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MANAGED FOREST PLAN

GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS


January 1, 2007 - December 31, 2026
MANAGED FOREST PLAN
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS
Preamble

This plan addresses the different natural features on the property and the objectives of the
landowners through an integrated resource management approach and within a realistic framework.
With some appropriate management this plan can be realized, maintaining a healthy forest to be
enjoyed by generations to come.

I hereby verify that the following forest management plan has been prepared in accordance with
generally accepted sustainable forestry practices.

Chris Gynan, M.Sc.F., R.P.F. Date


MFPA #227
Vice President Operations
SILV-ECON Ltd.
913 Southwind Ct.
Newmarket, ON L3Y 6J1

Phone: (905) 989-0601


Fax: (905) 898-2722
Email: cagynan@interlog.com
Web site: www.silvecon.com
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS

Table of Contents
MANAGED FOREST PLAN
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS
SECTION 1 : PROPERTY OWNER INFORMATION......................................................... 1
1.1 Registered Property Owners .................................................................................... 1
1.2 Plan Author Information.......................................................................................... 1
SECTION 2 : PROPERTY LOCATION INFORMATION................................................... 2
2.1 Property Location..................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Federal, Provincial and Local Policies and Regulations......................................... 3
SECTION 3 : PROPERTY HISTORY ................................................................................... 4
3.1 Past Activities .......................................................................................................... 4
3.2 The Surrounding Landscape.................................................................................... 4
SECTION 4 : PROPERTY MAP AND SURROUNDING AREA ....................................... 6
4.1 Surrounding Landscape ........................................................................................... 6
4.2 Detailed Administrative Map .................................................................................. 7
SECTION 5 : LANDOWNER OBJECTIVES........................................................................ 8
5.1 General Objectives................................................................................................... 8
5.2 Detailed Property Level Objectives......................................................................... 8
5.3 How Will You Achieve Your Objectives ? .......................................................... 10
SECTION 6 : DETAILED PROPERTY MAP ..................................................................... 11
SECTION 7 : GETTING TO KNOW YOUR UPLAND AND WETLAND AREAS........ 12
7.1 Compartment Number/Name ................................................................................ 13
7.2 Compartment Characteristics ................................................................................ 13
7.3 Compartment History ............................................................................................ 13
7.4 Inventory ................................................................................................................ 16
7.5 Wildlife .................................................................................................................. 22
7.6 Upland and Wetland Objectives............................................................................ 25
SECTION 8 : TEN YEAR ACTIVITY SUMMARY........................................................... 28
SECTION 9 : REPORT OF ACTIVITIES ............................................................................ 29
SECTION 10 : CONTACTS AND NOTES ......................................................................... 30
SECTION 11 : WHERE TO GO FOR ASSISTANCE ........................................................ 31
SECTION 12 : REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 32
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 1

MANAGED FOREST PLAN


GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS

Section 1 : Property Owner Information

Plan Period
This plan is for the 20-year period January 1, 2007 - December 31, 2026, with a detailed
management program for the ten-year period January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016.

A 5-year progress report will be completed by July 31, 2011 and submitted to the Ontario
Forestry Association. The Ministry of Natural Resources will mail the property owners a copy of
this report to complete. The entire plan will be updated and approved every ten years to meet the
most recent program standards. This plan will be updated by July 31, 2016.

1.1 Registered Property Owners

There are four properties making up the managed forest area of this plan. Three of the properties
are owned by Jane Lockhart Glassco, while the fourth is owned by John M. Stewart & Susan
Elizabeth Slattery in Trust for Jane Glassco.

Owner No. 1
Name: Jane Lockhart Glassco
Address: 16240 12th Concession, RR#3 Schomberg, ON, L0G 1T0
Phone: (905) 939-7421 Fax: (905) 939-2967

Owner No. 2
Name: Stewart John M Trustee & Slattery Susan Elizabeth
c/o Blake Cassels & Graydon
Address: P.O. Box 25
STN Commerce Court
Toronto, ON, M5L 1A9
Phone: (416) 863-2400 Fax: (416) 863-2653

1.2 Plan Author Information

Name: Chris Gynan M.Sc.F., R.P.F.


39 Ladyburn Dr.
Keswick, ON
L4P 3R1
Phone (wk): 905-989-0601
Fax (wk): 905-898-2722
Email: cagynan@interlog.com
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 2

Section 2 : Property Location Information


2.1 Property Location

Area Summary (acres)


Landowners Property Location Assessment Roll
Managed
Number Total Forest CLTIP

TOWNSHIP OF KING
REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF
YORK
Gordon Elizabeth M Estate 16240 12TH CONCESSION
C/O Jane L. Glassco CON 12 PT LOT 28 1949 000 084 48500 0000 53 44.9 6.1

TOWNSHIP OF KING
REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF
Stewart John M Trustee YORK
Slattery Susan Elizabeth 16240 12TH CONCESSION
c/o Blake Cassels & Graydon CON 12 PT LOT 27 1949 000 084 37000 0000 99.7 17.64 17.06

TOWN OF CALEDON
REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF
PEEL 7.3 +
MOUNT WOLFE RD W/S 2.95
Glassco Jane Lockhart CON 10 ALB PT LOT 20 2124 010 001 01300 0000 19.58 12.28 shared

TOWNSHIP OF KING
REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF
YORK
16540 12TH CONCESSION
Glassco Jane Lockhart CON 12 PT LOTS 28 & 29 1949 000 084 55000 0000 195 120.23 48.87
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 3

2.2 Federal, Provincial and Local Policies and Regulations

The management programs contained in this plan will adhere to all Federal, provincial and
local policies and regulations. Tree cutting will conform to the Region of York Woodlands
Conservation bylaw.

Forest management activities will conform to guidelines noted in professional documents


such as “A Silvicultural Guide to Managing Southern Ontario Forests” (OMNR 2000) and the
“Ontario Tree Marking Guide, Version 1.1” (OMNR 2004).

