaken to such an extent and television had been around during post World War II. The findings concluded that only preliminary and tentative evidence of a causal relationship between TV violence and aggression in children5 was found. It was believed by a researcher Tony Schwartz the totality and instantaneousness of television, more than its particular program content, contributes to violence in society.5 This is not a far fetching since television creates the Cultivation Analysis Theory that makes viewers paranoid and even tells viewers what to think. It is a hypnotic force that creates an addiction to its content as so well explained in this statement. Television is a moulder of the souls geography. It builds up incrementally a psychic structure of expectations. It does so much the same way that school lessons slowly, over the years, tutor the unformed mind and teach it how to think. Television might tutor the mind, soul and heart in other ways than the ways it does at present. Even in ancient times there was to fear of what the media can do to children. Although television was not present at that time, Plato indicated a concern almost half a century

BC, in his The Republic, about the dangerous effects of the theatre on Greek youth. In previous decades there has always been the worry of the media in other forms. Popular Literature of the nineteenth century was a major concern of its then believed ill-effects on youthful minds. The cinema was the major concern in the 1920s and 1930s of its unfavourable influence that it had on adolescents. Later down during the 1950s childrens comic books were seen as the cause for concern that emanated from the media. Further down that period, were the concerns of mass produced media content on the working class audience, hence, television and video followed on the heels of those preceding decades. Writers and politicians have always engaged the causal relations of violence as a result of over exposure of the young to too much television content. Although establishing causal connections between television violence and violent behavior have proved to be difficult despite being widely held.6 It is still accepted although not fully proven that television violence has resulted in the collapse of the social order. It is felt that delinquent behaviour is an inevitable reaction to the visual medium content as a lost of the respect for law and order is the rule of the day. Then there are the copy cat riots that come from the imitation of seeing other riots. Young people in Handsworth (England) took to the streets after watching TV reports of violence in Soweto, people in Tottenham then initiated TV reports of Handsworth. According to the British public there was an inner city disturbance with the young people during 1981. It is felt that television and video content pushed the buttons of the disturbance. The explicit violence that were seen on television and videos were referred to by the British public as Video Nasties. There were debates about the Video

Recording Act of 1984 and subsequently Winston Churchills Bill to extend the obscene Publication Act to television in 1986. This Bill initiated by Sir Winston Churchill during his tenure as Prime Minister of England was used as a precedent for targeting the dangers of young people and on the failure of parents (significantly working-class parents) to exert adequate control over their childrens viewing. The Video Nasties phenomenon was simmered down to lack of evidence that television and violence had any causal relationship. Although some are still maintaining that there exists a relationship. It is noted that childrens intricate web of learning and understanding along with their enjoyment of watching such disapproved media content do not mesh together. In other words, some believe that learning and entertainment should not be mixed. What is believed is that television is somewhat given too much negativity and that both learning and entertainment can enhance childrens learning skills. Those who negatively view television as inappropriate for learning believe that the medium is a breathing ground for underlying cases for social unrest that may be on the horizon but is ignored. Others believe such negative views omit the positive side that can result between children and visual medium. Another focus of study of violence and television with children was not about the behaviour pattern of the children on their thought process. It is not the content of the television but the activity of viewing itself. Marie Winn, a researcher, was said to refer in her study that television was the Plug-in Drug. She noted that television undermines family life and destroys childrens capacity for intellect thought. It was said in her study that watching television retards the development of the brain, blunts the senses and encourages mental laziness. It impairs childrens sense of their own identity,

their linguistic abilities and addiction to television, children are deprived of play and of the opportunity to participate in the interpersonal rituals of family life. The addiction of ritual television viewing was considered so harmful to the minds of young children that the visual media was referred to by Winn as an insidious narcotic. Children are TV Zombies who watch in a trance like state which blots out the real world and parents are urged to help their children kick the TV habit. Winn believed that there was no substitute for reading as the activity is a mental exercise that fosters intellectual growth creating extraordinary imaginations that strengthens the mind for readily educational absorption. However, she believed that reading was differentiated between reading real books and reading non-books such as newspapers. and popular fictions. Winn believed that deep concentration in learning was triggered by reading real books. According to The Media Studies Book - A Guide for Teachers 1991, another researcher, Neal Postman had his reservations for the amount of time children spent watching television and the repercussions with it. He believed that there was a loss of childhood innocence and the difference between adulthood and childhood was not evident as children dressed in clothing way beyond their years. Postman, said that there was the disappearance of childhood and that the television was a total disclosure medium. The nature of television explained too much of graphic details to children because he believed that they should be told only what they needed to know during childhood and the rest of information be told them as they ripened in age. He further noted that parents can no longer keep secrets from children and protect them from adult ways. Marie Winn also believed that disturbances in society came as a direct result of television which emerged in the 1960s with the coming of age of the first television generation.

Even with television as a teaching aid with instructive methods of learning, Winn discredited the equipment as an act of true desperation which contradicted the real purpose of preventing overexposure to it. The book disclosed that Marie Winns work was on the front of being extremely partial. On the other hand, Neil Postman is believed to be unable to prove a causal connection between television and the broad social developments. The 1960s witnessed further social unrest and much domestic violence most was said to be politically motivated. US President Lyndon B. Johnson during 1968 convened the National Commission on the causes and Prevention of violence. His concern arose out of the broad range of violence and its social causes with a major part attributed to the media. The commission desired to find out not only the quantity of violence on entertainment television, but also its quality. Questions were asked like how did the media highlight violence and what weapons were used on whom and by whom and what were their motives for the violent acts and what were the results to those acts. Further probing went into seeking, did aggressors find reward or punishment? Research was conducted on the Impact of TV viewing on Children in North America by Wilbur Schramm, Jack Lyle and Edwin Parker in 1960. They three came to the conclusion that some children were affected by the negative influences of television. Eleven studies were done in ten American and Canadian communities between 1958 and 1960. The study looked at the physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioural effects of television on children. The study revealed the extremely violent content had too much fighting, shooting and murder. The research was done with children who were going about their daily routines. The results are believed to be unsupportive of the theory that

violence on television caused aggressive behaviour in children. Although children may live in the fantasy world based on television, researchers cautioned that television was only a contributing factor in causing violent and delinquent behaviors and not sufficient condition by itself. The research during this time gave way to a theory known as

Limited Effects. The Limited Effects Theory states that the media is not a whole, but part of an integrated system of various institutions that constitute society. Thus, the media is not the only influence on the lives of the young. Other institutions such as family, religion and the educational system are all instrumental in creating peoples attitudes and beliefs along with the media. For some researchers they have needed to ask, how much contribution to the violence of our society is made by extensive violent television viewing by our youth? There are other details noted that may influence childrens behaviour such as their parents parental attitudes or knowledge of experience in rearing them. The study points out that television viewing influence on children is only a fraction of influence compared with the real violence of our society that has other influences at hand. Violence is said to be inexplicit for the defining of the study on television violence. Besides, to prescribe it as anti-social depends not only on the act but also on the circumstances and the participants. Some social scientists have stated that violence and television violence must be defined precisely and unambiguously. Different social scientists have used different terms to specify television violence and the aggression used by the society. Both have been defined as involving the inflicting of harm, injury or discomfort on persons or of damage to property. Putting the definitions of violence and aggression to be measured have varied very widely and whether anti-social activity is

involved or implied is also widely varied. The studies have revealed that effects of violence or aggressiveness displayed on film or television are based on two differing kinds of effects: imitation and instigation. Imitation is whatever is mimicked or copied. Instigation was defined as what is seen is followed by increased aggressiveness. What was discovered was that children learnt new behaviours through observing and imitating what they saw. Some twenty published experiments documented that children are capable of imitating filmed aggression shown on a movie or television screen. The ability to imitate is not an implication of performance as was observed. Approximately, thirty studies have in various ways defined instigation. Film or television viewing of violence by either children or adults increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior. But, results vary on the topic of instigation since many people are bred by their society and peoples reactions are not the same or predictable. Besides, laboratory studies cannot be confined to real life behaviour when other social forces are either present or absent. That is the problem many researchers have found with one anothers reports. Some argued they have used real life situations instead of a lab such as real-life environment of a nursery school. Certain reports have concluded that violence depicted on television can immediately or shortly thereafter induce mimicking or copying by children. Under some circumstances television violence can instigate an increase in aggressive acts. Some social scientists conducted their theories to prove their hypotheses. Professor George Gerbner spearheaded a team of researchers to have a content analysis undertaken. In his study, his definition of violence was the overt expression of force intended to hurt or kill. Gerbner found that the consequences of television violence

were unrealisticand there was rarely pain or much blood. The heroes were as equally violent as the villains and these villains were given justice by the police and not the court system. A racist approach was noted. Whites were usually victims of Blacks, Hispanics or other immigrants who were the perpetrators of crime.7 TV producers ideas of television violence varied about the realistic side of it. But, other research were in harmony with Gerbner. Monroe Lefkowitz and associates did a study within a 10 year period that showed how the television habits of 8 year old boys shaped their aggressive behavior later in life. If the 8 year old viewed more violent acts on television, they were more likely to be aggressive in behaviour as teenagers. The public was now concerned with their social order, hence, public policy was influencedby leading policy makers to call for stricter controls on television programming aimed at children despite the flaws that were noticed in its methodology (Converging Media, Pavlik, Mcintosh, 2004, Pg 433). Television on a social scale among the classes is seen as consciousness industries which highlights the attitudes and beliefs of the masses. The upper class has the dominance over the working class and actually tells them what to think, how they should think and what their perceptions of their world should be. It is as a hypnotic illusion of the bourgeoisie twisting reality so that the working class can be under their spell and be kept that way. The media is seen as powerful enough for children to emulate what they see often unconsciously then trying to imitate what they see on television. Other researchers coined television as the new Pied Piper. Its inefficiency as a model type for emulation was discredited with the childrens fairy tale term. The 1950s study done by Albert Bandura and others mentioned that overexposure to

television created copy cat behaviour among children. They would imitate what they saw with the same aggressiveness they witnessed through violent shows. However, the studies were done in a laboratory during this period and what was realized as well, was that children learned by observing or watching others. Thus, it was easy to see how television was the learning tool for the childrens behaviour as they learnt by watching others on television. But, the researchers including Albert Bandura could not confirm if childrens aggressive behaviour continued once they left the laboratory. A study done in the 1970s also found that television crimes were imitated by children in the real world. A teenager, Ronnie Zamora was convicted of killing his 80 year old neighbor. His defense was Television Intoxication. He maintained that television violence caused him to conduct his actions and he was not responsible for his actions and that he was legally insane. His lawyers pursued television actor Telly Savalas who starred on a detective television series Kojak, into using the actor for Zamoras defense. The judge disagreed with the plight of Zamoras defense, did not agree and ruled Savalas testimony out of order. The jury found the 15 year old guilty. More research continued after that saga. For instance, two-thirds of all prime-time TV programs contained some violence and that of 60 percent of the violence could be categorized as assault, armed robbery or murder. Television showed the vile of mans greed but, did not showcase underlying social customs. Moreover, it was mentioned that inaccuracies of real life crime, perpetrators, violence and the justice system is incorrectly portrayed. In Minneapolis, 1970, researchers unearthed the statistics of the age ranges of children who were looking at movies.

