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You are on page 1of 47

A Revi ew

of

ACTI VE POWER FI LTERS

Pr epar ed by

PARK KI -WON

R&D Center , POSCON

2001. 02. 09

2

1. I ssues on Har moni c s

Nature of Harmonics

Generalized power theory

Measurement / Metering

Impacts of Harmonics

Parallel / Series Resonance, RMS / Peak Value Increase

Source of Harmonics

Voltage source vs.Current source

Static vs. Dynamic

Standards on Harmonics: Harmonic Limits

Utility companies / Customers / Manufacturers

IEC / IEEE

Harmonics Reduction/Elimination

3

2. Sour c e of Har moni c s

Non-linear magnetization of a transformer

Very small compared to rated current

Power electronics based equipment

UPS, PC, Welder, Printer

Rectifier, Variable Speed Drive

Due to discontinuous current flows

[ ] Wb

[ ] A i

[sec] t

( ) t

( ) t i

4

( ) t i

line

C

Voltage Source Type Harmonic

Diode rectifiers with capacitive filtering

5

Current Source Type Harmonic

Thyristor converters with inductive filtering

( ) t i

line

L

6

3. St andar ds/Gui des on Har moni c Li mi t s

IEC 1000-3-2( International Electrotechnical Commission )

Harmonic current emission limits for individual equipments

Small equipments < 16A

European standard (CELENEC)

IEC 1000-3-4

Harmonic current limits of overall installation

Medium to large installations >16A

Related to line stiffness (SCC)

IEEE 519-1992

Limits at PCC (Interfacing)

Harmonic voltage limits for utility company

Harmonic current limit for customers(<69kV)

Related to line stiffness

7

4. How Har moni c Reduc t i on/El i mi nat i on?

Line-Friendly Load

Multi-pulsed system : Series and/or parallel

Active current shaping( PFC converter )

Passive Filters

Simple, low cost, robust

Sensitive to environments: line impedance, load change, ageing of component

Subject to parallel/series resonance

Easily overloadable : switch off or be damaged, plant modification

Over Compensation at which have already a good power factor

Active Filters

8

Series vs. Shunt

Shunt Tuned Filter

High voltage: 50 < Q < 150

Low voltage: 10 < Q < 50

LC

1

C

L

R

C

L

R

Q

1

C

1

L

R

F

Z

) (

F

Z

5. Passi ve Fi l t er s

9

LC

1

C

L

R

F

Z

C

1

L

R

) (

F

Z

b

R

b

R

C R

b

1

Damped High-Pass Filter (2

nd

order)

10

Non-linear

load

Power

system

I

5

I

7

I

11

I

h

I

S

I

1

I

L

5

th

tuned

filter

7

th

tuned

filter

11

th

tuned

filter

High-pass

filter

Typical Passive Filter System

11

6. Par al l el Resonanc e

Due to load current harmonic

Voltage distortion will be very high

Overvoltage

L

C

parallel

Z

h

i

h

i

) 1 (

1

1

1

2

2

+

LC when

LC

L j

C j

L j

C j

L j

Z

parallel

12

Par al l el Resonanc e w i t h Passi ve Fi l t er

F

Z

S

Z

Lh

I

Sh

I

Lh

I

Fh

I

F S SF

Z Z Z ||

LC

1

R

C

1

L

) || ( L L

S

S

L

1 (0dB)

C L

S

1

C L L

S

) || (

1

Lh

Sh

I

I

SF

Z

L L

L

S

+

C L

S

2

1

Parallel resonance Tuned frequency

C L L

S

) (

1

+

C L L

S

p

) (

1

+

C

L L

R R

Q

S

S

p

+

+

1

13

Possible Cause of Parallel Resonance

Detuning Filter : shift of resonance frequency

Capacitance change due to fuse blow

C and L may be damaged

Temperature

Line structure change

Typical Design Practice

Tuned to slightly lower harmonic frequency (3~10%)

Effect of Ls (SCC)

High Ls : good for avoiding parallel resonance

Higher Ls : Higher Q for parallel resonance

14

7. Ser i es Resonanc e

h

v

L

C

series

Z

h

i

h

v

)