Some other relevant policies that will help guide stewardship of the property include,

• Federal Fisheries Act


• Federal Pest Control Products Act
• Federal Forestry Act
• Provincial Weed Control Act
• Provincial Endangered Species Act
• Provincial Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act
• Provincial Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act
• Provincial Professional Foresters Act
• Provincial Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act
• Municipal Firearms bylaw

In addition to the above policies, the lands will be managed in accordance with the
Conservation Agreement between Jane Lockhart Glassco and the Oak Ridges Moraine Land Trust.
Three of the properties, except for the most southerly farm, is under a conservation easement with
the Trust. The Land Trust shall be consulted with during amendments of this managed forest plan.
Forest management practices will also adhere to the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification
standards for sound forestry practices in the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Region.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 4

Section 3 : Property History


3.1 Past Activities

The Gordon / Glassco Woodlands are made up of four joining properties, three of which are
located in King Township, Regional Municipality of York, and one located in the Town of
Caledon, Regional Municipality of Peel. They are situated 25 km east of the Town of Newmarket,
about 2.5 kilometers south of Highway 9 on the 12th Concession Rd.

All of the properties were purchased by Honourable Walter Gordon and Elizabeth Gordon
in 1946 and have been in family ownership ever since. During the late 40’s and early 1950’s the
Gordon’s planted approximately 150,000 trees at 1 to 3 cents each to prevent erosion of the sandy,
upland soils which make up many parts of the property. In the mid 1950’s an additional 100,000
trees were planted. In total 108 acres of plantations were established to cover 30% of the property.
The remaining land consists of natural forests and wetlands (181 acres), and active agricultural
fields (78 acres).

Management of the forests first commenced in 1993 with intent to restore native forest
cover to the plantations, while producing forest products such as sawlogs and pulpwood. The
history of management is as follows (see Map 6 for compartment locations),
1993: P-3, P-8 and P-9 received first thinning by Conifer Farms.
1999: P-1 group selection of red pine to create gaps within which planted trees could
regenerate. Plantation thinned in January 2000 by Conifer Farms.
2000: First managed forest plan developed and submitted to the Ontario Forestry
Association under the Managed Forest Tax Incentive Program.
2002: P-2a, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-10, P-11 and P-13 received first thinning by by Conifer
Farms. W-2b marked but never thinned because of poor access. 100 white pine
container stock planted in P-1. 200 white birch, 200 butternut, and 75 white ash
planted in P-14.
2003-2006: P-14 and P-15 planted various tree species to increase tree cover.

3.2 The Surrounding Landscape

The landscape surrounding the property consists of active farms, woodlands, and
provincially significant wetlands. The Gordon / Glassco Woodlands significantly contribute to the
diversity of the surrounding landscape by protecting headwaters of the Holland River, providing
habitat for a rich array of fauna, a offering a protected refuge for fifteen plants rare to the Greater
Toronto Area (Site District 6-7).

The property is situated on the Oak Ridges Moraine. The moraine is a prominent glacial
landform in southern Ontario which extends from the Niagara Escarpment to the Trent River. It
consists mostly of sand and gravel varying in depth from 15 metres to 300 metres, except for a
pocket of clay till in King Township. This landform is recognized as performing a number of
important ecological functions. Most significantly, the well-drained, coarse-textured soils of the
moraine make it an important ground water recharge area for all primary water courses flowing
north to Lake Simcoe and south to Lake Ontario.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 5

The property contains Hall Lake (16 acres), one of 31 kettle lakes on the Oak Ridges
Moraine (OMNR 1999). Kettle lakes are uncommon in the province and are considered significant
and threatened ecosystems in the Greater Toronto Area. Numerous headwater creeks and wetlands
of the Kennifick Wetland complex also exist on the property. The deep sands and assorted
vegetation communities serve to purify rain water infiltration, ameliorate surface water runoff, and
help to recharge the groundwater aquifer. As a result, many of the wetland areas on the property are
considered conservation land under the Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program. The Lake
Simcoe Region Conservation Authority has identified the lands as a Hydrological Environmentally
Significant Area.

Two types of soil dominate the property. The first which is found in the uplands is a
Pontypool series, made of poorly sorted calcareous sands. The sands originated from outwash
during the Wisconsinan glaciation. These soils are classified as a brunisolic grey-brown-luvisol
with few stones. The parent material is neutral to slightly alkaline in pH and is generically poor
in fertility. Soils are generally well drained. In the lowlands, organic soils consisting of sedge
peat support plant growth.

The woodlands are not only a significant hydrologic resource to the Lake Simcoe
watershed, they are also part of a vital landscape feature that attracts an abundance of wildlife.
Species of wildlife inhabiting the property are listed in Section 7.7. Hall Lake and its drainage
support a diverse aquatic community. Sampling upstream of the lake in 1982 (probably just
outside the Glassco property) showed brook trout, redside dace (designated vulnerable by
COSEWIC in 1987), blacknose dace, brook stickleback, Johnny darter to be inhabiting this area
(McMurtry 1999). Recent sampling has found black bass, perch, pike and sunfish.

Over the years, red fox, skunk, raccoons, porcupine, squirrels, grouse and a wide variety of
other birds have been noted. Even opossum has been seen, a rare observation since the property is
located at the northern limit of its range (Banfield 1974). In 2000, a nesting pair of goshawks was
observed on the property in P-5. The property consists of over 28 species of trees and an abundance
of fallen logs and snags which serve to attract wildlife to the property. The presence of the Pileated
woodpecker in the forest is proof that a rich array of habitat for many wildlife species exists.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 6

Section 4 : Property Map and Surrounding Area


4.1 Surrounding Landscape
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 7

4.2 Detailed Administrative Map


GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 8

Section 5 : Landowner Objectives


5.1 General Objectives

Objectives Priority for Management


Low High
1 2 3 4 5
Environmental Protection x
Forest Products x
Investment x
Recreation x
Wildlife x
Nature appreciation x

5.2 Detailed Property Level Objectives

Environmental Protection
1. Ecological restoration
a. Increase tree cover in P-14, P-15, and M-1 by continuing with annual tree planting.
Consider funding sources through the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, the
Oak Ridges Moraine Land Trust and Trees Ontario. Species to consider for planting
include red pine, white pine, white spruce, and European larch. Hardwoods may also be
planted but should be protected from deer. Protection may include hanging bars of
ivory soap in the tree, distributing logging slash in fields within which trees may be
planted, installing fencing around clumps of planted hardwoods.

