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1

A Revi ew
of
ACTI VE POWER FI LTERS
Pr epar ed by
PARK KI -WON
R&D Center , POSCON
2001. 02. 09
2
1. I ssues on Har moni c s
Nature of Harmonics
Generalized power theory
Measurement / Metering
Impacts of Harmonics
Parallel / Series Resonance, RMS / Peak Value Increase
Source of Harmonics
Voltage source vs.Current source
Static vs. Dynamic
Standards on Harmonics: Harmonic Limits
Utility companies / Customers / Manufacturers
IEC / IEEE
Harmonics Reduction/Elimination
3
2. Sour c e of Har moni c s
Non-linear magnetization of a transformer
Very small compared to rated current
Power electronics based equipment
UPS, PC, Welder, Printer
Rectifier, Variable Speed Drive
Due to discontinuous current flows
[ ] Wb
[ ] A i
[sec] t
( ) t
( ) t i
4
( ) t i
line
C
Voltage Source Type Harmonic
Diode rectifiers with capacitive filtering
5
Current Source Type Harmonic
Thyristor converters with inductive filtering
( ) t i
line
L
6
3. St andar ds/Gui des on Har moni c Li mi t s
IEC 1000-3-2( International Electrotechnical Commission )
Harmonic current emission limits for individual equipments
Small equipments < 16A
European standard (CELENEC)
IEC 1000-3-4
Harmonic current limits of overall installation
Medium to large installations >16A
Related to line stiffness (SCC)
IEEE 519-1992
Limits at PCC (Interfacing)
Harmonic voltage limits for utility company
Harmonic current limit for customers(<69kV)
Related to line stiffness
7
4. How Har moni c Reduc t i on/El i mi nat i on?
Line-Friendly Load
Multi-pulsed system : Series and/or parallel
Active current shaping( PFC converter )
Passive Filters
Simple, low cost, robust
Sensitive to environments: line impedance, load change, ageing of component
Subject to parallel/series resonance
Easily overloadable : switch off or be damaged, plant modification
Over Compensation at which have already a good power factor
Active Filters
8
Series vs. Shunt
Shunt Tuned Filter
High voltage: 50 < Q < 150
Low voltage: 10 < Q < 50
LC
1
C
L
R

C
L
R
Q
1

C
1
L
R
F
Z
) (
F
Z
5. Passi ve Fi l t er s
9
LC
1
C
L
R
F
Z

C
1
L
R
) (
F
Z
b
R
b
R
C R
b
1
Damped High-Pass Filter (2
nd
order)
10

Non-linear
load
Power
system
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
h

I
S
I
1

I
L

5
th

tuned
filter
7
th

tuned
filter
11
th

tuned
filter
High-pass
filter
Typical Passive Filter System
11
6. Par al l el Resonanc e
Due to load current harmonic
Voltage distortion will be very high
Overvoltage
L
C
parallel
Z
h
i
h
i
) 1 (
1
1
1
2
2

+
LC when
LC
L j
C j
L j
C j
L j
Z
parallel

12
Par al l el Resonanc e w i t h Passi ve Fi l t er

F
Z
S
Z
Lh
I
Sh
I
Lh
I
Fh
I
F S SF
Z Z Z ||

LC
1

R

C
1

L
) || ( L L
S

S
L
1 (0dB)
C L
S
1

C L L
S
) || (
1
Lh
Sh
I
I

SF
Z
L L
L
S
+

C L
S
2
1


Parallel resonance Tuned frequency
C L L
S
) (
1
+
C L L
S
p
) (
1
+

C
L L
R R
Q
S
S
p
+
+

1
13
Possible Cause of Parallel Resonance
Detuning Filter : shift of resonance frequency
Capacitance change due to fuse blow
C and L may be damaged
Temperature
Line structure change
Typical Design Practice
Tuned to slightly lower harmonic frequency (3~10%)
Effect of Ls (SCC)
High Ls : good for avoiding parallel resonance
Higher Ls : Higher Q for parallel resonance
14
7. Ser i es Resonanc e
h
v
L
C
series
Z
h
i
h
v
)
1
( 0
1 1
C
L when
C
L j
C j
L j Z
series