1

( 0

1 1

C

L when

C

L j

C j

L j Z

series

,

_

+

Due to line voltage harmonics

Excessive harmonic current flow

Overload, Breakdown

15

Series Resonance Due to Neighborhood Harmonic Source

1 TR

Z

h

i

2 TR

Z

16

Equivalent Circuits Transforms

h

I

2 TR

Z

L

I F

Z

1 TR

Z

Sh

V

L

I F

Z

1 TR

Z

2 TR

Z

S

Z

1 TR h Sh

Z I V

Series Resonance

will be occurred

17

8. Tr oubl es due t o Har moni c Pol l ut i ons

Heating of the electrical equipment

Trip of circuit breaker

Fuse blown

Capacitor damage

kWh fault

Loss of motor winding and iron

Perturbing torques on the motor shaft

Damage of Sensitive electronic equipment

Malfunction of PLL circuit

Communication interference

Parallel and Series Resonance will occured

Increase of RMS and Peak Value

Excessive Neutral Currents

18

9. Mot i vat i ons f or t ak i ng ac t i on agai nst Har moni c s

Harmonics lead to premature ageing of the electrical Installation

Excessive amount of harmonics must eliminate

for economic reasons

The utility company impose penalties on users

Harmonic pollution may disturb equipment in other plants

THD limitation of voltage / current present at PCC

IEC 1000-3-6 : Assessment of emission limits for disturbing loads

in MV and HV power systems

19

10. Func t i on of APFs

Main function

Compensate current and voltage harmonic.

Additional functions

Current-related compensation

Reactive power, current unbalance, neutral current

Using shunt-APF for the most part

Voltage-related compensation

Voltage unbalance, flicker, spikes, regulation

Using series-APF for the most part

20

Converter-based classification

VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) bridge structure

CSI (Current Source Inverter) bridge structure

Topology-based classification

Shunt APF

Series APF

UPQC : Shunt APF + Series APF

Hybrid APF : Shunt or Series Active Filter + Passive Filter

Supply-system-based classification

Two-wire APF

Three-wire APF

Four-wire APF

11. Cl assi f i c at i on of Ac t i ve Fi l t er s

21

12. Conver t er based c l assi f i c at i on

CSI

Switching frequency is restricted

Higher losses

Cannot be used in multilevel

VSI

Self-supporting dc voltage

Lighter, cheaper

Expandable to multilevel

22

Shunt APF stand-alone

Eliminate current harmonics

Reactive power compensation

Balancing unbalanced current

Nonlinear

Load

Shunt Active Filter

iF

Nonlinear

Load

Seies Active Filter

v

F

13. Topol ogy based c l assi f i c at i on

Series APF stand-alone

Eliminate voltage harmonics

Regulate and balance the terminal voltage

Damp out harmonic propagation

23

Nonlinear

Load

optional

Series Shunt

UPQC : Uni f i ed Pow er Qual i t y Condi t i oner

Eliminate voltage and current harmonics

Damp out harmonic propagation

Load voltage regulation and current balancing

Another name is Universal APF

Fundamental power flow control: Low power version of UPFC in FACTS

Large cost and control complexity

24

Hybr i d APF

( Combi nat i ons of Passi ve-Ac t i ve )

