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- Coulombs Law Magnitude of power between 2 charges. If you double the distance, the force goes to 1/22 or 1/4.

. If you reduce the distance between them by 2, the force increases by 22 or 4.

Symbols: CC: Conventional Current (From positive terminal, through the conductor to a negative terminal). DC: Direct Current (Charge only flows in one direction). AC: Alternating Current (Refers to circuits where the charge carriers move back and forward periodically). A = Amps/ Ampere C = Charge/ Coulomb I = Current Q = Quantity of Charge T = Time V = Volts/ Voltage P = Power (The same as power rating) W = Watts R = Resistance D = Distance V= Velocity (Drift Velocity*) E = Energy (Amount of Energy transformed) e = EMF *Election Travel: T = D/V (T = 2.5m/ (1.0x104m s-1) = 2.5 x 104 Potential difference: E = Vlt or V = E/It (E = 3.6 x104) J, I = 5.0 A, t = 30s, V =?) V (240) = (3.6 x 104 J) / (5.0 A x 30 s) Energy transformed by Circuit: E = QV, since V(Potential Difference) = E/Q (E = Vlt) Power Delivered by a circuit: P = E/t; E = Vlt and P = E/t; Therefore P = VI. Calculating current using V and P, I = P/V. Providing Energy for Circuit: E = eQ or E = eIt Power using EMF and I, P = eI Resistance: R = V/I 1 Ohm = 1 V A-1 R = p(resistivity) x l(conductor length) Calculating separation of currents at junctions: Iin = Iout, 15.3 = 7.9 + a, a = 7.4 Internal resistance through EMF: (r) = Internal Resistance, (R) = Resistance Vdrop = e Ir = IR (EMF through current and resistances) e = IR + Ir (Current through EMF and resistances) I = e / (R+r) House hold Power Circuit: Current (total) = Power(total) / Voltage

Blake Owen

Natural Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Decays 1. Alpha Decay (Radiation): Alpha () particles can be called Helium-4 nuclei (24He+2). After alpha decay, atomic number of nucleus decreases by 2 and mass number decreases by 4 and number of neutrons also decreases by 2. Slow in speed and penetrating ability. 92238U 90234Th + 24He 2. Beta Decay (Radiation): Beta radiation is formed during conversion of one neutron to one proton. Emitting after this process an electron. Has greater speed than, Alpha particles and greater penetration (2-3mm through aluminum). 11p + -10e(-) 3. Positron Decay (Radiation): It is also called, beta positive decay. It is denoted by +10e or +. Positron decay is conversion of one proton to one neutron. 11p 01n + +10e 4. Gamma Decay (Radiation): Gamma radiations are short wave length electromagnetic waves. Gamma decays occur after other radiations to emit excess energy of nucleus to become stable. Gamma radiation is shown with "".
236 U 92 236 U 92 1 0 n

0 0

5. Electron Capture: Some of nuclei capture one electron on inner shell of it. This electron converts one proton to one neutron in nucleus. 1 0 1 1 p + -1 e 0 n Half Life: Amount of time that it taken for half of a group of unstable nuclei to decay. (1 Gy = 1 joule kg-1) (Dose Equivalent Measured in Sv, 1 Gy = 1 Sv) Background Radiation: Refers to radiation that is always present. It comes from sources such as the sun, space, soil, living organisms, medical procedures and the materials used in buildings.
Radioactivity SI Units becquerel (Bq) Absorbed Dose gray (Gy) Dose Equivalent sievert (Sv) Exposure coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)