2. Maintain a healthy and productive forest cover


a. Sustaining forest cover on the existing forest by promoting forest growth and
encouraging natural forest regeneration through thinning and other silvicultural
activities. Maintain a diversity of tree species. Schedule compartments P-1 (portions), P-
3, P-7, P-8, and P-9 for marking and thinning in 2007/2008 (20 + acres total).
Compartments P-2, P-4, P-10, P-11 and P-13 are to be marked for thinning in 2009 (55
acres). Consider thinning P-2b and W-2a,b if access is permitted to the south on the
neighbouring property.
b. Control invasive and exotic species namely garlic mustard and buckthorn where
observed and where possible. Focus on treating isolated plants to prevent new
populations from starting. Non-chemical methods such as digging will be considered
first.
c. Deter deer from feeding on hardwood tree regeneration by leaving crowns of felled trees
intact on the ground in certain areas. The intact tops may serve as obstruction to
seedlings that regenerate amongst them.
d. Plant seedlings of white pine in plantations to restore this once abundant tree to the
landscape. Focus planting efforts in P-1, P-8, P-3, P-4, P-10, and P-13 in decreasing
order of priority. Plant following thinning activities or in openings.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 9

Recreation and nature appreciation


1. Provide opportunities to experience nature
a. Maintain trail network throughout the property for recreational use by trimming
encroaching vegetation, and removing fallen trees or branches. Wood debris will be
organized into piles to serve as shelter for small wildlife.

Wildlife
1. Retain and conserve wildlife habitat features
a. Retain large, long logs in the forest to serve as denning, feeding and escape routes for
wildlife and to promote soil development. These logs also help to keep environmental
conditions in the forest cool and humid and serve as micro-sites on which specialized
plants grow such as mosses.
b. Retain stick nests and limit activity around active nests during the nesting period.
c. Install bird nesting boxes to increase nesting opportunities for cavity dwelling birds and
mammals.
d. Maintain a logbook of wildlife observed on the property.

2. Control deer population


a. Invite the Ministry of Natural Resources wildlife biologists from the Aurora District
office to develop and implement a deer management program that may involve a
controlled deer hunt.

Investment
1. Maintain forest resource values and property infrastructure.
a. Maintain fencing and other assets where necessary.
b. Protect tree regeneration from deer browsing by implementing various protection
measures (hanging bars of soap, fencing, use of logging debris, etc.)
c. Maintain forest health through regular inspections and implementing silvicultural
treatments.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 10

5.3 How Will You Achieve Your Objectives ?

The plan will be implemented by the Glassco family. Environmental protection, wildlife
habitat, recreation and nature appreciation and investment are complementary management
objectives for the Gordon / Glassco Woodlands. These objectives will be achieved by maintaining
the health and productivity of the forest while at the same time protecting the soil, ground water,
and ecology of the property.

Records of wildlife sightings, plant species observations and management activities will be
kept with a copy of the plan (Section 9). Trails will be maintained using simple tools such as
loppers, pruning saws, and possibly chainsaws. A course on chainsaw safety and use will be
investigated if chainsaws are used.

Tree seedlings for tree planting will be purchased from a reputable tree nursery (see Section
10 :Contacts and Notes). Tree planting will be carried out by family and friends and possibly by
funding organizations such as the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority or contractors.
European buckthorn and garlic mustard and other alien invasive plants will be controlled when and
where appropriate. Routine inspections of the forest will serve to monitor the presence or re-
occurrence of these destructive plants. During these same inspections, property boundaries will be
checked to ensure fencing and boundary markings are intact where they exist and that trespassing is
not occurring. A list of activities proposed for the next ten years is outlined in Section 8.0. This list
will be reviewed annually as work is completed and evaluated and as new issues or opportunities
arise.

Thinning and other management activities will be carried out according to silvicultural
guidelines (OMNR 2000; OMNR 2004) and will be implemented over the 10 year operating
period. Attending woodlot seminars provided through the local Stewardship Council and Woodlot
Association will help to learn more about forestry practices and in implementing this plan. The
work that includes monitoring, tree planting, control of invasive plant species, and trail and
infrastructure maintenance will be primarily carried out by the Glassco family. Thinning of the
forest will be administered by a Registered Professional Forester and implemented by a reputable
logging contractor. A deliberate attempt will be made to protect cavity trees, snags and woody
debris for wildlife. The proposed management activities will have low impact on the soil, water,
and other ecosystem components of the property.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 11

Section 6 : Detailed Property Map


GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 12

Section 7 : Getting to Know Your Upland and Wetland Areas

Inventory techniques
To assist in the development and implementation of a forest management program, the
forest was divided into small, manageable areas called compartments. Compartments are patches
of land that are relatively homogeneous in their vegetation composition, age, history and
productivity. These land units are shown on Map 6. They have a well-defined boundary, which
will help with their identification on the ground. Compartments have been named according to
the type of vegetation they contain, and have each been assigned a unique name. The following
classification is used: W = natural woodland, P = plantation, M = meadow, and D.A.L =
developed agricultural land.

The forested compartments were assessed in terms of its approximate composition of tree
species, tree sizes, average diameter, average age and height, and stem density. This data was
collected from within several sample plots. The inventory procedure involved the use of a
forester’s prism.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 13

Table 1 Description of the forest vegetation types growing at Gordon / Glassco Woodlands.

7.1 Compartment Number/Name Area (acre) General Description 7.2 Compartment Characteristics 7.3 Compartment History
P-1 11.4 o Red pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1950
o Very rapid drainage • Thinned in January 2000 following group selection
o Upland, rolling topography marking. Patches 20 m diameter.
o Rock piles • 100 white pine planted in 2002.
o Existing trails • Contains some red pine decline at the north end
• Heavy deer browsing of hardwood seedlings
P-2a, P2-b 7.93 o White pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
o Very rapid drainage • Thinned portions of P-2a in 2002
o Upland, rolling topography • Heavy deer browsing of hardwood seedlings
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
o Access is limited to a hiking trail on the south side
of Hall Lake
P-3 5.6 o Red pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
o Very rapid drainage • Thinned in 1993 row removal + selection
o Upland, rolling topography • Heavy deer browsing of hardwood seedlings
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
P-4 17.23 o White pine / white spruce o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
plantation o Very rapid drainage • Row thinned in 2002
o Upland, rolling topography • Heavy deer browsing of hardwood seedlings
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
P-5 9.0 o Scots pine / larch plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1950
o Moderately well drained • Goshawk nesting in stand in 2002.
o Flat topography • Never thinned, regenerating well
o Existing trails
P-6 3.9 o White spruce plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
o Moderately well drained • Row thinned in 2002
o Flat topography
o Existing trails
P-7 4.5 o European larch plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
o Very rapid drainage • No past management
o Upland, rolling topography • Well established regeneration layer
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 14

Table 1 Description of the forest vegetation types growing at Gordon / Glassco Woodlands.