,
_

+
Due to line voltage harmonics
Excessive harmonic current flow
Overload, Breakdown
15
Series Resonance Due to Neighborhood Harmonic Source
1 TR
Z
h
i
2 TR
Z
16
Equivalent Circuits Transforms
h
I
2 TR
Z
L
I F
Z
1 TR
Z
Sh
V
L
I F
Z
1 TR
Z
2 TR
Z
S
Z
1 TR h Sh
Z I V
Series Resonance
will be occurred
17
8. Tr oubl es due t o Har moni c Pol l ut i ons
Heating of the electrical equipment
Trip of circuit breaker
Fuse blown
Capacitor damage
kWh fault
Loss of motor winding and iron
Perturbing torques on the motor shaft
Damage of Sensitive electronic equipment
Malfunction of PLL circuit
Communication interference
Parallel and Series Resonance will occured
Increase of RMS and Peak Value
Excessive Neutral Currents
18
9. Mot i vat i ons f or t ak i ng ac t i on agai nst Har moni c s
Harmonics lead to premature ageing of the electrical Installation
Excessive amount of harmonics must eliminate
for economic reasons
The utility company impose penalties on users
Harmonic pollution may disturb equipment in other plants
THD limitation of voltage / current present at PCC
IEC 1000-3-6 : Assessment of emission limits for disturbing loads
in MV and HV power systems
19
10. Func t i on of APFs
Main function
Compensate current and voltage harmonic.
Additional functions
Current-related compensation
Reactive power, current unbalance, neutral current
Using shunt-APF for the most part
Voltage-related compensation
Voltage unbalance, flicker, spikes, regulation
Using series-APF for the most part
20
Converter-based classification
VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) bridge structure
CSI (Current Source Inverter) bridge structure
Topology-based classification
Shunt APF
Series APF
UPQC : Shunt APF + Series APF
Hybrid APF : Shunt or Series Active Filter + Passive Filter
Supply-system-based classification
Two-wire APF
Three-wire APF
Four-wire APF
11. Cl assi f i c at i on of Ac t i ve Fi l t er s
21
12. Conver t er based c l assi f i c at i on
CSI
Switching frequency is restricted
Higher losses
Cannot be used in multilevel
VSI
Self-supporting dc voltage
Lighter, cheaper
Expandable to multilevel
22
Shunt APF stand-alone
Eliminate current harmonics
Reactive power compensation
Balancing unbalanced current
Nonlinear
Load
Shunt Active Filter
iF
Nonlinear
Load
Seies Active Filter
v
F
13. Topol ogy based c l assi f i c at i on
Series APF stand-alone
Eliminate voltage harmonics
Regulate and balance the terminal voltage
Damp out harmonic propagation
23
Nonlinear
Load
optional
Series Shunt
UPQC : Uni f i ed Pow er Qual i t y Condi t i oner
Eliminate voltage and current harmonics
Damp out harmonic propagation
Load voltage regulation and current balancing
Another name is Universal APF
Fundamental power flow control: Low power version of UPFC in FACTS
Large cost and control complexity
24
Hybr i d APF
( Combi nat i ons of Passi ve-Ac t i ve )
Parallel combination of shunt-APF and shunt passive filter
Current source vs. Harmonic sink
Series combination of series-APF and series passive filter
Voltage source vs. Harmonic damping
Hybrid of series-APF and shunt passive filter
Harmonic isolation vs. Harmonic compensation
Reduced size and cost : Quite popular
Hybrid of shunt-APF and series passive filter
Harmonic isolation vs. Harmonic blocking
Series combination of shunt-APF and shunt passive filter
Resonance damping vs. Harmonic compensation
Parallel combination of series-APF and series passive filter
Enhancing passive filter vs. Harmonic blocking
25
Nonlinear
Load
Shunt Active Filter