Parallel combination of shunt-APF and shunt passive filter

Current source vs. Harmonic sink

Series combination of series-APF and series passive filter

Voltage source vs. Harmonic damping

Hybrid of series-APF and shunt passive filter

Harmonic isolation vs. Harmonic compensation

Reduced size and cost : Quite popular

Hybrid of shunt-APF and series passive filter

Harmonic isolation vs. Harmonic blocking

Series combination of shunt-APF and shunt passive filter

Resonance damping vs. Harmonic compensation

Parallel combination of series-APF and series passive filter

Enhancing passive filter vs. Harmonic blocking

25

Nonlinear

Load

Shunt Active Filter

Nonlinear

Load

Series Active Filter

Harmonic cancellation

Q control

Optimal sharing is needed

Commercialized

Harmonic damping

Existing passive filter

Low power

More circuit for Q control

Overcurrent protection

is difficult

Parallel combination of

shunt-APF and shunt passive filter

Hybrid of

series-APF and shunt passive filter

26

Nonlinear

Load

Series Active Filter

Harmonic cancellation and damping

Series-APF enhanced existing passive filter

Easy protection is possible

Current Transformer is minimized

No Q control

Under developed

Series combination of

series-APF and shunt passive filter

27

14. Suppl y-syst em based c l assi f i c at i on

Two-wire APF

Single-phase nonlinear loads, such as domestic appliances

Smaller rating

Three-wire APF

Three-phase nonlinear load without neutral, such as ASDs

Four-wire APF

Single-phase nonlinear loads fed from four-wire supply system,

such as computers, commercial lighting

Eliminate excessive neutral current and unbalance

28

Capacitor midpoint four-wire shunt APF

Used in smaller ratings,

because entire neutral current flows through dc bus capacitor

Sa

e

Sb

e

Sc

e

Sa

i

Sb

i

Sc

i

La

i

Lb

i

Lc

i

Ca

v

Cb

v

Cc

v

c

L

n

Ca

i

Cb

i

Cc

i

Cn

i

Sn

i

dc

C

Non-Linear Four-wire

Unbalanced Loads

Ln

i

n

dc

C

29

Four-pole four-wire shunt APF

Fourth pole is used to stabilized the neutral of APF

Sa

e

Sb

e

Sc

e

Sa

i

Sb

i

Sc

i

La

i

Lb

i

Lc

i

Ca

v

Cb

v

Cc

v

c

L

n

Ca

i

Cb

i

Cc

i

Cn

i

Sn

i

dc

C

Non-Linear Four-wire

Unbalanced Loads

Ln

i

n

30

Three-bridge four-wire shunt APF

Quite common type

Proper voltage matching for IGBT, Enhances the reliability of APF

Sa

e

Sb

e

Sc

e

Sa

i

Sb

i

Sc

i

La

i

Lb

i

Lc

i

Cb

v

Cc

v

n

Ca

i

Cb

i

Cc

i

Sn

i

dc

C

Non-Linear Four-wire

Unbalanced Loads

Ln

i

Ca

v

31

First stage : Signal conditioning

Sensing system information by PT, CT, Isolation amplifiers

Monitor, measure, record

: THD, power factor, active/reactive power, crest factor

Second Stage : Derivation of compensating signal

Current level and/or voltage level

Frequency domain

: Based on Fourier transformation

: Cumbersome computation, large response time

Time domain

: Based on instantaneous derivation

: pq theory, synchronous dq reference frame method, synchronous

detection method, flux-based controller, notch filter method

Third stage : Generation of gating signal

Hysteresis, PWM, SVPWM, sliding mode, fuzzy-logic

15. APF Cont r ol St r at egi es

32

16. Component c onsi der at i ons of APF

Series inductor : buffer between supply and PWM voltage

Passive ripple filter : suppress switching harmonic and improve source THD

DC bus capacitor : reduces dc ripples

Ca

i

Cb

i

Cc

i

Ca

v

Cb

v

Cc

v

c

L

dc

C

dc

v

p

n

dc

i

dc bus capacitor

passive ripple filter

series inductor

IGBT

33

17. Basi c Conc ept of Ac t i ve Fi l t er Cont r ol

Active Filter as a Harmonic Canceller

Harmonic current detection

And

Current control method

Harmonic voltage detection

And

Voltage control method

S

L

Shunt-APF

f S

i i

h f L

i i i +

h C

i i

detection i

h

S

v

L

i

S

L

Series-APF

h C

v v

h f

S

v v

v

+

detection v

h

S

v

L

i

f L

v v

34

Active Filter as a Harmonic Damper

S

L

Shunt-APF

h

h

C

Z

v

i

detection v

h

S

v

L

i

S

L

Series-APF

h h F

i Z v

detection i

h

S

v

L

i

Harmonic voltage detection

And

Current control method

Harmonic current detection

And

Voltage control method

35

18. Cont r ol Based on Sync hr onous d-q Tr ansf or mat i on

Definition of Synchronous d-q transformation

3

2

,

) sin( ) sin( sin

) cos( ) cos( cos

3

2

1

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

+

1

]

1

where

f

f

f

f

f

c

b

a

q

d

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

1

]

1

s

q

s

d

e e

e e

e

q

e

d

e

q

e

d

e e

e e

s

q

s

d

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

cos sin

sin cos

,

cos sin

sin cos

+ +

+ +

m k

qk m

e

qh

e

q

e

q

m k

dk m

e

dh

e

d

e

d

i I i i i

i I i i i

3

1 1

3

1 1

sin

cos

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( ) [ ]

k e

k

mk e m b

k e

k

mk e m b

k e

k

mk e m a

k I I i

k I I i

k I I i

+ + +

+

+

cos cos

cos cos

cos cos

2

1

2

1

2

1

36

Ax es r el at i on bet w een abc and dq

Stationary frame Synchronously rotating frame

a a

f f

3

2

j

b b

e f f

3

2

j

c c

e f f

s

d

f

s

q

f

a a

f f

3

2

j

b b

e f f

3

2

j

c c

e f f

s

d

f

s

q

f

e

+

e

+

e

d

f

e

q

f

e

37

D-Q var i abl e i n t i me domai n

Sa

e

Sb

e

Sc

e

m

E

t

e

t

s

Sq

e

s

Sd

e

m

E

2

t

e

e

Sd

e

e

Sq

e

m

E

2

t

e

Stationary

Synchronously

38

Har moni c l oc us i n Spac e Vec t or

5

th

in stationary frame 7

th

in stationary frame

t j

m

t j

m

s s s

dq

e e

e F e F f f f

5

5 1

5

1

5

1

+ +

t j

m

t j

m

s s s

dq

e e

e F e F f f f

7

7 1

7

1

7

1

+ +

s

dq

f

e

s

f

1

s

f

5

e

5

s

d

f

s

q

f

s

dq

f

e

s

f

1

s

f

7

e

7

s

d

f

s

q

f

39

5

th

and 7

th

in stationary frame 5

th

and 7

th

synchronous rotating

variable in stationary frame

t j

m

t j

m

t j

m

s s s s

dq

e e e

e F e F e F f f f f

7 5

7 5 1

7

1

5

1

7

1

5

1

+ + + +

t j

m

t j

m m

e e e e

dq

e e

e F e F F f f f f

6 6

7 5 1

7

1

5

1

7

1

5

1

+ + + +

s

d

f

e

dq

f

s

q

f

s

dq

f

e

s

f

1

s

d

f

s

q

f

40

Over al l bl oc k di agr am of shunt -APF c ont r ol l er

La

i

Lb

i

e

Ld

i

e

Lq

i

LPF

e

Ld

i

'