7.1 Compartment Number/Name Area (acre) General Description 7.2 Compartment Characteristics 7.3 Compartment History
P-8 9.2 o Red pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1955
o Very rapid drainage • East portion thinned in 1993 row removal + selection
o Upland, rolling topography
o Existing trails
o Access off Concession 12 Rd
P-9a, P-9b 1.6 o Red pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1950
o Very rapid drainage • Thinned in 1993 row removal + selection
o Upland, rolling topography
o Existing trails
o Access from main driveway
P-10 5.5 o Red pine / white pine plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1950
o Very rapid drainage • Thinned in 1993 row removal + selection
o Upland, rolling topography • Selection thinned in 2002
o Existing trails
o Access from main driveway
P-11 7.9 o Red pine / white pine / Scots o Fine loamy sand • Established 1950
pine plantation o Very rapid drainage • Selection and row thinned in 2002
o Upland, rolling topography
o Existing trails
o Temporary bridge required to access from the west
P-12 4.9 o Black locust plantation o Fine loamy sand • Established 1980
o Very rapid drainage • No past management
o Upland, rolling topography
o Existing trails
P-13 19.8 o Mixed plantation of red pine, o Fine loamy sand • Established 1970
white pine, spruce and larch o Very rapid to imperfect drainage • Row thinned in 2002 (not completed)
o Upland, rolling topography
o Existing trails
P-14 8.3 o Mixed plantation o Fine loamy sand. • Naturally regenerating with supplemental tree planting
o Very rapid drainage in 2002 - 2006
o Upland, rolling topography
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 15

Table 1 Description of the forest vegetation types growing at Gordon / Glassco Woodlands.

7.1 Compartment Number/Name Area (acre) General Description 7.2 Compartment Characteristics 7.3 Compartment History
P-15 4.5 o Mixed plantation o Fine loamy sand. • Naturally regenerating with supplemental tree planting
o Very rapid drainage in 2002 - 2006
o Upland, rolling topography
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
M-1 3.3 o Meadow o Fine loamy sand. • No past management
o Very rapid drainage
o Upland, rolling topography
o Rock piles
o Existing trails
W-1 23.55 o Bottomland mixedwood o Fine loamy sand. Some organic deposits. • No past management
o Imperfectly drained
o Bottomland, high watertable
o Ephemeral ponds
o Watercourses present
W-2a, W-2b 7.5 o Upland hardwood o Fine loamy sand. • Trees marked by MNR many years ago
o Very rapid drainage • Marked by Silv-Econ in 2002
o Upland, rolling topography • No silvicultural activity because of poor access
o Existing hiking trails, no vehicle access
o Many seeps
W-3a, W-3b 12 o Bottomland mixedwood o Fine loamy sand. Some organic deposits. • No past management
o Imperfectly drained
o Bottomland, high watertable
o Ephemeral ponds and streams
o Watercourses present
W-4 14.74 o Bottomland mixedwood o Fine loamy sand. Some organic deposits. • No past management
o Imperfectly drained
o Bottomland, high watertable
o Ephemeral ponds and streams
o Watercourses present
Wetland 3.4 o Marsh with emergent and o Deep, organic sedge peat • No past management
submerged vegetation o Poorly drained, saturated
o Flat lowlands
o Open water areas
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 16

7.4 Inventory Tree Regeneration

Compartment Totals Individual Species Totals

Avg. Basal
COMPART- DBH HT Density Sq Density Regeneration
ACRES DESCRIPTION / COMPOSITION * AGE Species DBH Area ADVANCED ABUNDANCE
MENT ID (CM) (M) (stems/ha) m/ha (stems/ha) composition
(cm) (m2/ha)
P-1 11.4 Pr10 21 58 21 752 26 Pr 21 752 26.0
92% AGS Total - 752 26.0

BA distribution/ha: Poles (20), Small (6),


Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0) ABSENT - -

35 cords /ac

P-2 7.93 Pw9 La1 34 53 20 156 14 Pw 34 136 12.0

100% AGS La 36 20 2.0


BA distribution/ha: Poles (0), Small (14), Total - 156 14 Adequately
Medium (), Large (0), Extra large (0) Aw8 Mh2 yes
stocked
21 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

P-3 5.6 Pr10 23 53 22 932 40 Pr 23 932 40.0


100% AGS Total - 932 40.0
BA distribution/ha: Poles (28), Small (12), Aw9 Pw1 yes Understocked
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0)

43 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

P-4 17.23 Pw8 Sw3 24 53 20 441 20 Pw 22 375 14.0


95% AGS
Sw 34 66 6.0
BA distribution/ha: Poles (9), Small (8), Aw7 Sw2 Cc1 No Understocked
Medium (3), Large (0), Extra large (0) Total - 441 20
26 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

P-5 9.0 Ps8 Mh2 (Cb) 18 58 22 1010 26 Ps 21 577 20.0 Aw5 Mh3 Ce1 Cb1 yes Adequately
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 17

7.4 Inventory Tree Regeneration

Compartment Totals Individual Species Totals

Avg. Basal
COMPART- DBH HT Density Sq Density Regeneration
ACRES DESCRIPTION / COMPOSITION * AGE Species DBH Area ADVANCED ABUNDANCE
MENT ID (CM) (M) (stems/ha) m/ha (stems/ha) composition
(cm) (m2/ha)
85% AGS stocked
BA distribution/ha: Poles (24), Small (2),
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0) Mh 12 354 4.0
4 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Cb 18 79 2.0
Total - 1010 26

P-6 3.9 Sw10 21 53 20 854 30 Sw 21 854 30.0


100% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (30), Small (0), 854 30 Aw10 No Understocked
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0) Total -
34 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