Nonlinear
Load
Series Active Filter
Harmonic cancellation
Q control
Optimal sharing is needed
Commercialized
Harmonic damping
Existing passive filter
Low power
More circuit for Q control
Overcurrent protection
is difficult
Parallel combination of
shunt-APF and shunt passive filter
Hybrid of
series-APF and shunt passive filter
26
Nonlinear
Load
Series Active Filter
Harmonic cancellation and damping
Series-APF enhanced existing passive filter
Easy protection is possible
Current Transformer is minimized
No Q control
Under developed
Series combination of
series-APF and shunt passive filter
27
14. Suppl y-syst em based c l assi f i c at i on
Two-wire APF
Single-phase nonlinear loads, such as domestic appliances
Smaller rating
Three-wire APF
Three-phase nonlinear load without neutral, such as ASDs
Four-wire APF
Single-phase nonlinear loads fed from four-wire supply system,
such as computers, commercial lighting
Eliminate excessive neutral current and unbalance
28
Capacitor midpoint four-wire shunt APF
Used in smaller ratings,
because entire neutral current flows through dc bus capacitor
Sa
e
Sb
e
Sc
e
Sa
i
Sb
i
Sc
i
La
i
Lb
i
Lc
i
Ca
v
Cb
v
Cc
v
c
L
n
Ca
i
Cb
i
Cc
i
Cn
i
Sn
i
dc
C
Non-Linear Four-wire
Unbalanced Loads
Ln
i
n
dc
C
29
Four-pole four-wire shunt APF
Fourth pole is used to stabilized the neutral of APF
Sa
e
Sb
e
Sc
e
Sa
i
Sb
i
Sc
i
La
i
Lb
i
Lc
i
Ca
v
Cb
v
Cc
v
c
L
n
Ca
i
Cb
i
Cc
i
Cn
i
Sn
i
dc
C
Non-Linear Four-wire
Unbalanced Loads
Ln
i
n
30
Three-bridge four-wire shunt APF
Quite common type
Proper voltage matching for IGBT, Enhances the reliability of APF
Sa
e
Sb
e
Sc
e
Sa
i
Sb
i
Sc
i
La
i
Lb
i
Lc
i
Cb
v
Cc
v
n
Ca
i
Cb
i
Cc
i
Sn
i
dc
C
Non-Linear Four-wire
Unbalanced Loads
Ln
i
Ca
v
31
First stage : Signal conditioning
Sensing system information by PT, CT, Isolation amplifiers
Monitor, measure, record
: THD, power factor, active/reactive power, crest factor
Second Stage : Derivation of compensating signal
Current level and/or voltage level
Frequency domain
: Based on Fourier transformation
: Cumbersome computation, large response time
Time domain
: Based on instantaneous derivation
: pq theory, synchronous dq reference frame method, synchronous
detection method, flux-based controller, notch filter method
Third stage : Generation of gating signal
Hysteresis, PWM, SVPWM, sliding mode, fuzzy-logic
15. APF Cont r ol St r at egi es
32
16. Component c onsi der at i ons of APF
Series inductor : buffer between supply and PWM voltage
Passive ripple filter : suppress switching harmonic and improve source THD
DC bus capacitor : reduces dc ripples
Ca
i
Cb
i
Cc
i
Ca
v
Cb
v
Cc
v
c
L
dc
C
dc
v
p
n
dc
i
dc bus capacitor
passive ripple filter
series inductor
IGBT
33
17. Basi c Conc ept of Ac t i ve Fi l t er Cont r ol
Active Filter as a Harmonic Canceller
Harmonic current detection
And
Current control method
Harmonic voltage detection
And
Voltage control method
S
L
Shunt-APF
f S
i i
h f L
i i i +
h C
i i
detection i
h
S
v
L
i
S
L
Series-APF
h C
v v
h f
S
v v
v
+

detection v
h
S
v
L
i
f L
v v
34
Active Filter as a Harmonic Damper
S
L
Shunt-APF
h
h
C
Z
v
i
detection v
h
S
v
L
i
S
L
Series-APF
h h F
i Z v
detection i
h
S
v
L
i
Harmonic voltage detection
And
Current control method
Harmonic current detection
And
Voltage control method
35
18. Cont r ol Based on Sync hr onous d-q Tr ansf or mat i on
Definition of Synchronous d-q transformation
3
2
,
) sin( ) sin( sin
) cos( ) cos( cos
3
2

1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

+
+

1
]
1

where
f
f
f
f
f
c
b
a
q
d
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

s
q
s
d
e e
e e
e
q
e
d
e
q
e
d
e e
e e
s
q
s
d
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f




cos sin
sin cos
,
cos sin
sin cos

+ +
+ +
m k
qk m
e
qh
e
q
e
q
m k
dk m
e
dh
e
d
e
d
i I i i i
i I i i i
3
1 1
3
1 1
sin
cos

Transformed current with harmonics


( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
k e
k
mk e m b
k e
k
mk e m b
k e
k
mk e m a
k I I i
k I I i
k I I i



+ + +
+
+

cos cos
cos cos
cos cos
2
1
2
1
2
1
36
Ax es r el at i on bet w een abc and dq
Stationary frame Synchronously rotating frame
a a
f f
3
2
j
b b
e f f
3
2
j
c c
e f f


s
d
f
s
q
f


a a
f f
3
2
j
b b
e f f
3
2
j
c c
e f f


s
d
f
s
q
f
e
+
e
+
e
d
f
e
q
f
e

37
D-Q var i abl e i n t i me domai n
Sa
e
Sb
e
Sc
e
m
E


t
e

t
s
Sq
e
s
Sd
e
m
E

2
t
e

e
Sd
e
e
Sq
e
m
E

2
t
e

Stationary
Synchronously
38
Har moni c l oc us i n Spac e Vec t or
5
th
in stationary frame 7
th
in stationary frame
t j
m
t j
m
s s s
dq
e e
e F e F f f f
5
5 1
5
1
5
1