3. 0-8 years was 16 percent, 4. 9-11years was 19 percent, 5. 12 years was 21 percent and 6. 14 years to college aged students were 20 percent. The American Association Pediatrics (AAP) through Jean Piaget had issued a set of recommendations for limiting childrens television viewing..children under two years should not watch television at all.5 The AAP believes that parents must teach children that TV violence is unrealistic and is mere portrayal of directors and producers imaginations and what they see are not real. Piaget, believed that television can be used in positive and constructive manners to educate children. Parents and teachers can collaborate in grooming children to understand the differences between real life and television programmes. George Gerbner investigated long term impact of television watching that give way to his Cultivation Analysis Theory. Television cultivates audiences to view reality in a manner similar to the world portrayed in television programs, rather than emphasizing the impact of individual programs on individual viewers. The theory looked at the mass society and not at individual programmes impact on each viewer. This theory defines how the TV audience view their world according to what the television world portrays. The study was done on a long term basis to see its effects on those who watched plenty of television versus those who watched minimal amounts of the medium. Views were compared and contrasted to identify the differences between heavy television viewing audiences with the light television viewing audience. (Signorelli & Morgan, 1990, Pg, 19.) The social perceptions of each group had

determined their opinions. It is said that the Cultivation Analysis Theory is a third part of a research model investigating television as changing the perceptions of people. This model is known as Cultural Indicators. This model looks at; 7. The Institutional processes underlying the production of media content. 8. Images in media content and 9. Relationships between exposure to televisions messages and audience beliefs and behaviours.(Signorelli & Morgan, 1990, Pg, 15.)7 This research began in the late 1960s after the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Bobby Kennedy. This is the period whereby the American culture lost its innocence and navet as the public viewed the world as a more dangerous place than it actually is. The Mean World Syndrome5 became a theory that sprang out of the US publics paranoiac view of the world through the visual media. Although the Mean World Syndrome did not come as a direct result of the two public figures assassination, but from the impact of individual programs on individual viewers.that the cumulative effect of viewing thousands of murders on television..creates viewers who see the world as a more dangerous place than it actually is. However, a modification resulted from another study as people began harmonizing their perceptions of the more dangerous world as it is, to the acceptance of it. But, they believed that harsher penalties should be incorporated in such a hazardous world. George Gerbner, a University of Pennsylvania professor and other researchers provided evidence that those who watch more television are not more likely to believe the real world is a more dangerous place, but are also more likely to be stronger supporters of a more powerful system of law enforcement. Senior citizens who watch more television

are more inclined to stay at home because they are more fearful of perceived dangers in the real world.4 Nevertheless, children do not always reveal their thoughts of the ways in which they see the world realistically to their parents as they may actually see the world. Therefore, it is seen that the Cultivation effects are not uniformed. Studies found that children by the age of twelve were likely to see 8,000 murders and 100,000 violent acts on TV. By the time they would have reached 18 years, they would have seen 200,000 violent acts and 40,000 murderous acts. Meanwhile, longitudinal studies reveal 8 year old boys who viewed the most violent programs were more likely to act aggressively and engage in delinquent behavior by age 18 and commit criminal behavior by age 30. In addition, 54 percent of children have a television set in their own bedroom and often watch with a friend unsupervised. Forty-seven, 47 percent of violent actions show no depiction of pain. A US survey proved that 2000 both male and female children nearly one in ten (9.1 percent of boys and one in fifty (2.2 percent)) of girls told researchers that they were victims of genital assault (being kicked or hit with an object in the genitals). This was from the imitation of movies they saw such as; Jungle Book, Dumb and Dumber and Three Ninjas. On the other hand, some research also suggested that watching televised violence (or other content) might have a beneficial effect by purging ones negative feelings. This is known as a process called Catharsis. The word is Greek in origin and originated from ancient Greek theatre. Scientifically first tested by Sigmund Freud, he had his patient put into a hypnotic state that would cause the patient terribly powerful and dramatic symptoms. The after effects purged the patients previous feelings which were detached from the present one, hence, the release of psychological stress. This

catharsis effect failed to work in the media. The releasing of anger such as hitting a pillow is felt to be ineffective and may actually cause a persons hostility level to increase. The 1980s and 1990s saw more research on television violence. In 1992, The American Psychological Association issued its TV violence report, Big World, Small Screen: The role of Television in American Society. The study indicated that accumulated research clearly demonstrates a correlation between viewing violence and aggressive behavior. Both the young and old who watch a huge amount of television content that contains aggression have a tendency to hold on to values that favor the use of violence. The research results indicated that correlation does not equal causation, so although there may be a relationship between television violence viewing and aggressive behaviour, the one does not necessarily cause the other. In the 1990s UCLAs Television Violence Report done by Jeffrey Cole mentioned a reduction in over excess violence on TV over the years, but there is an Emergence of Shockumentary. These are reality shows giving dramatic details of the precision of professions portrayed by actors such as ER which gives the details of medical facts and Forensic shows which highlight crime solving abilities in laboratories. The networks spend $450,000 to create these shows. The third annual UCLA Television Violence Report showed that overall violence decreased on ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC during 1996-1997. However, some of the reality programmes have excess violence as police shootouts, car chases and crashes and animals attacking people, in some cases killing them on air. Some of which air on FOX network. Between 1996-1997 out of 107 TV shows, two aired graphic violence that were glorified or were seen as heroic.

Many research use co-relational data or measure two or more variables that show some form of relationship. It is realized that one of the severest limitations of corelational studies is that they do not permit the researcher to infer causation (i.e., that TV violence viewing causes violent or aggressive behavior in viewers). Experimental studies test seek to test causality. A well designed experiment does not permit causal interpretation, many television violence experiments have been conducted under conditions far different from real-life viewing experiences, thereby limiting the usefulness of the results in their ability to be generalized across society. Case studies on TV violence gives the limiting factor of many experimental investigators. Case studies are used extensively in the media and used to study television violence. However, it does not use control groups or comparison ones and cannot determine that results are the same with each person since each person thinks differently from another. On an International scale, what was significant was the dominance of foreign programmes that permeated the prime time airwaves of especially Latin American countries except for Brazil and Cuba. As much as three-quarters of the imported materials in Latin American countries come from he United States. The flow consists mainly of programmes of recreational nature, such as entertainment, movies, and sports. It was noticed that the United States imports very few programs from abroad out of the quarter of a million program hours broadcast during the two-week period examined. Less than two percent are imported from outside the United States. Most of these came from the United Kingdom and were shown on public television. The rest of the imported programs came from Mexico and other Latin American countries. This study came from a two-week period of sampling American television content from January 31 to

February 13, 1983, including weekends. The categories of analysis for the types of programming were based on UNESCOs recommendations concerning the international standardization of statistics on radio and television and on earlier UNESCO studies.8 The study looked at eight categories for their analysis: they were; Informative Programmes, Educational Programmes, Cultural Programmes, Religious Programmes, Childrens Programmes, Entertainment Programmes, Unclassified Programmes and Advertisements. In all the various conclusions, it was found that all the evidence given did not guarantee reliability. It may not necessarily mean that all the aggression of children studied was the direct intervention of televised violence. The possibility exists that the children may have already have aggressive traits inherent in them and televised violence cannot bring out what already exists in their DNA. Television in adding to the aggression of children was not noticed by the conducted research. It may be noted that the sample of the population may not be a fair representation of the young population. For instance, a researcher may have ventured into a working class community that experiences much strain on their society that may see an over excess of aggression that may not exist in other communities. Thus, an ill representation of the population that may appear too biased for the case of televised violence. Children from all the strata of society should be studied to form a fair conclusion. Most of the relationships between aggressive behaviour and televised violence according to this study found a positive side. But, most were also of low magnitude, ranging from null relationships to correlation coefficients of about .20. A few observed correlation coefficients, however, reached .30 or just above. The conclusion presumed

that there is a modest relationship between exposure to television violence and aggressive behavior or tendencies. However, it was emphasized that correlation is not in itself a demonstration of causation.5 It is felt that correlation coefficients of middle range, like .30, may result from various sorts of relationships, which in turn may or may not be manifested among the majority of the individuals studied. It is felt that if the correlation is not high it can still have further studies done before drawing a conclusion. The correlation states that television violence and aggressiveness are related. But, does not indicate if the cause is the effect and the correlation can have any of the three causal sequences: 10. That violence viewing leads to aggression; 11. That aggression leads to violence viewing; That both violence viewing and aggression are products of a third condition or set of conditions. The data from these studies are in various ways consonant with both the first and the third of these interpretations, but do not conclusively support either of the two.5 In other words, the data can support the two premises, but the conclusion does not state that the two are supported. Therefore, the hypothesis has not been proven here in this study of the correlation between the aggressive behaviour in children as a direct result of televised violence. What would have to be taken into consideration is the environment in which the child or children is or are nurtured in. It can be taken that the ways in which parents discipline children in harsh manners can make them aggressive, or there may be neglect on the part of the parents that the aggressive behaviour of their children may be a call for attention by the child or children. Another flaw to the study is that social scientists

cannot measure hereditary. With much discoveries of how traits are inherited from parents and fore-parents, it is impossible to discern in a child if the aggressive behaviour is a part of the childs or childrens DNA. Since social scientists do not venture into the field of science, that is left to those of the medical field, researchers are left with having to negate biology and study only the sociological aspects of the subjects and draw the conclusions based on only that identifiable part of the subjects. It is believed according to Mass Media: A Case Book, that in the future of the study of television violence in association with aggressive behaviour areas of research should be posited in how television violence has an influence on the children with other mass media. However, such a study is too broad as each studys focus has to narrow down to a point of study. The environment that children were reared in such as; social issues surrounding the subjects the and the current ones they are living in are to be taken into consideration for any future studies. Who their parents are and how the parents are relating to their children has to be another focus. According to Richard Hixon (1973), Mass Media: A Casebook, specific topics in need of further attention include: predisposition characteristics of individuals; age differences; effects of labeling, contextual cues, and other programme factors; and longitudinal influences of television. Hixon further believes that the functional and dysfunctional parts of aggressive behavior should be observed in order to decide how well that child operates in a social environment. Moreover, who are the existing role models for those children to pattern their behaviours after is to be noted. The role of their environment that teaches children social norms of what are acceptable and unacceptable behaviours from parents, teachers, peers and the

mass media and how well these children digest their learning in positive or negative ways have to be considered. Finally, the symbols attached to violence in mass media fiction on how do these youths associate mass media content images with violence and how they see these images in the functioning society should be noted. This current generation should know the right from wrong and how much violence is or should be acceptable and those who commit unruly acts should be aware of the system of justice whether in school or in society as a whole. This was Hixons prescription for conducting future research of televised violence and their effects on the social functioning of youths.