P-7 4.5 La8 Ew2 21 53 24 752 27 La 32 257 21.0


96% AGS Adequately
BA distribution/ha: Poles (8), Small (11), Aw6 Mh2 Cc2 yes
Medium (8), Large (0), Extra large (0) El 12 495 6.0
stocked
33 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Total - 752 27

P-8 9.2 Pr10 (Pw) 25 53 20 714 36 Pr 25 691 35.0


97% AGS Aw6 Cc1 Mh1 Pw1 Adequately
BA distribution/ha: Poles (13), Small (23), yes
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0) Pw 24 22 1.0
( Ce Sw )1 stocked
52 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Total - 714 36

P-9 1.6 Pr10 25 53 20 714 36


97% AGS Aw6 Cc1 Mh1 Pw1 Adequately
BA distribution/ha: Poles (13), Small (23), yes
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0)
( Ce Sw )1 stocked
52 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

Adequately
P-10 5.5 Pr8 Pw2 25 53 22 451 23 Aw8 Mm2 ( Pw ) yes
Pr 27 318 18.0 stocked
100% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (4), Small (18),
Medium (1), Large (0), Extra large (0) Pw 22 133 5.0
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 18

7.4 Inventory Tree Regeneration

Compartment Totals Individual Species Totals

Avg. Basal
COMPART- DBH HT Density Sq Density Regeneration
ACRES DESCRIPTION / COMPOSITION * AGE Species DBH Area ADVANCED ABUNDANCE
MENT ID (CM) (M) (stems/ha) m/ha (stems/ha) composition
(cm) (m2/ha)
33 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Total - 451 23

P-11 7.9 Pr8 Ps2 24 58 22 470 22 Pr 24 393 18.0


91% AGS Adequately
BA distribution/ha: Poles (10), Small (12), Ce8 Aw2 yes
Medium (0), Large (0), Extra large (0) Ps 26 77 4.0
stocked
26 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Total - 470 22

P-12 4.9 Ps6 Lb4 15 28 16 1030 16 Ps 16 533 9


Lb 14 496 7 Ce8 Aw2 yes Understocked
Total - 1030 16

P-13 19.8 Pr4 Pw3 La2 Sw1 20 38 18 920 29 Pr 20 427 12.8


99% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (26), Small (2.8),
Medium (4), Large (0), Extra large (0) Pw 21 269 9.2
Aw6 Cb3 No Understocked
35 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac La 20 187 5.6
Sw 23 37 1.6
Total - 920 29

Ps5 Pw3 Ce 1 Adequately


P-14 8.3 Regenerating meadow / young plantation No
Aw1 (Bw, Bn) stocked

Adequately
P-15 4.5 Regenerating meadow / young plantation Ps7 Pw2 Aw1 No
stocked

W-1 23.55 Aw3 Mr2 He1 Mh1 OH1 ( Be Bw Ce Pt )2 21 78 18 690 25 Aw 19 291 8.0 Aw6 Mh1 Be1 ( Ce yes Understocked
88% AGS Bf )2
Mr 29 90 6.0
BA distribution/ha: Poles (11), Small (9),
Medium (5), Large (0), Extra large (0) Mh 16 147 3.0
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 19

7.4 Inventory Tree Regeneration

Compartment Totals Individual Species Totals

Avg. Basal
COMPART- DBH HT Density Sq Density Regeneration
ACRES DESCRIPTION / COMPOSITION * AGE Species DBH Area ADVANCED ABUNDANCE
MENT ID (CM) (M) (stems/ha) m/ha (stems/ha) composition
(cm) (m2/ha)
12 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac OH 38 18 2.0
He 37 19 2.0
Ce 34 11 1.0
Bw 26 19 1.0
Be 12 88 1.0
Pt 40 8 1.0
Total - 690 25

W-2a 3.8 Ce4 He3 Mh3 39 128 22 115 14 Ce 36 59 6.0


57% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (0), Small (6), Adequately
Medium (2), Large (4), Extra large (2) He 64 12 4.0 Aw10 yes
stocked
16 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac Mh 34 45 4.0
Total - 115 14

W-2b 3.7 Mh7 He2 By1 32 128 28 295 24 Mh 39 133 16.0


75% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (4), Small (10), Mh3 Be3 He2 Aw1 Adequately
Medium (8), Large (0), Extra large (2) He 25 118 6.0 yes
Cb1 stocked
30 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac By 24 44 2.0
Total - 295 24

W-3(a,b) 12.0 Ce10 25 58 18 983 50 Ce 25 983 50.0 Absent - -


92% AGS
BA distribution/ha: Poles (26), Small (18), 983 50
Medium (4), Large (0), Extra large (2) Total -
47 cords fuelwood or pulp /ac

W-4 14.74 W1 Po1 Ag1 Mm1 (Aw, Ps, Bn, Cb)4 26 58 22 310 16 W 46 20 3.3 Aw6 Cc1 Cb1 Ps1 yes Adequately
Ce1 stocked
Po 28 30 1.8
Ag 36 20 2.0
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 20

7.4 Inventory Tree Regeneration

Compartment Totals Individual Species Totals

Avg. Basal
COMPART- DBH HT Density Sq Density Regeneration
ACRES DESCRIPTION / COMPOSITION * AGE Species DBH Area ADVANCED ABUNDANCE
MENT ID (CM) (M) (stems/ha) m/ha (stems/ha) composition
(cm) (m2/ha)
Mm 16 40 0.8
Other 18 200 5.1
Total - 310 13.1

M-5 3.4 Meadow Aw yes Understocked


• Ab – Black ash, Aw – White ash, Be – American beech, Ba – basswood, Ce – white cedar, Mh – sugar maple, Lb – black locust, Pt – trembling aspen, Pb – balsam poplar, Mr - red maple, Ps – Scots pine, Aw – white ash,
Or – red oak, Ta – tamarack, Cb – black cherry, Cp – pin cherry, Pw – white pine, He – hemlock, Bf – balsam fir, Sw – white spruce, Pr – red pine, Cc – choke cherry, El – elm, Bw – white birch, La – larch, Bn –
butternut, Mm – Manitoba maple, Po – poplar, Ag – green ash, By – yellow birch, Mr – red maple,
• [AGS = acceptable growing stock, UGS = unacceptable growing stock]
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 21