+ +
t j
m
t j
m
s s s
dq
e e
e F e F f f f
7
7 1
7
1
7
1
+ +
s
dq
f
e

s
f
1
s
f
5
e
5
s
d
f
s
q
f
s
dq
f
e

s
f
1
s
f
7
e
7
s
d
f
s
q
f
39
5
th
and 7
th
in stationary frame 5
th
and 7
th
synchronous rotating
variable in stationary frame
t j
m
t j
m
t j
m
s s s s
dq
e e e
e F e F e F f f f f
7 5
7 5 1
7
1
5
1
7
1
5
1
+ + + +

t j
m
t j
m m
e e e e
dq
e e
e F e F F f f f f
6 6
7 5 1
7
1
5
1
7
1
5
1
+ + + +

s
d
f
e
dq
f
s
q
f
s
dq
f
e

s
f
1
s
d
f
s
q
f
40
Over al l bl oc k di agr am of shunt -APF c ont r ol l er
La
i
Lb
i
e
Ld
i
e
Lq
i
LPF
e
Ld
i

'

) 1 ( 0
) 0 (
K
K i
i
e
Ld
e
Sd
+

LPF
+

1-K
e
Lq
i
e
Lq
e
Sq
i i
* e
Cd
i
* e
Cq
i
+

IP
controller
*
dc
v
dc
v
+

synchronous
PI-controller
e

* e
Cd
v
* e
Cq
v
s e
T jk
e

*' e
Cd
v
*' e
Cq
v
e 3 s e
* s
Cd
v
* s
Cq
v
SVPWM
*
a
T
*
b
T
*
c
T
e 3
Ca
i
Cb
i
e
Cd
i
e
Cq
i
Harmonic
Phase Delay
Correction
41
Har moni c Phase Del ay Cor r ec t i on Met hod
) (
*
k i
e
C
LPF
) (
*
1
k i
e
C
) (
*
5
k i
e
C
) (
*
7
k i
e
C
5 C
I
7 C
I
s e
T j
e
6
LPF
5th Harmonic detection
7th Harmonic detection
+

s e
T j
e
6
) (
*
11
k i
e
C
) (
*
13
k i
e
C
+
+
+
+
LPF
1 C
I
Fundamental detection
+
+
+
) 1 (
*
1
+ k i
e
C
) 1 (
*
5
+ k i
e
C
) 1 (
*
7
+ k i
e
C
+
+
+
+
+
+
) 1 (
*
11
+ k i
e
C
) 1 (
*
13
+ k i
e
C
+
+
) 1 (
*
+ k i
e
C
e
j
e
6
e
j
e
6
e
j
e
6
e
j
e
6
Harmonic phase delay correction in synchronous rotating frame
42
19. Cont r ol Based on p-q Theor y
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

c
b
a
c
b
a
e
e
e
C
e
e
e
e
e

2
3
2
3
0
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

c
b
a
c
b
a
i
i
i
C
i
i
i
i
i

2
3
2
3
0
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
a a
i e
*
*
,
b b
i e
*
*
,
c c
i e
*
*
,
3
2
3
2
3
2
0

i e
*
*
,

i e
*
*
,

0
- Transfomations
43
c c b b a a
i e i e i e p + +

i e i e i e p i e i e p
&
&
&
&
&
& &
+ + ,

i e i e i e q i e i e q
&
&
&
&
&
& &
+ ,
Conventional instantaneous power

i e
*
*


i e
*
*

i

e

Instantaneous real power


Instantaneous imaginary power
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1


q
p
e e
e e
i
i
i
i
e e
e e
q
p
1
,



Instantaneous power vs. current
44
p and q i n Si nusoi dal Case
t V v
a
cos 2
) cos( 2 + t V v
b
) cos( 2 t V v
c
) cos( 2 t I i
a
) cos( 2 + t I i
b
) cos( 2 t I i
c
t V v

cos 3
t V v

sin 3
) cos( 3

t I i
) sin( 3

t I i


cos 3VI i v i v p +


sin 3VI i v i v q
45
p and q i n Non-Si nusoi dal Case
46
Over al l bl oc k di agr am of ser i es-APF c ont r ol l er
Fa
v
Fb
v
Fc
v
F
v
F
v
Sa
i
Sb
i
Sc
i
S
i
S
i
p
q
h
p
h
q
a
b
c
d
q
0
a
b
c
d
q
0
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1



S
S
F F
F F
i
i
v v
v v
q
p
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1


h
h
F F
F F
h S
h S
q
p
v v
v v
i
i
1

h S
i

h S
i

a
b
c
d
q
0
Sah
i
Sbh
i
Sch
i
*
Ca
v
*
Cb
v
*
Cc
v
47
20. Sel ec t i on of APF f or spec i f i c c onsi der at i ons
9. Voltage Sag & Dips
8. Voltage Flicker
7. Voltage Balancing
6. Voltage Regulation
5. Voltage Harmonics
4. Neutral Current
3. Load Balancing
2. Reactive Power
1. Current Harmonics
UPQC Hybrid-APF Series-APF Shunt-APF
Active Power Filters Topology
Compensation for
specific application
Higher number of is more preferred