This research conducted a study to find out if these studies done were applicable to the Sophia Community. Sophia youths between the ages of 16-26 years were studied to define if they were negatively influenced by violent movie content and whether the Cultivation Analysis Theory and the Mean World Syndrome had any effect here on these subjects.

METHODOLOGY

The study was narrowed down to the youths in the Sophia district which was the population studied. Young people from that area were be selected for this study. This research ranged the age of the young population from ages sixteen (16) to twenty-six years (26). This research drew from a random sample of the population studied. The researcher had to select housed that contained young people within the age ranges sought after. It was difficult to have a systematic random sampling when these intended recipients of the study, sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) years, lived sporadically or even in some cases in close proximity. Therefore, the researcher had to take whatever came the researchers way.

INSTRUMENTATION

The researcher went to the homes of the sample population. The units of analysis were given questionnaires to fill up. Some were given during the course of the day. Others were given to parents, guardians and other family members who promised to give the questionnaires to the recipients after they had retired from their days work. Students were found since it was the August break from school during the course of the day. That way, every age group was found. Whether school age or out of school and in careers. The questionnaires could not have been filled up on the spot. The respondents were given a week to fill up on the questionnaires. Then went back to the homes of the subjects to retrieve the questionnaires. Some asked for more time as they had incomplete

their questionnaires. The questionnaires were the instrument used to measure the effects of violent movies on the young Sophias population. From the questionnaires, a coding analysis was drawn up to prove or disprove the hypothesis. Microsoft Word Excel Spreadsheet was used to document the data.

PROCEDURE AND TIME FRAME

The time of the study commenced in early July and was completed in early August.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE The Independent Variable was movies that aired between 8PM - 12PM from Monday to Friday. Weekends were also considered as was asked the respondents their permitted viewing pattern during those days of the week. The Operational Definition of violence was be taken from Gerbners definition: the overt expression of force intended to hurt or kill, The Cultivation Analysis Theory and Mean World Syndrome were among some of the theories looked at to identify if there were effects of violent movies on the subjects. Operational Definition was the Independent Variable; Violent Movies on television was noted to see if there was a direct relationship on the Dependent Variable; Young people between 16 - 26 years.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

The Independent Variable was the young population of Sophia between the ages 16 years - 26 years. The Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable were established to see if there was a Bivariate Relationship or sought to find out whether this Bivariate Relationship really did exist.

CONTENT VALIDITY For Validity in the Research, Content Validity was be used since there are extensive literature and research on the topic. Also open-ended questions were be included with close-ended questions in the research questionnaires. RELIABILITY The Reliability aspect of the research was to determine if the same results were found from this research in order to see if it matched that of the findings of previous research. Also, the researcher tried to prove whether or not violent movies had directly affected the subjects.

FINDINGS

In this research from the total population of respondents, persons between the ages of sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) years, were studied in Sophia. This research looked at the effects of television content on the behaviour of the young population in Sophia in this age range. There were 63.79 percent which comprised the female population and 36.21 percent which comprised the male population (Table 1). The respondents were randomly selected as could be found. Gender
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Males Females

Table 1 The age range of the Sophia community was mostly beyond what this researcher was looking for as a group to study. Many of the areas residents were well above the age range. In some parts, the residents were well below the age range as well. The main purpose was to select every three houses in a random way to indiscriminately select respondents. However, this was unachievable since there were older residents who lived in a street without any of the desired subjects that the researcher was seeking. In another area, there were respondents of the age group the researcher was looking for, who lived next to each other. Then five houses away another respondent within the age group were

found and at other times, none of the target group could not be found since they lived much further away than anticipated. In other words, the target audience lived sporadically. Therefore, the researcher had to select those who were available since some of the homes were; locked up, did not have television antennas (indicating that they could not be a part of the study), were empty lots, were houses that were now being built or simply had only children below the age range for the research. Another disadvantage was that some of the intended recipients to the study were away out of town and could not be given a questionnaire. For some of the respondents in this study, questionnaires were left in the care of parents or guardians who promised to give the questionnaires to the respondents to fill up when they had retired from their days work. This was the findings of the study with the collected questionnaires.

As previously mentioned, the percentage of the females in this study was 63.79 percent and the percentage of the males was 36.21 percent for the total population. The ethnicities of the population varied amongst Afro-Guyanese, Indo-Guyanese, Indigenous

Guyanese and Mixed descent Guyanese. The ethnicities were as followed: for AfroGuyanese, there were 55.17 percent. Indo-Guyanese comprised 18.97 percent of the Sophia population studied. Indigenous-Guyanese were numbered at 5.17 percent and Mixed Guyanese were 18.97 percent. However, 1.72 percent of the population failed to acknowledge their ethnicity in the questionnaire form. (Table 2) Ethnicity
60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Afro-Guy Mixed Guy Indo-Guy No Response Indigenous Guy

Table 2

In addition, the Afro male population was 15.52 percent whilst the female population for the Afro-Guyanese was 39.65 percent . The Indo-Guyanese population in the study comprised of 8.63 percent males and 10.34 percent females . For the Indigenous

Guyanese population in Sophia, the males were 1.72 percent and the females were 3.45 percent. The Mixed population consisted of 8.63 percent of males and 10.34 percent of females. The not mentioned ethnicity in the study comprised of 1.72 percent of males. See (Table 3)

Gender and Ethnicity


40.00% 30.00%

20.00% 10.00%

0.00%

Afro Mal Afro Fe Indo Mal Indo Fe Indig Ma Indig Fe Mixed M Mixed F No Res Series 1 Series 2

Table 3

The age of the population varied with 50 percent of the youths in the study ranging between the ages of 16 years to 18 years. See (Table 4) The age range of 19 years to 21 years fell at 22.41 percent. In the 22 years to 24 years, the population came in at 12.07

percent. The population for the 25 years to 26 years was 13.79 percent. A population of 1.72 percent did not give its age. Age of population
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 16-18 yrs 25-26yrs 19-21 yrs No Response 22-24yrs

Table 4 The status of the population that the researcher studied comprised mostly single persons at 87.93 (Table 5) percent and 10.34 percent in common law marriage. A further 1.72 percent of the population did not reveal its status. Marital Status
100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Single Common Law No Response

Table 5 The majority of the population were Christian affiliated with 93.10 percent. Hindus were a small 5.17 percent in comparison and 1.72 percent of the population failed to

mention their religious persuasion. See (Table 6)

Religious Beliefs
100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Christians No Response Hindus

Table 6

From the returned questionnaires, the researcher discovered that the percentages of persons living with Both Parents were 29.31 percent. Those who lived only with Mother

were in the 34.48 percent. See (Table7) For those who lived with Fathers alone, they were at 3.45 percent. The percentage of those who lived with their Grandmothers alone was 3.45 percent also. There were 5.17 percent who lived Alone and those who Cohabited were 8.26 percent. The young subjects who lived with an Unlisted Guardian were 5.17 percent. The respondents who placed Other on their questionnaires were at 8.62 percent. There was a No Response of 1.72 percent.

Living With
35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%

Both Pa Mother Father Grand Alone Cohabi Unliste Other No Res Series 1 Series 2

Table 7

However, it was discovered that 55.17 percent of the Sophia subjects were not in school. Those who were attending school were 44.83 percent. Nevertheless, there were 6.90 percent who ticked that they were not in school. However, the following question, they

ticked Technical Institution and Tertiary Institution, indicating that they were still in school or have an academic life. This would change the figures for those who were in school at 51.73 percent. The population of those who were not in school was at 48.27 percent. The researcher also found out that there was still a good proportion of persons who were still in school whether it were at Secondary level, Community level, Technical level or Tertiary level. These were the findings. For the student population, those in the Secondary level was at 20.69 percent. The students in Community High School were at 5.17 percent and those who were at a Technical Institute was 6.90 percent. For the students at the Tertiary level the figure was at 15.52 percent. There was a No Response of 3.35 percent. (Table 8) However, some of those who were not in school had already completed their schooling and had not dropped out. For others they had an incomplete academic life. Level at School
50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% Secondary Tertiary Community Not in School Technical No Response

Table 8 The educational level of the respondents were as followed. For those who had an Incomplete education, it was at 22.41 percent. Those who were still In School were 41.38 percent. Those who Completed school were in the 36.21 percentage range. (Table

9a)

Level Of Education
50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Incomplete Completed In School

Table 9a

Moreover, the Incomplete Education Group was 8.62 percent for those who did not Complete School at the 13 - 15 years level. The Group who had not Completed School at

the 16 - 18 years level was at 12.07 percent. (Table 9b) There was a No Response of 1.72 percent.

Incomplete Education Group


14.00% 12.00% 10.00% 8.00% 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 13 - 15 years 16 - 18 years No Response

Table 9b

The employment level of the subjects in this research was as followed. There were 62.07 percent of those who were unemployed and 37.93 percent of those who were employed.

The reason for the high employment level was that out of the 62.07 percent (Table 10) of the unemployed, 46.55 percent were still in school or in some form of technical or tertiary study. Therefore, this meant that 15.52 percent were unemployed persons who were not in school or studying in any technical or tertiary educational institution. Unemployed vs Employed

70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Unemployed Employed

Table 10 The employed were in various fields. Some were nurses, geological technicians, IT technicians, self-employed persons, business persons, porknockers, draughtsmen/engineers, accountants, waiters, clerks, labourers, seamstresses, etcetera.