Other Vegetation Assessment


(Not an exhaustive inventory of ‘other’vegetation. Just a list of plants occasionally identified)
Tree Species Non-Tree Vascular plants Plants rare to Site District 6-7 (see
report by Mike McMurtry Sept 2,
Alder sp. Alternate leaved dogwood 1999)
Apple sp. Black raspberry
American beech Blue cohosh Prairie sedge
Basswood Bluebead lily Northern manna grass
Balsam fir Bunch berry Flat-stemmed pondweed
Black cherry Canada may lily Needle spikerush
Black locust Cattail Golden saxifrage
Black ash Choke cherry Sage-leaved willow
Butternut Colts foot Marsh timothy
Eastern hemlock Eastern bracken fern Lesser panicled sedge
European larch European buckthorn American brooklime
Green ash Field horsetail Skunk currant
Ironwood Foam flower Marsh speedwell
Large-tooth aspen Garlic mustard Bristly crowfoot
Manitoba maple Ground pine
Red maple Hazelnut
Red pine Honeysuckle
Red oak Honeysuckle
Sugar maple Indian hemp
Trembling aspen Jack-in-the-pulpit
White ash Milkweed
White birch Nannyberry
White cedar Orange hawkweed
White elm Prickly gooseberry
White oak Red-osier dogwood
White pine Riverbank grape
White spruce Sensitive fern
Willow sp. Solomon’s seal
Yellow birch Spotted jewelweed
Star flower
Trillium spp,
Virginia creeper
Virginia waterleaf
White baneberry
Wild current
Wild sarsaparilla
Wood nettle
Wood violet

21
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 22

7.5 Wildlife
The forest cover on the property consists of mature hardwood and mixed wood forests.
The forests provide important roosting and nesting habitat for wild turkey and winter thermal
cover for deer. There are approximately 7 species of trees including black cherry and beech that
provide important mast for wildlife. Species of wildlife observed on the property include deer,
coyote, rabbits, turkey among many others. Additional species likely present on the property are
provided in the following table. The Gordon / Glassco Woodlands provide wildlife populations
with a complex network of forest habitat features. To ensure the property continues to provide
wildlife with the essential survival elements, their habitat features must be thoughtfully
conserved or created in any forest management program. The following is a brief description of
these habitats.

Coarse Woody Debris


Many wild animals are generalists and are able to thrive in a variety of forests and other
types of habitat but there are some species that have special needs and specific habitat
requirements. For example, a number of creatures rely on networks of wind thrown trees and
fallen logs for shelter, travel, denning, breeding displays, hunting and foraging. Grouse,
woodcock, rabbits, mice, voles, shrews and a variety of amphibians including wood frogs, toads
and salamanders all benefit from horizontal structures (logs) in forests. These structures also
promote biodiversity by serving as micro-sites on which mosses and tree seedlings become
established and they help to keep the forest cool and humid during the summer. Small mammals
and amphibians are attracted to woody debris not just because of the shelter it provides but also
because they feed on the insects and fungi, which decompose the fallen logs. Foxes, red-
shouldered hawk and goshawks also benefit from this type of habitat because they prey on the
small animals that utilize these structures.

Snags
The role of dead wood in forest ecosystems should not be understated. It is thought that
as much as 30% of all wildlife utilize dead wood at some stage of their life cycle (Naylor 1994;
OMNR 2004). The standing dead tree or snag is no exception. Approximately 1 in 4 animals, or
over 40 species of birds and mammals, use this type of vertical structure for nesting, foraging or
shelter (Goodburn & Lorimer 1998). The southern flying squirrel and the pileated woodpecker
are perfect examples of this type of habitat specialist. Maintenance of a healthy bird population
through snag retention in managed forests is an effective approach to promoting a healthy forest,
since foraging birds are part of nature’s way of controlling forest insect populations.
Interestingly, snags become very important to foraging birds in the winter when fallen logs and
the insects in them are covered with snow, reducing the availability of food (Goodburn &
Lorimer 1998).

Cavity Trees
A similar proportion of mammals and birds that use snags, also use cavities in standing
living or dead trees. About 25 percent of all birds and mammals use holes or cavities in trees for
nesting, denning, roosting, resting, feeding, or hibernating. These include animals that make their
own holes such as woodpeckers and those that cannot such as saw-whet owls, wood ducks,
bluebirds, squirrels, martens, fishers, raccoons, and black bears.
22
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 23

Wildlife Habitat Inventory


Habitat Feature Notes & Comments
Standing Dead Snags Present in all compartments. Average diameter 22 cm. Very
• Can provide habitat for many species abundant in W-2 where most snags exceed 38 cm dbh.
• Can be a safety hazard during logging
operations

Cavity Trees Numerous nesting, feeding and escape trees observed in W-1 and
• A standing tree, dead or live, that has W-2. Pileated woodpecker activity is high. Poplar and old maple
a hole or holes where wildlife can trees provide most of this habitat type. Generally lacking on the
make nests or dens or escape
predators property.

Stick Nests Goshawk observed nesting in P-5 in 2000. No nest found in 2007
• Nest made of sticks located in a tree inspection.
Fallen Dead Trees Coarse woody debris in all compartments, average diameter 26 cm.
• Logs on the forest floor used by wildlife Very abundant in W-1 and W-2. Least abundant in spruce
for foraging and escape plantations.
Mast Trees Beech, black cherry, and planted red oak trees provide important
• The fruit and seeds produced by trees mast for wildlife on the property. The meadows contain wild apple.
and shrubs
• An important source of food for
wildlife
• Soft mast are fleshy fruit such as
berries
• Hard mast are shelled nuts such as
acorns

Super-canopy Trees White pine 58 years old, 35 m tall. Abundant in W-1b on hill.
• A cluster of vegetation composed of Average diameter 42 cm.
tall trees that poke through the canopy
• Usually conifers, such as white or red
pines
• Provides landmarks and nesting spots
for birds more cuts

Conifer Thickets W-2 provides this habitat type.