) 1 ( 0

) 0 (

K

K i

i

e

Ld

e

Sd

+

LPF

+

1-K

e

Lq

i

e

Lq

e

Sq

i i

* e

Cd

i

* e

Cq

i

+

IP

controller

*

dc

v

dc

v

+

synchronous

PI-controller

e

* e

Cd

v

* e

Cq

v

s e

T jk

e

*' e

Cd

v

*' e

Cq

v

e 3 s e

* s

Cd

v

* s

Cq

v

SVPWM

*

a

T

*

b

T

*

c

T

e 3

Ca

i

Cb

i

e

Cd

i

e

Cq

i

Harmonic

Phase Delay

Correction

41

Har moni c Phase Del ay Cor r ec t i on Met hod

) (

*

k i

e

C

LPF

) (

*

1

k i

e

C

) (

*

5

k i

e

C

) (

*

7

k i

e

C

5 C

I

7 C

I

s e

T j

e

6

LPF

5th Harmonic detection

7th Harmonic detection

+

s e

T j

e

6

) (

*

11

k i

e

C

) (

*

13

k i

e

C

+

+

+

+

LPF

1 C

I

Fundamental detection

+

+

+

) 1 (

*

1

+ k i

e

C

) 1 (

*

5

+ k i

e

C

) 1 (

*

7

+ k i

e

C

+

+

+

+

+

+

) 1 (

*

11

+ k i

e

C

) 1 (

*

13

+ k i

e

C

+

+

) 1 (

*

+ k i

e

C

e

j

e

6

e

j

e

6

e

j

e

6

e

j

e

6

Harmonic phase delay correction in synchronous rotating frame

42

19. Cont r ol Based on p-q Theor y

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

c

b

a

c

b

a

e

e

e

C

e

e

e

e

e

2

3

2

3

0

2

1

2

1

1

3

2

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

c

b

a

c

b

a

i

i

i

C

i

i

i

i

i

2

3

2

3

0

2

1

2

1

1

3

2

a a

i e

*

*

,

b b

i e

*

*

,

c c

i e

*

*

,

3

2

3

2

3

2

0

i e

*

*

,

i e

*

*

,

0

- Transfomations

43

c c b b a a

i e i e i e p + +

i e i e i e p i e i e p

&

&

&

&

&

& &

+ + ,

i e i e i e q i e i e q

&

&

&

&

&

& &

+ ,

Conventional instantaneous power

i e

*

*

i e

*

*

i

e

Instantaneous imaginary power

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

q

p

e e

e e

i

i

i

i

e e

e e

q

p

1

,

Instantaneous power vs. current

44

p and q i n Si nusoi dal Case

t V v

a

cos 2

) cos( 2 + t V v

b

) cos( 2 t V v

c

) cos( 2 t I i

a

) cos( 2 + t I i

b

) cos( 2 t I i

c

t V v

cos 3

t V v

sin 3

) cos( 3

t I i

) sin( 3

t I i

cos 3VI i v i v p +

sin 3VI i v i v q

45

p and q i n Non-Si nusoi dal Case

46

Over al l bl oc k di agr am of ser i es-APF c ont r ol l er

Fa

v

Fb

v

Fc

v

F

v

F

v

Sa

i

Sb

i

Sc

i

S

i

S

i

p

q

h

p

h

q

a

b

c

d

q

0

a

b

c

d

q

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

S

S

F F

F F

i

i

v v

v v

q

p

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

h

h

F F

F F

h S

h S

q

p

v v

v v

i

i

1

h S

i

h S

i

a

b

c

d

q

0

Sah

i

Sbh

i

Sch

i

*

Ca

v

*

Cb

v

*

Cc

v

47

20. Sel ec t i on of APF f or spec i f i c c onsi der at i ons

9. Voltage Sag & Dips

8. Voltage Flicker

7. Voltage Balancing

6. Voltage Regulation

5. Voltage Harmonics

4. Neutral Current

3. Load Balancing

2. Reactive Power

1. Current Harmonics

UPQC Hybrid-APF Series-APF Shunt-APF

Active Power Filters Topology

Compensation for

specific application

Higher number of is more preferred

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