There were 98.28 percent of persons who said that they enjoyed watching television. Only 1.72 percent claimed to dislike television viewing. (Table 11a)

Like TV vs Dislike TV

100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Like TV Dislike TV

Table 11a In addition to watching television, there were various programmes that were favourites among the viewing audience. 45.55 percent of the viewing audience liked movies such as Pirates of the Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia and A Beautiful Mind. Musical Movies were favoured with 37.98 percent of the audience for movies such as Honey, The Way She Moves, and Hairspray. Comedies such as Hitch, White Chicks, and What Happens in Vegas, were preferred by 56.90 percent. Music Videos of artistes such as Akon, Gwen Stephanie, Brick and Lace and Vegas were appreciated by 65.52 percent of the respondents. Another 51.17 percent also liked sitcoms such as My Wife and Kids, Everybody Loves Raymond, and Friends. For Television Drama Series: Young and The Restless, and General Hospital, 18.97 percent ticked that category on the questionnaires. A 55.17 percent also ticked off as a preference Action Movies such as Matrix, I am Legend, and Transformers. Religious Programmes were appreciated by a 31.03 percent. These programmes were: TBN, Creflo Dollar, Joyce Myers and 700 Club. Detective Television Series: Law & Order, CSI-Miami/New York, etc. were favoured amongst a 43.10 percent of the viewing audience. Horror Movies: Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, and Halloween were liked by 17.24 percent of the

respondents. A further 32.21 percent appreciated Thrillers such as; Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, and The Phone Booth. Local Programmes: GINA, YTV (Youth Talent and Voices) and Everything Musical Break, were accepted by 32.76 percent of the studied subjects. Animated Films such as the The Lion King, Madagascar and Happy Feet, were favoured by 55.17 (Table 11b) percent of the television viewing audience. For Other Programmes, persons in that category were 12.07 percent. A small 5.17 Percent of respondents liked Television, yet did not tick their favourites or mentioned what they liked about television programming. Only 1.72 percent of persons claimed to disliking television. The respondents were told that they could have ticked as many options as they favoured. Favoured TV Programmes
70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

Movi Mus ComMus Sitc Tele Acti Reli DeteHorr Thrill Loc Ani Oth No Disli Series 1 Series 2

Table 11b

It appeared according to this research that some of the respondents although not in school, but employed or even unemployed, their parents still had a curfew on their week day viewing of television. Some 18.97 percent were disallowed to view television during the week nights. For those who were allowed was 36.21 percent. 1.72 percent said sometimes they were allowed to view television during the week-nights. (Table 12a)

Viewing On Week-Nights
40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% Not Allowed Sometimes Allowed

Table 12a

For those who were not in school, 10.34 percent were only allowed to view television on a week-night during the hours of 7PM - 9PM. 1.72 percent were allowed to view television between 10PM - 12AM on a week-night despite not being in School. However, another 1.72 percent were allowed to view television after 2AM on a weeknight. (Table 12b)

Not allowed TV despite not in School


12.00% 10.00% 8.00% 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 7PM - 9PM 10PM - 12A After 2AM

Table 12b

For those attending school, 20.69 percent (Table 12c) were allowed to watch television only between the hours of 7PM - 9PM. For the students who were allowed to view television 10PM - 12AM, during school nights, they were 8.62 percent. A 1.72 percent that were students were allowed from 6PM - 10PM on a week-night. A No Response was given from a 5.17 percent of the respondents to the questionnaires.

Students Viewing on Week-nights


25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 6PM - 10 PM No Response 7PM - 9PM 10 PM -12AM

Table 12c

For those not in school, this was a part of their permitted viewing time. Weekend viewing was at 1.72 percent for those who said they were allowed to view television between the hours of 7PM - 9PM. This tied in with percentages of the same. A further 1.72 percent were allowed to view television all day long and 6.90 percent were allowed to view television between 4PM - 6PM. The same figure, 1.72 percent surfaced for those who were allowed to view television during 10PM -12 AM. Still another 1.72 percent were allowed to view television 12AM - 2AM and another 1.72 percent were allowed to view television after 2AM. (Table 12d)

Weekend Viewing habits for Non-Students


7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% All Day Long 10PM - 12PM 4PM - 6PM 12AM - 2AM 7PM - 9PM After 2AM

Table 12d

Those in school, 10.34 percent were given the liberty of viewing television all day long during the weekends. For the 4PM - 6PM period, 1.72 percent were given that free time with television. Furthermore, during 7PM - 9PM, 5.17 percent were permitted television viewing between that time period. The 10PM - 12AM were allotted to 10.34 percent and only 1.72 percent were allowed to view after 2AM. See (Table 12e)

Viewing Habits on Weekends of Students


12.00%

10.00%

8.00% 6.00%

4.00%

2.00%

0.00% 4PM -6PM 12AM - 2AM 7PM - 9PM After 2AM 10PM - 12PM No Response

Table 12e

This research found out that 93.10 percent of the population in this study owned a DVD player or a computer that can play DVDs. 5.17 percent claimed that they did not have a DVD player at home or a computer to play DVDs and 1.72 percent was a No Response to the question. See (Table 13a)

Own a DVD or a Computer


100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Own a DVD or a Comp No Response Do not own a DVD or

Table 13a

The majority of persons viewed DVDs. The percentage of respondents who viewed DVDs were at 94.83. There was a No Response of 3.45 percentage and a 1.72 percentage of those who do not view DVDs. See (Table 13b)

Viewing of DVDs
100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% View DVDs No Response Do not View DVDs

Table 13b

From the Study carried out, it was discovered that Movies such as Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, and A beautiful Mind, the number of the respondents to have checked off that category was 46.55 percent. For Musical Movies; Honey, The Way

She Moves, and Hairspray, that category was favoured by 39.66 percent of the population. Pertaining to Comedies Hitch, White Chicks, and What Happens in Vegas, the subjects of the study were ranked at 55.17 percent as having a preference to comedies. Action Movies such as Matrix, I am Legend, and Transformers, received 60.34 percent of the young Sophia population. Horror Movies; Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, and Halloween, grossed 41.38 percent of the DVDs viewing audience. In the realm of Thrillers; Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, and The Phone Booth, the percentage ranged at 34.48 percent. The highest number of the population had a preference for Animated Films; The Lion King, Madagascar, and Happy Feet, this percentage rose at 62.07 percent. See (Table 13c) For the Other category, There were various preferences for DVD viewing. The various shows that the respondents viewed on DVDs were; sitcoms, music videos, mix movies, pornography, History, African Moods, and other animated films. African Moods DVDs were reoccurring constantly at 13.79 percent of the discs viewing population. Movies Viewed on DVDs
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

Movies Musical Comedie Action Horror M Thrillers Animate Other Series 1 Series 2

Table 13c

The subjects of the study were asked if they bought DVDs and their responses were favourable to the question. The number of the young people between the ages of sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) years who bought DVDs were 84.48 percent. Those who were in the negative to the purchase of the product were 6.90 percent. A small percentage of 1.72 said sometimes and 6.90 percent did not respond to the question. See (Table 13d)

DVDs Bought
90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes No Response No Sometimes

Table 13d The question was posed about what types of movies do respondents buy. The respondents were allowed to check off as many categories that they liked and that they had purchased in DVDs. The figures were as followed. The figure for those who appreciated Movies such as; Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, A beautiful Mind, was 41.38 percent. Those who favoured Musical Movies such as Honey, The Way She Moves, Hairspray, were at 32.76 percent. Comedies: Hitch, White Chicks, What Happens in Vegas, were liked amongst the 50 percent of the Sophia youths that were studied in this research. Action Movies; Matrix, I am Legend, Transformers, etc, were another 50 percent in favourite with its viewing audience. Action Movies tied in with Comedies for the same percentage. See (Table 13e) Horror Movies such as Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, Halloween, were 31.03 percent with the respondents. Thrillers; Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, The Phone Booth, were favoured with 25.86 percent with the subjects. For Animated Films; The Lion King, Madagascar, Happy Feet, 53.45 percent of the population bought the DVDs for that genre of film. For the Other category, 27.59 percent went to that part with the miscellaneous of films. Sitcoms, Music Videos, Indian Movies, Cartoons,

History, Thrillers, Horrors, Action Movies were all bought in the Other category. Within this category, African Moods was a recurring favourite among those who view DVDs and buy them. The figure for African Moods DVDs bought was 15.52 percent. What was noted was that African Moods was bought by 3.45 percent of the Indo-Guyanese female population and 10.35 percent of the Afro-Guyanese female population. Only 1.72 percent of Afro-Guyanese Males bought African Moods DVDs. A further 1.72 percent bought Indian Movies which were of the Indo-Guyanese female population. No IndoGuyanese male claimed to have bought Indian Movies or African Moods DVDs. They just bought Movies in general. The Mixed Guyanese male and female audience also bought mixed movies in general. No specific type of movies were bought by this group.

Types of DVDs Bought


60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

Movies Musical Comedi Action Horror M Thrillers Animate Other Series 1 Series 2

Table 13e

The respondents to this survey were further asked if they rented DVDs. Their response went as followed. The population of respondents who rented DVDs were 25.86 percent. Those who did not rent DVDs were 68.97 percent. A 1.72 percent said that they rented DVDs sometimes and a No Response to the question was at 3.45 percent. See (Table 14a)

Rented DVDs vs Do Not Rent DVDs


70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Rented DVDs No Response Do not Rent DVDs Rent DVDs Sometimes

Table 14a For the low percentage out of the entire population of those who rented DVDs, of the various genres rented were as followed. Movies such as Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, and A beautiful Mind, were rented at 15.52 percent. Musical Movies; Honey, The Way She Moves, and Hairspray, received 10.34 percent of the populations approval. Comedies such as Hitch, White Chicks, and What Happens in Vegas, were noted at 15.52 percent. Action Movies; Matrix, I am Legend, and Transformers, grossed the highest at 20.69 percent. See (Table 14b) For Horror Movies; Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, and Halloween, 8.62 percent was the received figure. Thrillers such as Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, and The Phone Booth, were rented at 12.07 percent. In the realm of Animated Films; The Lion King, Madagascar, and Happy Feet, were at 13.79 percent and came in third to Action Movies, Movies in general and Comedies. For the category of Other; 6.90 percent was the total. The entire 6.90 percent in the Other category was dedicated to renting African Moods DVDs. 1.72 percent of the rented DVDs audience claimed that

African Moods was the only DVDs that they were interested in renting and that response came from the Indo-Guyanese female population. 3.45 percent of the Indo-Guyanese female population rented African Moods DVDs. 1.72 percent of the population said that they rented Music Videos. This came from the Indo-Guyanese female population. However, the genre of music was not given by the respondents.

Types of Rented DVDs


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Movies Musical Comedi Action Horror Thrillers Animat Other No Res Series 1 Series 2

Table 14b

The respondents were asked which do they prefer to watch more of; DVDs or Television, the answers revealed that many persons had much prefer DVDs over Television. Those who were in the affirmative to DVD viewing were 67.24 percent. See (Table 15) Those who preferred watching of Television were 32.76 percent.