• A cluster of conifer trees that provide
shade, reduced snow depth and thermal
shelter for wildlife
Other Food Sources Elderberry fruit, birch, poplar and alder catkins, wild grape and
• Berries, cones etc that serve as forage Virginia creeper fruit, nannyberry fruit, hazelnut and conifer seed
for wildlife from various species.
Surface Water Many small woodland pools, seasonal streams in all compartments.
• Sources of drinking water for wildlife
Dens or Dug Holes Raccoon den observed in W-1b. Ground dens likely present in the
• Ground holes used for denning or forest but not observed. Porcupine den in W-1b. Coyote dens
escape located in meadow surrounding P-13.

23
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 24

Wildlife Species Noted


Herpetofauna Mammals Birds Fish
Eastern garter snake Coyote American crow Blacknose dace
Bull frog Eastern chipmunk American robin Brook stickleback
Milk snake Eastern cotton-tail rabbit Belted kingfisher Brook trout
American toad Northern flying squirrel Black and white sparrow Johnny darter
Chorus frog Little brown bat Black-capped chickadee Redside dace
Green frog Mice, meadow voles Blue jay Black bass
Grey tree frog Porcupine Bobolink Perch
Spring peeper Raccoon Brown creeper Pike
Northern leopard frog Red fox Canada goose Sunfish
Salamander sp. Red squirrel Cedar waxwing
Striped skunk Chickadee
White-tail deer Chipping sparrow
Opposum Common crow
Downy woodpecker
Goldfinch
Grackle
Great blue heron
Hairy woodpecker
House finch
House sparrow
House wren
Indigo bunting
Juncos
Mallards
Morning dove
Northern cardinal
Ovenbird
Pileated woodpecker
Red breasted nut hatch
Red-eyed vireo
Red-tailed hawk
Red-winged blackbird
Robin
Rose breasted grosbeak
Ruby throated hummingbird
Sapsucker
Song Sparrow
Starlings
Tree swallow
Turkey vulture
Vireo
Warblers
Water thrush
White breasted nut hatch
Wild turkey
Wood thrush

(This list is not complete


and likely exceeds 200
species)

* not a complete list

24
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 25

7.6 Upland and Wetland Objectives


Long and short-term management objectives are developed for each vegetation type to
guide future activities. The long term objectives serve as the landowner’s vision for each vegetation
type for the next 20 years. The short term objectives serve to guide activities to implement over the
next 10 years. Five vegetation types are associated with the Gordon / Glassco woodlands: 1)
plantation, 2) bottomland mixedwood, 3) upland hardwood, 4) meadow, and 5) wetlands.

Plantation
Area 121.26 ac Compartments:
P-1 to P-15

Long Term (20 years)


To achieve a healthy, diverse community of planted conifer and hardwood trees that serves as a
nurse crop to restore native forest vegetation, provides a variety of habitat features, trail walking
and wildlife viewing opportunities. The objectives that guide management will include:
• Environmental Protection
• Recreation & nature appreciation
• Wildlife habitat
• Investment

Short Term (5-10 years)


1. Maintain existing walking trails.
2. Record wildlife sightings.
3. Mark trees and implement thinning in compartments P-1 (portions), P-3, P-7, P-8, and P-9 in
2007/2008 (20 + acres total).
4. Mark trees and implement thinning in compartments P-2, P-4, P-10, P-11 and P-13 in 2009 (55
acres).
5. Consider thinning P-2b and W-2a,b if access is permitted to the south on the neighbouring
property.
6. Protect naturally regenerating and planted trees from feeding deer by leaving the tops of felled
trees intact on the ground. These tops may serve as a protective area within which seedlings
may regenerate.
7. Plant seedlings of white pine in plantations where there is adequate light availability. Focus
planting efforts in P-1, P-8, P-3, P-4, P-10, and P-13 in decreasing order of priority. Plant
following thinning activities and logging debris.
8. Enhance tree cover in P-14 and P-15 by continuing with the family’s annual tree planting
activities. Consider funding sources through Trees Ontario, the Oak Ridges Moraine Land
Trust, and the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 26

Bottomland mixedwood
Area 50.29 ac Compartments: W-1, W-3a,b and W-4a,b

Long Term (20 years)


To achieve a healthy, diverse community of lowland forest vegetation that protects wet soils
and watercourses, and provides a variety of habitat features, trail walking and wildlife viewing
opportunities. The objectives that guide management will include:
• Environmental Protection
• Recreation & nature appreciation
• Wildlife habitat
• Investment

Short Term (5-10 years)


1. Maintain existing walking trails.
2. Record wildlife sightings.
3. Respond to storm events by planting trees where openings in the forest canopy are created by
wind throw and where advanced tree regeneration is lacking.
4. Install nest boxes for cavity dwelling birds and mammals.

Upland hardwood
Area 7.5 ac Compartments: W-2a,b

Long Term (20 years)


To achieve a healthy, diverse community of high quality hardwood trees that provides a variety
of habitat features, trail walking and wildlife viewing opportunities. The objectives that guide
management will include:
• Environmental Protection
• Recreation & nature appreciation
• Wildlife habitat
• Investment

Short Term (5-10 years)


1. Maintain existing walking trails.
2. Record wildlife sightings.
3. Investigate potential access to the compartments via the neighbouring property to the south.
Should access be granted, consider implementing a thinning in these stands to enhance growth
in established tree regeneration and remove trees having infectious diseases such as Eutypella
canker.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 27

Meadow
Area 3.3 ac Compartments: M-1

Long Term (20 years)


To increase forest cover on the property. The objectives that guide management will include:
• Environmental Protection
• Recreation & nature appreciation
• Wildlife habitat
• Investment

Short Term (5-10 years)


1. Plant conifer trees to increase forest cover on the property. Include this area as part of the annual
tree planting event.

Wetlands
Area 12.7 ac Compartments: Hall Lake and Wetlands not under the CLTIP

Long Term (20 years)


To sustain the biological health and environmental function of wetlands. The objectives that
guide management will include:
• Environmental Protection
• Recreation & nature appreciation
• Wildlife habitat
• Investment

Short Term (5-10 years)


1. Minimize activities that may cause erosion or pollution on the property.
2. Record wildlife sightings
3. Maintain vegetation cover surrounding the wetlands.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 28
Section 8 : Ten year activity summary
These activities will be reviewed at the beginning of each year and modified as necessary to address new issues and opportunities that arise.