DVDs vs Television

70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% DVDs Television

Table 15

The question pertaining to foreign programmes was asked by the researcher to the respondents through the questionnaires as to whether they liked the types of foreign content they received from the United States. The majority favoured the foreign content at 74.14 percent See(Table 16a) whilst with a minority the foreign fell into disfavour at 22.41 percent. A mere 3.45 percent were pleased with some of the content, but not all. This percentage wrote this in themselves besides the close-ended questions.

The Favour of US TV Content

80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes No Sometimes

Table 16a

However, for the United States transmitted programmes, the shows that respondents favoured were in a wide variety. Here was an open-ended question that asked respondents to list their favourite foreign programmes. There were 62 shows that were listed as the favourites among the Sophia youths. There were 75.86 percent respondents in favour of the US programmes in this question answered here. See (Table 16b) This was an increase from the previous question by 1.72 percent as some of those who

responded with Not All in the previous question listed their favourite foreign programmes here. For those in disfavour with the US programmes, that percentage was at 22.41 percent. A no response of 1.72 percent was recorded.

Favourite US Programmes Watched


80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Favour US Content No Response Disfavour US Conten

Table 16b Talk Shows were rated at 32.76 percent. See (Table 16c) The Maury Show stole the majority of the audience at 13.79 percent followed by Oprah at 10.34 percent, Jerry Springer at 3.45 percent and other Talk Shows such as Dr Phil and Regis and Kelly adding up to 5.18 percent. Detective Series were rated at 15.52 percent in favour with the viewing audience with CSI Miami as the favourite amongst that audience. Reality TV shows were rated at 31.03 percent with Americas Got Talent as the most watched programme at 10.34 percent within the 31.03 percent of Reality TV shows. Sitcoms were tied with Reality TV at 31.03 percentage and wrestling at 6.90 percent. News was favoured at 10.34 percent whilst Day time Soaps such as Young and the Restless and One Life to Live were rated at 5.17 percent. Music Videos were also given a 5.17 percent amongst the foreign content viewing audience. Cartoons were liked by 12.70 percent. Gospel Programmes were viewed at the percentage of 6.90 which tied with the same

percentage of Wrestling Shows. Educational Programmes were liked by 8.62 percent of the respondents with Discovery Channel being the ideal channel for learning amongst the subjects. Movies of various genres such as Thrillers, Comedies and Action were all combined with the total percentage of 17.24 with African Moods coming in at 3.45 percent. Cooking Shows also came in at 3.45 percent and a 1.72 percent went the viewing of various award shows. Favourite Foreign Programmes
35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%

Talk Dete RealiSitco Wre New Musi Cart Soap Gos EducCook Movi Awar Series 1

Table 16c

It was asked by the researcher if the respondents favoured the Local Programmes shown on local television channels. The answers in the Affirmative were 72.41 percent of the respondents in favour with the local programming content on television. See (Table 17a) Those who did not appreciate the local programmes were in the negative with 25.86 percent. There was a No Response of 1.72 percent.

The Favour of Local Programmes

80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes No No Response

Table 17a Local shows such as the various local news, YTV-Youth Talent, Voices, Morning Shows and other shows highlighting personalities such as Thats Who I Am were amongst the favourites of the Sophia youths. Morning Shows such as Guyana Today, First Look, NTN This Morning, and Wake Up Guyana, were the favourites to start the day from the responses to the questionnaires. These shows all fell into the category of Morning Shows and were preferred by 20.69 percent of the respondents. Guyana Today and First Look, were noted at 5.17 percent of the local viewing audiences favourite. NTN This Morning, was favoured with 3.45 percent. These shows along with other Morning Shows all added up to make up the 20.69 percent total. Local News such as Prime News and News Update were amongst the preferred news to watch. Others did not have preference and just said News. This category was at 15.52 percent of the respondents who mentioned their favourite local programmes. Programmes pertaining to Youths and HIV AIDS Awareness were watched by 13.79 percent of the population. Music Shows such as DJ Stress, Reggae Nation, HJTV Top Ten Countdown, HJTV Hit list, Music Break and Ruff Cut were some of the local musical shows that the

young people in Sophia between the ages of sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) had preferred to see on local television. These shows were favoured by 25.86 percent of the population. See (Table 17b) Local Talent Shows exhibiting young Guyanese talent were favoured by 8.62 percent. Some of these shows were listed as Facts 2, with a 3.45 percent and Stage Shows at 1.72 percent. Shows that highlighted Guyanese personalities with the exception of Morning Shows, were given a 3.45 percent of favour with the visual audience of this study. Also coming in at 3.45 percent, were local Gospel Programmes. Shows that highlighted Guyanese Culture and Style were highlighted by 1.72 percent as well as those that promoted Guyanas Nature, were given the percentage of the same. Sports Shows, Programmes reflecting on Natural Remedies for ailments such as Rain Forest Herbs and Family Shows were also in the same 1.72 percent each. The researcher also discovered that the programme, Youth, Talent and Voices, YTV, was favoured by the female population of 8.62 percent. They were mostly unemployed since they were in the ages of sixteen (16) to eighteen (18) years and were still in school. Only 1.72 of the female population who view YTV programme were in the twenty-five (25) to twenty-six (26) age range. This population were co-habiting with their partners and were in the employment arena. Local Musical shows were preferred mostly by the male population at 13.79 percent and females at 12.07 percent. It comprised of 15.52 percent of the Afro-Guyanese population and 5.17 of the Indo-Guyanese population. The Mixed population stood at 5.17 percent of the population who favour Local Musical shows.

Local Favourite Shows


30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Mornin News Youths Music Talent Culture Nature Person Sports Herbal Family Series 1 Series 2

Table 17b There were 36 local shows mentioned as the favourite local programmes to watch. According to the returned questionnaires, 65.52 percent of respondents listed their favourite local programmes. On the contrary, 25.86 percent claimed to disfavour local programmes that were on local television stations. A figure of 6.90 percent did mention in the previous question that they liked the local programmes shown on television. However, in the subsequent question asking them to list their favourite local programmes once they were in the affirmative with that previous question, they failed to respond. Somehow they did not list their favourite local programmes in that question. Therefore, the figure had decreased from 72.41 to 65.52 percent. This was a decrease by 6.90 percent. A further No Response of 1.72 percent were given both questions of whether respondents liked local programmes shown on local television channels and to list those favourites if they had any.

What seemed to be making a reoccurrence was African Moods. Although this is not a local programme, it is aired on some of the local channels by means of DVDs. Some respondents still listed African Moods as a favourite of their local preferences. This figure was given at 3.45 percent of the audience. From the findings of this research, it was discovered that foreign shows were favoured by 26 additional shows to local shows. The difference in the preference of the foreign content which is over the local content was by 10.34 percent of the respondents. This was due to the subtraction of the 6.90 percent that did not list their favourite programmes. Had those persons responded by listing their favourite local content, there would have only been a smaller percentage difference. That is, if the previous figure of 72.42 percent had remained instead of the decreased 65.52 percent. Hence, there would have been only a decrease in the local content to the foreign content by only 3.44 percent. The foreign content was 75.86 percent of the respondents who favoured the same. See (Table 18) The disliking of foreign content was 22.41 percent and the disliking of local content was 25.86 percent with the respondents. The difference between the two was 3.45 percent. Both foreign and local content had a No Response of 1.72 percent. Therefore, it is held that foreign television content is more favoured to local television content between the age groups of sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) years in the Sophia community.

Foreign vs Local TV Content


80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

Like Forei Like Loc Dis.Forei Dis.Local No R.For No R.Loc No R.list Series 1 Series 2

Table 18

There were 31 different programmes and shows that made the Violent Shows Content. The question posed for this open-ended category was; If you believe that there is violence in movies on television, please state what is/are the programme/programmes that you think contains/contain violence or the most violence. The Violent Shows Content was given by 43.10 percent of respondents. There were 55.17 percent of No Response to this question with a 1.72 percent of a Not Sure. See (Table 19a) Violent TV Content

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% Violent Not Sure No Response

Table 19a

The Shows that were rated as most violent were at 5.17 percent. See (Table 19b) These shows were tied at this percentage. The Shows were Wrestling (WWE) Raw, Action Movies (in general) and the Matrix. The Shows following the Most Violent were CSI Miami, American Gangster, African Moods, Horror Movies (in general), Wrong Turn

and Dentist all at 3.45 percent each. There were mention of other shows, but all within the small margin of 1.72 percent. These Shows were Chinese Movies that starred Jackie Chan and Jet Li, Movies such as; Scream, Predator, Massacre, Room 9, Pornography and most Thrillers, etc. Series such as; Prison Break, Locked Up and Law & Order were among the those mentioned in the 1.72 percent. Animations such as Family Guy and Music Videos such as those with 50 Cents and those other Music Videos which instigate violence and guns as cool to the young were mentioned by 1.72 percent of the respondents. Another 1.72 percent of the respondents also noted that Programmes which contained, Guns, Knives, Cutlass, Bombs, Fire and Fighting, were also highlighted as Violent Content within television. Shows with verbal and physical abuse were also noted by respondents as well as those that contained domestic and child abuse with the same 1.72 percent of the respondents. Only two local shows made the violent list they were; CNS Sharma and Youth Expression both at 1.72 percent each. Violent TV Shows
6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

WWE Action Matrix CSI Mia Amer.G African Horror Wrong Dentist Other S Series 1

Table 19b

However, in the open-ended question of If you believe that there is violence in movies on television, please state what is/are the programme/programmes that you think contains/contain violence or the most violence although there was a 55.17 percent of No Response and a 1.72 percent of Not Sure in that question, the majority of the 55.17 percent responded to the subsequent question. See (Table 20a) That question was How would you rate the violence that you view on television? The ratings to the latter question amongst the No Response respondents in the previous question were as followed. In the category of Very Violent, 15.62 percent said that television was of such a nature. The Violent option gave a percentage of 6.25 percent. The Mildly Violent, responded with 15.62 percent. The Not Violent at all, was at 12.5 percent. The Not Sure responded with 31.25 percent and the No Response to question 31 was 18.75 percent.

No Response TV Ratings to Question 31


40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% Very Violent Not Violent at all Violent Not Sure Mildly Violent No Response

Table 20a For the question, How would you rate the violence that you view on television? 27.59 percent of respondents reported that television content was very violent. Respondents who believed that television was violent was reported amongst 20.69 percent (Table 20b)of the population. Those who believe that television was mildly violent was 12.07 percent. In the not violent at all category, 6.90 percent of respondents believed this about television. Those who said that they were not sure that television was violent was 22.41 percent. A No Response was given of 10.34 percent of the population.

Ratings of TV Content
30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Very Violent Not Violent At All Violent Not Sure Mildly Violent No Response

Table 20b

Regardless, the violence to these programmes, it was asked the respondents, if they enjoyed watching these programmes. Those who approved programmes despite its violent content were at 68.96 percent. (Table 20c) Those who disapproved the violent nature to these programmes they listed as violent in question 30, were at 18.96 percent. And those who gave a No Response were 12.07 percent.

Preferences to Violent TV Content

70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes No No Response

Table 20c In question 32, the 12.07 percent of No Response respondents had responded in question 31, rating the violence on television from Violent, Mildly Violent to Not Sure each at 1.72 percent. The remaining 6.90 percent were definitely No Response to both questions 31 and 32.

In question 33, it was asked the Sophia subjects, After watching a violent movie, how did it make you feel? They were told to tick as many of the options as they liked. There were 17.24 percent of the sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) Sophia subjects who felt Angry after viewing a violent movie. Another 17.24 percent felt Depressed. For those who said that the felt Like stating a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies, the figure given was at 10.34 percent. Those who said they felt Like having sex, were 6.90 percent which was the same percentage for those who responded

to Make you feel like hiding. This was the lowest percentage amongst the emotions of the respondent. For those who felt Excited, after watching a violent movie were discovered to be at 32.76 percent. This was the highest figure given amongst the emotions of the respondents to question 33. See (Table 21) Those who felt Fearful, were 31.03 percent. This was the second highest figure given. The respondents who noted that they felt Restless, were 25.86 percent and the respondents who felt Tired after watching a violent movie were 17.24 percent. There was a percentage of 5.17 who noted that they were Not bothered by TV violence or noted None of the above. There was a No Response of 10.34 percent.

Emotions After a Violent Movie


35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Angry Depre Fight Sexua ExciteFearfu Hiding Restle Tired None No Re Series 1

Table 21 The respondents who reported as feeling Tired, and ticked that option alone were 10.34 percent. These respondents who ticked the Tired emotion appeared with the Angry, Depressed and Restless emotions 3.45 percent of the time. The Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Feel like having sex, appeared 1.72 percent of the time with Tired by the selection of the respondents. The Excited emotion appeared 5.17 percent of the times with other emotions in the Tired feeling category for those who ticked it with other emotional feelings. Feeling Tired apart

from being the only emotion ticked by some of the respondents at 10.34 percent, it appeared with other emotions 6.90 percent of the time. The Restless emotion seemed to be appearing most often with the Fearful emotion more than any other emotions. It appeared 8.62 percent of the times with the Restless emotion together alone as ticked responses by respondents. Apart from that, the Fearful emotion appeared with the Restless emotion along with other emotions 6.90 percent of the times. This brings it to the total of the amount of times Fearful appears with Restless together alone and along with other multiple emotions to 15.52 percent. Angry, Depressed and Excited, appeared 1.72 percent of the times with the Restless emotion. Make you feel like hiding, appeared with Angry, Depressed and Fearful 3.45 percent. It only appeared 1.72 percent with Feel like having sex. The Fearful emotion apart from appearing with the Restless emotion at 15.52 percent, it appeared with other emotions as well. Angry appeared with Fearful emotion 5.17 percent. Depressed appeared with Fearful 6.90 percent of the times. Excited reappeared 8.62 percent of the times with Fearful, although only 1.72 percent of the times together alone, unlike the Restless emotion. Fearful appeared only by itself as a ticked option at 3.45 percent and the same figure of 3.45 percent was the number of times it appeared with Make you feel like hiding. Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies only appeared 1.72 percent with the Fearful emotion. This emotion did not appear at any time with the emotions of Tired or Feel like having sex. The Excited emotion appeared by itself as a ticked off option for respondents at 12.07 percent of the times, followed by Restless at 10.34 percent. It appeared with Fearful 8.62 percent. Tired appeared with this emotion along with Depressed, 6.90 percent of the times. However, it appeared with Angry and Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies 5.17 percent of the time. The category of Feel like having sex appeared with the Excited emotion at 3.45 percent with the respondents. It never appeared with the Make you feel like hiding option. Feel like having sex option appeared with Angry, Make you feel like hiding, Tired and Restless. They were ticked off 1.72 percent of the times with respondents.

Depressed and Excited emotions were ticked off 3.45 percent of the times by the young Sophia population with the Feel like having sex option. Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Fearful never appeared with this option. It also never appeared by itself as the only ticked off emotion. The Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies was ticked off alone and with Excited amongst 5.17 percent of the population. It was ticked along with Angry, Depressed, Fearful and Tired at 1.72 percent. It never appeared with Feel like having sex, Make you feel like hiding and Restless. The Depressed emotion was ticked off by those who felt the Angry emotion 8.62 percent of the times. Excited and Fearful were the emotions to be ticked along with Depressed at 6.90 percent and Restless was ticked off 5.17 percent of the times. Feel like having sex, Make you feel like hiding and Tired were ticked with the Depressed category 3.45 percent of the times. It was the only emotion ticked off by 1.72 percent of the respondents and was ticked off with Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies by respondents of the same percentage. The Angry emotion appeared with by itself 3.45 percent of the times along with Make you feel like hiding and Tired, which had the same figure. This emotion appeared with the Depressed emotion 8.62 percent with the Sophia subjects. The emotions of Excited, Fearful and Restless were reported to be 5.17 percent of the number of times they appear with the Angry emotion. Angry only appeared with Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Feel like having sex 1.72 percent with respondents. The No Response were 6.90 percent of males and 3.45 percent of females. Those who said None of the Above or Not bothered by TV violence was 1.72 percent of males and 3.45 percent of females. For those respondents who only ticked one category each, it was noted that there were 13.79 percent of males and 24.14 percent of females. This was a total of 37.93 percent. Amongst the male population; Angry appeared 1.72 percent as those who only ticked one category. Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Tired were reported at 3.45 percent. Excited was ticked off as the only option amongst males with 5.17 percent. Thus, Excited was the most reoccurring emotion

among males who ticked only one option. For the females who ticked single categories; Angry, Depressed, Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Restless were reported to be just 1.72 percent for each category. Fearful was reported at reoccurring 3.45 percent amongst the single category chosen females. Tired was the option that was singly chosen by 6.90 percent of females and Excited was chosen at the same percentage. Therefore, women experienced one more emotion than men in their single options they chose. This revealed that Tired and Excited were the two most reoccurring emotions among females who only ticked one category. Tired was the second highest figure for men who chose single options, but was one of the highest emotions experienced by women who after watching a violent movie felt that way. Between the two, the emotion was experienced by 10.34 percent of the single choosing option population. Moreover, Excited was the highest emotions felt by both men and women after watching a violent movie. This brings the total for the emotion between men and women who chose only one option at 12.07 percent. For the respondents who chose two options, among the males, Restless and Fearful were the most reoccurring emotions among males with 5.17 percent of the time. Feel like having sex, Excited, Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies and Angry were the emotions felt at 1.72 percent of the times with males who chose two options. Depressed, Make you feel like hiding and Tired were not ticked off by the males as double choosing options. For the female respondents, the most reoccurring emotion among them was the emotion of Fearful at 12.07 percent. The Restless emotion was felt as the second highest emotion among them at 8.62 percent. Make you feel like hiding and Excited were experienced among 3.45 percent of the females. Depressed and Angry were just felt at 1.72 percent of the times by females. Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies, Feel like having sex and Tired were not the emotions felt by females who ticked two categories. Restless was the second highest emotions felt between men and women at 13.79 percent of the times for those who ticked two options. Fearful was the highest felt

emotion between men and women at 17.24 percent of those who ticked off two options. For the Men and women who ticked three and more than three options were 6.90 percent of the male population and 15.52 percent of the female population. This brings the total of both men and women who had ticked off three and more than three options at 22.42 percent. For the male population, the most reoccurring emotion among them was the Excited emotion at 8.62 percent. Depressed and Restless emotions were felt by 5.17 percent. The Tired emotion was felt by 3.45 percent. Angry, Feel like having sex and Fearful were felt by 1.72 percent of the males who ticked off multiple emotions after viewing a violent movie. The female population, the most reoccurring figures for the multiple ticked off emotions by them were Angry, Depressed, Excited and Fearful all at 8.62 percent each. The emotion to follow at the second highest was Restless at 5.17 percent. Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies, Feel like having sex, Make you feel like hiding and Tired were the emotions all felt by 3.45 percent of the female; ages sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) Sophia population. For the women who chose three and more than three of the options in question 33, there were not any emotions that were neglected to be selected in the question. For the respondents who rated the violence that they view on television, there were findings discovered between their ratings of television violence and the emotional responses given. These were the findings between questions 31 and 33. It was discovered through this research that those who selected the Very Violent category, the Excited emotion was the most reoccurring emotional feeling with this group at 12.07 percent. (Table 22a) Those who ticked Violent category, the Excited emotion was also noted with them at the same 12.07 percent as the Very Violent ticked responses. The respondents who said that television was Mildly Violent had the Excited emotion and the Fearful emotion reoccurring at 3.45 percent. For the responses to television Not Violent at all category the Excited emotion appeared again with this group also tying with the Mildly Violent category at 3.45 percent also. However, the pattern

discontinued with those who were Not Sure. This group selected the Tired option which was 6.90 percent. Excited was the most recurring emotion with the various ratings. Tired came in at second.

Co- relation TV Ratings and Violence


14.00% 12.00% 10.00% 8.00% 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00%

Very Vi Excited Violent Excited Mildly ExcitedNot ViolExcited Not Sur Tired Series 1

Table 22a In question 34, it was asked the Sophia respondents Long after you have seen a violent movie has it lingered long enough in your mind to still feel the same emotions that you ticked off in the above question? The emotional feelings went as followed. Those who ticked All of the emotions I ticked off, were 5.17 percent. The respondents who ticked Some of the emotions I ticked off, were at 22.41 percent. See (Table 22b) The Sophia subjects who ticked off Very little of the emotions I ticked off, were at 17.24 percent. Those who ticked off None of the emotions I ticked off, were at 13.79 percent. The respondents who claimed that they were Not Sure, were at the figure of 18.97 percent. The No Response gave a figure of 22.41 percent. In question 34, 10.34 percent of the No Response, gave a No Response also in question 33.

The Ticked-off Emotions


25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% All None Some Not Sure Very Little No Response

Table 22b

In question 35, the respondents were asked, Did any of the movies you watched influenced you to start a fight? The responses went as followed. Those who said Yes were 6.90 percent. Those who said No were 70.69 percent. Those of the respondents who were Not Sure were 17.24 percent. Those who gave a No Response were 5.17 percent. (Table 23)

Movies' Influence on Fighting

80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 23

Question 36 asked Do you believe that any of these movies taught you how to fight or defend yourself? Respondents who said Yes were 46.55 percent. The ones who said No were 36.21 percent. The Not Sure response garnered 12.07 percent. The No Response were given at 5.17 percent. (Table 24a)

Movies on Teaching Self-Defense

50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 24a

It was asked in question 37, If yes to the above question, did any of the movies you watched which you believed taught you self-defense enable you to help defend a friend or a family member in a time of trouble? The respondents who said Yes were 41.38 percent. See (Table 24b) Those who said No were 17.24 percent. The ones who said Not Sure were 15.52 percent and the No Response were given at 18.96 percent.