Compartment Activity Proposed Quantity Comments


Quantity Completed
P-1 (portions), Consult with Registered Professional Forester to mark and thin 20 acres Contact Silv-Econ Ltd.
P-3, P-7, P-8, plantations. Implement in 2007/2008
and P-9

All Regularly maintain trail infrastructure. Maintain fencing where Maintenance activities and costs Terrafix supplies page wire fencing
necessary. recorded. Implement a yearly if required.
inspection. Tel. (416) 674-0363

All Maintain a record of wildlife sightings and forest management Records kept with plan. Use Section 9 of the plan and the
activities. Learn more about the flora and fanua on the property by notes section or create an electronic
taking photographs of plants and wildlife and researching species record noting species, date and
on the internet. Mark the location of rare or unique plants such as comments, management activity,
orchids on Map 6. costs etc.
P-2, P-4, P-10, Consult with Registered Professional Forester to mark and thin 50 acres Contact Silv-Econ Ltd.
P-11 and P-13 plantations. Implement in 2009/2010

P-14, P-15, Implement an annual tree planting event with family and friends. 500 to 1000 trees planted annually. Consider funding sources through
M-1 The quantity may vary depending Trees Ontario, the Oak Ridges
on funding. Moraine Land Trust, and the Lake
Simcoe Region Conservation
Authority.

P-1, P-8, P-3, P- Plant seedlings of white pine in plantations where there is adequate 1000 trees planted following Consider funding sources through
4, P-10, and P- light availability. Plant following thinning activities. Protect trees thinning activities. The quantity may Trees Ontario, the Oak Ridges
13 in decreasing from deer by planting amongst logging debris. vary depending on funding. Moraine Land Trust, and the Lake
order of Simcoe Region Conservation
priority. Authority.

W-1, W-3a,b Respond to storm events by planting trees where openings in the Trees planted if necessary, Consider building nest boxes for
and W-4a,b forest canopy are created by wind throw and where advanced tree wood ducks and flying squirrels.
regeneration is lacking.

Install nest boxes for cavity dwelling birds and mammals. 5 nest boxes.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 29

Section 9 : Report of Activities

Comp Date Activity Proposed Completed Costs Revenues Comments


Target Target
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 30

Section 10 : Contacts and Notes


GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 31

Section 11 : Where To Go For Assistance

Native Tree and Shrub Suppliers


Somerville Seedlings (conifer trees) P.O. Box 70, Alliston, Ontario. L9R 1T9. (705)
435-6258, fax (705) 435-4230

Consultants
Chris Gynan Registered Professional Forester, Certified
Arborist

Native hardwood seedlings and saplings.

39 Ladyburn Dr, Keswick, ON. L3Y 6J1.


905-989-0601

Government / NGO support services


Mark Heaton Fish and Wildlife Biologist
OMNR - Aurora
905-713-7406
Brian Peterkin York Environmental Stewardship Coordinator
OMNR - Aurora
905-713-7395
Ontario Forestry Association / Trees Ontario 416-493-4565

Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority 905-895-1281


Oak Ridges Moraine Land Trust 905-833-3171

Rodent Guards
Quest plastics 2475 Tedlo Street, Mississauga, ON L5A 4A8
905-270-4438
Page wire fencing
Terrafix 178 Bethridge Road
Toronto, ON M9W 1N3
(416) 674-0363
Chainsaw safety course
Gord Rhoner (705) 487-3576
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 32

Section 12 : References
Ecologistics Limited. 1982. Environmentally Significant Areas Study. South Lake Simcoe
Conservation Authority, Newmarket, Ontario. v + 314 pp.

Goodburn, J.M., and C.G. Lorimer. 1998. Cavity trees and coarse woody debris in old-growth and
managed northern hardwood forests in Wisconsin and Michigan. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 427-438.

Historic Resource Management Ltd. 1994. A Cultural Heritage Resources Assessment study for the
Oak Ridges Moraine Area. Background study No. 7. to the Oak Ridges Moraine Area planning
study. 131pp. 61 Lonsdale Dr. London ON, N6G 1T4. (519) 657-1851.

Lee, H.T., W.D. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig and S. McMurray. 1998.
Ecological Land Classification for Southern Ontario: First Approximation and its Application.
Ontario Ministry o Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and
Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

Ministry of Natural Resources 1997. Do you have a healthy woodlot? Extension Notes LRC 30.
Landowner Resource Centre, Manotick, ON. 6p.

Ministry of Natural Resources 1997. Forestry Talk: A Glossary of Common Terms. Extension
Notes LRC 31. Landowner Resource Centre, Manotick, ON. 8p.

Ministry of Natural Resources. 2000. A Silvicultural Guide to Managing Southern Ontario Forests.
Ont. Min. Nat. Resour. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Toronto, Ontario. 648p.

Ministry of Natural Resources. 2004. Ontario Tree Marking Guide, Version 1.1. Ont. Min. Nat.
Resour. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Toronto. 228p.

Ministry of Natural Resources. 1996. Restoring old-growth features to managed forests in southern
Ontario. LandOwner Resource Centre LRC 27. Ont. Min. Nat. Resour. Queen’s Printer for
Ontario. Toronto. 8p.

Mott, R.J. and Farley-Gill, L.D. 1978. A late-quaternary pollen profile from Woodstock, Ontario.
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 15:1101-1111.
GORDON / GLASSCO WOODLANDS 33

Naylor, B.J. 1994. Managing wildlife habitat in red pine and white pine forests of central Ontario.
For. Chron. 70:411-419.

Naylor, B.J., J.A. Baker, D.M. Hogg, J.G. McNicol, and W.R. Watt. 1996. Forest Management
Guidelines for the Provision of pileated Woodpecker Habitat. Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources. Version 1.0.

Schroeder, R.L. 1982. Habitat suitability index models: pileated woodpecker. U.S. Dept. Int., Fish
Wild. Serv. FWS/OBS-82/10.39 15pp.

Szuba, K, and Naylor, B. 1998. Forest Raptors and Their Nests in Central Ontario. Southcentral
Sciences Section Field Guide FG-03. Ontario Ministry Natural Resources. Queen’s Printer for
Ontario. 78 pp.

Tyrrell, L.E., and Crow, T.R. 1994. Dynamics of dead wood in old-growth hemlock-hardwood
forests of northern Wisconsin and northern Michigan. Can. J. For. Res. 24(8): 1672-1683.