Defending a Friend or Family by Movies

50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 24b

Question 38 asked the Sophia respondents, Did any of the violent movies that your friends and family members watched assisted them in their own self-defense? The respondents claimed with a 11.96 percent of Yes the movies did help. (Table 24c) The negative response of No was noted at 27.59 percent and the vast majority said Not Sure 50 percent. A figure of 3.45 percent gave a No Response to the question.

Friends and Family's Self-Defense

50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 24c

This research trying to find out more of the influence movies may have on the behaviour of the Sophia youths, asked about alcohol and cigarettes to unearth if there was any influence coming from movies. (Table 25) The question posed by the researcher to the Sophia respondents were as followed: Had any of the movies that you saw influenced you to use Alcohol? The respondents who reported in the affirmative with Yes were

8.62 percent. The respondents who responded in the negative with No were 84.48 percent. Those who said Not Sure were 3.45 percent. And the No Response were also at 3.45 percent.

Movies Influence on Alcohol

90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 25

It was asked in question 40, Had any of the movies that you saw influenced you to smoke cigarettes? The respondents who said Yes were 6.90 percent. (Table 26) The ones who said No were 84.48 percent and those who were Not Sure were 3.45 percent. The respondents who gave a No Response were 5.17 percentage.

Influence of Movies on Cigarettes

90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 26

In question 41, the respondents were asked, Have you ever gone to a party and gotten drunk because youve seen it in a movie/movies and believe that it was ok to do so? The figures were given as follows. (Table 27) Those who ticked the Yes option were 6.90 percent. The respondents who ticked the No option were at 86.21 percent and the Not Sure were 5.17 percent. There was a No Response of 1.72 percent.

Movies' Influence on Alcohol Abuse


90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 27

Question 42, the final close-ended question, asked the respondents, If you have ever gotten drunk at a party and were involved in a fight do you think that the alcoholic drink influenced your behaviour? The respondents who said Yes were 15.52 percent. The population to report No were 53.45 (Table 28) percent and the Not Sure were 3.45 percent. The No Response gave a 27.58 percent.

Alcohol and Violence

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Yes Not Sure No No Response

Table 28

Question 43 was the final question and it was an open-ended question. It asked, Do you wish to make any additional comment about the way you think television and movies influence your behaviour? There were varied responses. Those who saw television as a negative influence were 12.07 percent. Those who saw it as a positive influence on life as a whole were 3.45 percent. There were 20.69 percent who said there were negatives

and positives to television and its influence on the young. Those who felt unsure of television as an influence on young peoples lives were at 1.72 percent. (Table 29) There was a vast No Response of 62.07 percent of those who did not desire in making any additional comments.

Added Comments on TV Violence


70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Negative Not Sure Positive No Response Negative & Positive

Table 29

Conclusion

From the data of the Sophia population, the research hypothesis had to be concluded as a

null hypothesis since the findings of violent content in the media affecting the Sophia youths behaviour had not been proven. The Cultivation Analysis Theory was not related to the Sophia respondents since there perspectives were not linked to that of the television programmes they saw. Most of the young people in that community noted that the perceptions of violence and the negative effects of television are only as far as an individual will allow the television programmes to take them. Some felt that peer pressure can influence some, others felt that there are those who desire to imitate their favourite actors. They further added, that if their minds are not strongly set then they will choose to yield to the violent media content. This can come as a result if they cannot control their emotions. Some of the respondents felt asserted that they are in full control of their lives as pertaining to being their own leaders. It is possible that although there is not any Cultivation Analysis Theory found in the sixteen (16) to twenty-six (26) age population what some may be pointing out is that the theory can be proven in young children. They are most likely to view the real world based on what they see on television. However, this may not necessarily hold up when they become older. It is as fairy tales believed by children, but when they mature, the stories fade from their beliefs as the realities of life sink in. According to some sceptics to the theory, they believe that television affects different people with different responses to different programmes. It is not a universal effect. The main concern for some of the respondents were that they believed that children and those under fourteen (14) years of age should not view television. Some felt that Children must not look at television because nothing good comes right now. One mother noted that her son views action movies with gun and fighting. He likes playing

with anything resembling a gun, talks to himself, fights his cousin and he is only two. However, as this mother noted her sons adverse behaviour, it is possible that his aggression may not be the direct result of television, but as from other negative influences along with television. As the Limited Effects Theory states that the media is not the only institution which negatively influences but, should be taken be taken along with other institutions and influences that result in constituting certain behaviours in society as a whole. The integration of certain institutions along with the media create a popular culture among the young it is believed according to the Limited Effects Theory. This means that behaviour patterns of studied group may only be coincidental and that these behaviour patterns occur where these persons watch certain media content. However, as to pertaining to the theory of the Mean World Syndrome, most of the Sophia population did not see the world as a more dangerous place than it is from the results of the findings. The researcher could not have found much paranoia evident from the respondents in their answering of the questionnaires. Some felt that the movies were more of the product of the world in which we live. One respondent noted that violence is on TV because we are living in a violent world, hence, films are only the result of the realities of our world. Some of the respondents claimed that there are both negative and positive effects on TV. Others noted that television cannot influence them since they are careful as to what they watch and that they are leaders and no one can choose for them as to the decisions they make. However, from the Cultural Indicators Theory from which Cultivation Analysis sprang there is some influence although not by violence, but by the images that young persons accept. The Theory supports that some of the institutions in society, more so influence

media messages that portray certain types of images appealing to some. The Theory further states that there is a nexus through the media to audiences perceptions and their actions. What was revealed that caused the researcher to see that there can be an influence eventually built on Cultural Indicators was the fact that foreign television content is preferred to local television content. There is an erosion by American culture over Guyanese culture by the amount of foreign programmes aired locally. Lately added to the media, DVDs have become popular with the young Guyanese youths in Sophia who buy them and view mostly North American content. Thus, DVDs have in its own way influenced the preference for foreign content as well as in terms of movies preferred to be seen and the music preference of the young Sophia population. Many stated that they buy DVDs with video music. One respondent even noted that television influences the way he dresses. Another said, Nothing good on TV, buy DVDs. From the samples studied, this research has to reject the hypothesis that claimed: VIOLENT MOVIES ON TELEVISION NEGATIVELY INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOUR OF YOUTHS IN THE SOPHIA COMMUNITY. This hypothesis is therefore a null hypothesis since the researcher has to reject it. It has not held up to be true as was trying to be proven by the researcher in this study. This comes from the figures of the percentages of the sample population. For small percentages of those who are affected, the relationship may be one that has a spurious effect. This may be the possibility by other underlying causes that they may have resulted in the studied populations behaviour pattern rendering the relationship between media and behaviour patterns spurious. For example, it may be the possibility living

without a fathers presence or a mothers can have a negative effect and not necessarily meant that the media may have an influence. Another example can be found from; if there is violence in the home and the young population witnessing first hand from their loved ones the abuse given to their other loved ones. These two can render a study between violent TV content and behaviour patterns of the young Sophia residents spurious. According to this research, the young Sophia population does not seem to have been affected by violent media content from which they view. The content validity from other research have revealed as other research that television cannot be the source of influence on any group without considering other factors along with it. Thus, this research can be repeated with the same results rendering the study reliable along with other researchers studies that the same results will be yielded. The results are likely to prove that Television is not the only influence on the behaviour of any young population.

A new hypothesis can be formulated here. MOVIES ON DVDs ALONG WITH TELEVISION CAN RESULT IN THE LOSS OF LOCAL CULTURAL INFLUENCE AMONG THE YOUNG SOPHIA POPULATION IN EXCHANGE FOR THEIR PREFERENCE FOR NORTH AMERICAN CULTURE.

Recommendations

What is recommended for future researchers is that they consider other influences that can impact the studied group. There is need to further investigate the lives of the individuals when researching behaviour resulting from television content. This study should not be done without considering other factors as the study cannot yield results to the researchers hypothesis of behaviour against television that the he/she is seeking to prove. Such a study has inquire into the cultural aspect of these young persons and the researcher should add questions that will state if there are other factors that influence their behaviour besides television or to determine whether television alone influences behaviour. DVDs and the internet are newer aspects of media that should also be considered before narrowing down a study. These two can be added to the research questions. Because they two can be influential factors since everything is on DVD and on the internet. The other aspect is that there can be persons who have natural aggression that is difficult for a researcher to prove that external influences are the only influential factors. What can be looked at is if there is cultural changes in the way young people dress, speak and act that can determine that there is a dying local culture that is eroded by a preference for a foreign one. The probability exists that it is the cultural changes that negatively affect young people and not necessarily television alone, since these changes can come from magazines, internet, DVDs and music. It is also possible that even the introduction of mass tourism to Guyana with tourists bringing their own ideologies can add to the influence with the other mentioned factors. When such a study as television influence on behaviour is done, longitudinal studies should also be carried. This should be done to determine what are the further results of

behavioural changes and if television along with the other factors constitute change or if television is the major catalyst of change in the perspectives and behavioural aspects of young individuals.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

12. The Limitation of the study was that some units of analysis may not have answered the questionnaires accurately as had expected. Some of their answers had conflicted with some of their previous answers. Therefore, some of their answers had to be disregarded. For example, some ticked both the single and the living at home options. Some claimed to be in school although their ages suggested differently, but from other answers they indicated that they were out of school and had dropped out. This meant that they had not fully comprehended some of the questions to which they were answering. 13. Some parts of a street or almost an entire one only had children or persons above the required age of the study. 14. The some of the respondents did not wish to partake in the study. However, it was convinced them that this was a personal assignment which was of strict confidentiality. Eventually they obliged, but it cost the researcher time to deal with one respondent when others had to be found. 15. Some objected with that they were too busy to fill up questionnaires and they had not the time or were too tired to look at them. 16. 37 percent of the questionnaires were not returned leaving the researcher with just 63 percent to work with. Some of the houses despite of the hours of the day the researcher ventured into the community some of the respondents houses were either locked up and their neighbours had no knowledge of their current activities as to advise the researcher. Others could not be found as they were not living at the houses they were at during the time of questionnaire handing out. They promised to leave the questionnaires at the houses that they had collected them from. The residents

were unaware of the respondents whereabouts at the time of collecting the forms. Some of the parents and guardians did not know where to find the questionnaires or if respondents had filled them up. 17. Five (5) percent of the returned questionnaires were spoilt by being incomplete and one (1) percent was returned without being filled up. The five (5) percent had to be disregarded as the questions that were most important to the area of the study were unanswered. 18. Time was factor as the researcher had to return in the area on five (5) different occasions, day and night to find some of the other respondents. This was due to having insufficient questionnaires to work with. The researcher had to take time out from work to return to the area at various intervals. 19. Time again was another limiting factor as this research had to conducted in a shorter period than had been anticipated. 20. Budgeting, another factor since printing out questionnaires were costly and some respondents had not returned them or they could not to be found. The researcher could not afford to replace the questionnaires because of budget and time constraints. Therefore, it would have been difficult for the researcher to find other subjects in the short time frame to have the lost questionnaires replaced by other respondents. 21. Other times, the researcher was in the Sophia area during late evenings, waiting for some of the respondents to fill up their questionnaires that they had promised to fill up. One time the researcher had to lend a respondent a pen to finish off a questionnaire. 22. Finally, The researcher was ill during the period when the findings were to be

presented and allotted time to complete the study was severely hampered.

BIBLIOGRAPHY CATER, Douglas, ADLER, Richard, (Eds), Television as a Social Force: New Approaches to TV Criticism, Praeger Publishers, USA, 1975.

HEAD, Sydney W., STERLING, Christopher H., (Eds), Broadcasting In America A Survey of Electronic Media, Fifth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, USA, 1987. HIXSON, Richard F., (Ed), Mass Media: A Casebook, Thomas Y. Crowell Company Inc., USA, 1973. HORACE, Newcomb, (Ed), Television The Critical View, Fourth Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1987. LUSTED, David, (Ed), The Media Studies Book A Guide for Teachers, Routledge, England, 1991. MARTIN, John L. and HIEBERT, Ray Eldon, (Eds), Current Issues in International Communication, Longman, New York, USA, 1990. PAVLIK, John, McINTOSH, Shawn, Converging Media An Introduction to Mass Communication, Pearson Education Inc., USA, 2004. SIGNORIELLI, Nancy, MORGAN, Michael, (Eds), Cultivation Analysis New Directions in Media Effects Research, Sage Publications, USA, 1990.

APPENDIX
Cover Letter Dear Respondent,

Greetings! I am a final year student at the University of Guyana. I am conducting a research as one of my assignments that is necessary for my graduation. I am studying the effects of television content on behaviour. I am kindly asking you to fill up this questionnaire. Please answer to the best of your ability. Strict Confidentiality will be given to your questionnaires which will be used Only for this area of study. No identification or names are necessary for this questionnaire. If you have any problems in answering any of these questions, my email address is rondi_sue2002@yahoo.com. Your assistance in this research is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your participation. Sincerely, Rondi Sue Student Researcher

QUESTIONNAIRE 23. Gender (A) Male (B) Female

24. Ethnicity (A) Afro Guyanese (B) Indo Guyanese (C) Indigenous Guyanese (Amerindian) (D) Chinese (E) Mixed (F) Other, Please State .................................... 25. Age (A) 16 Yrs - 18 Yrs (B) 19 Yrs - 21 Yrs (C) 22 Yrs -24 Yrs (D) 25Yrs - 26 Yrs. 4. Status (A) Married (B) Single (C) Divorced (E) Widowed (D) Common Law Marriage (Living Home) (E) Other Please State ..........................................................

5. What are your Religious beliefs (A) Christianity (B) Hinduism (C) Muslim (D) Other Please State...........................................................

6. With whom are you living? (A) Both your parents/father and mother (B) Only with your mother (C) Only with your father (D) Both your grandparents (E) Only with your grandmother (F) Only with your grandfather (G) By yourself (H) I am living home with my boyfriend or girlfriend (I) with another guardian not listed (J) Other Please State ........................................................................ 7. Are you attending School? (A) Yes (B) No

8. If you are attending School, what level of school do you attend? (A) Secondary School (B) Community High School (C) Technical Institution (D) Tertiary Institution

9. If you are not attending School, did you ever leave school before finishing? (A) Yes (B) No

10. If you did not complete school, at what age did you leave? (A) 10 Yrs -12 Yrs (B) 13 Yrs - 15 Yrs (C) 16 Yrs - 18 Yrs

11. Are you employed? (A) Yes (B) No

12. If you are employed, please state your occupation. ............................................................................ 13. Do you enjoy watching television? (A) Yes (No)

14. If yes, what programmes do you enjoy watching? You can tick as many as you like. (A) Movies - (Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, A beautiful Mind, etc.) (B) Musical Movies - (Honey, The Way She Moves, Hairspray, etc) (C) Comedies - (Hitch, White Chicks, What Happens in Vegas, etc.) (D) Music Videos - (Akon, Gwen Stephanie, Brick and Lace, Vegas, etc.) (E) Sitcoms - (My wife and Kids, Everybody Loves Raymond, Friends, etc.) (F) Television Drama Series - (Young & The Restless, General Hospital, etc.) (G) Action Movies - (Matrix, I am Legend, Transformers, etc.) (H) Religious Programmes - (TBN, Creflo Dollar, Joyce Myers, 700 Club, etc.) (I) Detective Television Series - (Law & Order, CSI-Miami, New York, etc.) (J) Horror Movies - (Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, Halloween, etc.) (K) Thrillers - (Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, The Phone Booth, etc.) (K) Local Programmes - (GINA, YTV-Youth Talent and Voices, Everything Musical Break, etc.) (L) Animated Films - (The Lion King, Madagascar, Happy Feet, etc.) (M) Other, Please State ........................................................................ 15. This question is only for those who you are still attending school or some other institution of learning. If you are living with your parent/parents or guardian/guardians, do they allow you to

watch television during school nights? (A) Yes (B) No

16. If yes, how late are you allowed to watch TV on a school night? (A) 7PM - 9PM (B) 10PM - 12PM (C) 1AM - 2AM (D) After 2AM 17. What are the hours that you are allowed to watch television during the weekend? (A) All day long (B) 4PM - 6PM (C) 7PM - 9PM (D) 10PM - 12AM (E) 12AM - 2AM (F) After 2AM 18. Do you have a DVD player at home or a computer to play DVDs? (A) Yes (B) No

19. Do you look at movies on DVD? (A) Yes (B) No

20. If you do, what types of movies on DVDs do you look at? You can tick as many as you like. (A) Movies - (Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, A beautiful Mind, etc.) (B) Musical Movies - (Honey, The Way She Moves, Hairspray, etc) (C) Comedies - (Hitch, White Chicks, What Happens in Vegas, etc.) (D) Action Movies - (Matrix, I am Legend, Transformers, etc.) (E) Horror Movies - (Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, Halloween, etc.)

(F) Thrillers - (Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, The Phone Booth, etc.) (G) Animated Films - (The Lion King, Madagascar, Happy Feet, etc. ) (H) Other, Please State ........................................................................ 21. Do you buy DVDs? (A) Yes (B) No

22. If you buy DVDs, what types of movies do you buy? You can tick as many as you like. (A) Movies - (Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, A beautiful Mind, etc.) (B) Musical Movies - (Honey, The Way She Moves, Hairspray, etc) (C) Comedies - (Hitch, White Chicks, What Happens in Vegas, etc.) (D) Action Movies - (Matrix, I am Legend, Transformers, etc.) (E) Horror Movies - (Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, Halloween, etc.) (F) Thrillers - (Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, The Phone Booth, etc.) (G) Animated Films - (The Lion King, Madagascar, Happy Feet, etc. ) (H) Other, Please State ........................................................................

23. Do you rent movies from DVD rental clubs? (A) Yes (B) No

24. If you rent movies from DVD rental clubs, what types of movies do you borrow? You can tick as many as you like. (A) Movies - (Pirates of Caribbean, Chronicles of Narnia, A beautiful Mind, etc.) (B) Musical Movies - (Honey, The Way She Moves, Hairspray, etc) (C) Comedies - (Hitch, White Chicks, What Happens in Vegas, etc.) (D) Action Movies - (Matrix, I am Legend, Transformers, etc.) (E) Horror Movies - (Friday 13th, Alien vs. Predator, Halloween, etc.)

(F) Thrillers - (Panic Room, Along Came a Spider, The Phone Booth, etc.) (G) Animated Films - (The Lion King, Madagascar, Happy Feet, etc. ) (H) Other, Please State ........................................................................ 25. Which do you prefer to watch more often? (A) DVDs (B) Television

26. Do you like the types of television programmes you receive from the United States? (A) Yes (B) No

27. If yes, Please write out what is your favourite foreign programme that you enjoy watching ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... .. 28. Do you like the local programme shown on our local television channels? (A) Yes (B) No

29. If yes, Please write out what is your favourite local programme that you enjoy watching. ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... .. 30. If you believe that there is violence in movies on television, Please state what is/are the programme/programmes that you think contains/contain violence or the most violence.................................................................................. ...............................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................... .. 31. How would you rate the violence that you view on television? (A) Very Violent (B) Violent (C) Mildly Violent (D) Not Violent at all (E) Not Sure 32. Do you enjoy watching this/these programme/programmes that you have listed. (A) Yes (B) No

33. After watching a violent movie, how did it make you feel? You can tick as many as you like. (A) Angry (B) Depressed (C) Feel like starting a fight from the violent scenes in the movie/movies (D) Feel like having sex (E) Excited (F) Fearful (E) Make you feel like hiding (F) Restless (G) Tired 34. Long after you have seen a violent movie has it lingered long enough in your mind to still feel the same emotions that you ticked off in the above question? (A) All of the emotions I ticked off (B) Some of the emotions I ticked off (C) Very little of the emotions I ticked off (D) None of the emotions I ticked off

(E) Not Sure 35. Did any of the movies you watched influenced you to a start a fight? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

36. Do you believe that any of these movies taught you how to fight or defend yourself? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

37. If yes to the above question, did any of the movies you watched which you believed taught you self-defense enable you to help defend a friend or a family member in a time of trouble? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

38. Did any of the violent movies that your friends and family members watched assisted them in their own self-defense? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

39. Had any of the movies that you saw influenced you to use Alcohol? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

40. Had any of the movies that you saw ever influenced you to smoke cigarettes? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

41. Have you ever gone to a party and gotten drunk because youve seen it in a movie/movies and believe that it was ok to do so? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

42. If you have ever gotten drunk at a party and were involved in a fight do you think that the alcoholic drink influenced your behaviour? (A) Yes (B) No (C) Not Sure

43. Do you wish to make any additional comment about the way you think television and movies influence your behaviour? ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ....