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# Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 141

## CHAPTER 20 5. By solving the simultaneous equations y = x 2 and

y 2 = x , the points of intersection are (0, 0) and
Exercise 20A (p.225) (1, 1).
1
1. y = x 2 − 4 = ( x + 2)( x − 2) ∴ The required area =
∫0 ( x − x 2 )dx
When y = 0 , x = ±2 3
2x 2 x3 1
2 =[ − ]0
∴ The required area =
∫−2 −( x − 4)dx
2 3 3
1
2 =
= ∫ ( 4 − x 2 )dx 3
−2
x3 2 
6. (a)  y = x ..................(1)
3
= [4 x − ]−2
 y = 4 x ................(2)
3
2
= 10 Put (2) into (1), x 3 − 4 x = 0
3
x = 0 , 2, −2
y = 0 , 8, −8
2. y 2 = 4 x ∴ The coordinates of A are (2, 8) .
y2 The coordinates of B are ( −2, − 8) .
x=
4 (b) The required area
y2 4 2
∴ The required area = ∫ = ∫−2 4 x − x dx
3
dy
−4 4
4 y2 0 2
= ∫ ( x 3 − 4 x )dx + ∫ ( 4 x − x 3 )dx
=
−4 4 ∫dy
−2 0
y3 x4 x4 2
= [ ]4−4 =[ − 2 x 2 ]0−2 + [2 x 2 − ]0
12 4 4
2 =8
= 10
3
7. (a) y = ( x + 1)( x − 2)( x − 4)
π
∴ The coordinates of A are ( −1, 0) .
3. The required area =
∫−
2

π
2 sin x dx The coordinates of B are (2, 0) .
2
π The coordinates of C are ( 4, 0) .
=2 ∫0
2
2 sin xdx
(b) When −1 < x < 2 , y > 0
π
= 4[ − cos x ]02 When 2 < x < 4 , y < 0
=4 ∴ The required area
2
= ∫−1 ( x + 1)( x − 2)( x − 4)dx
4. When x 3 − x = 0, 4
x = −1, 0, 1 − ∫ ( x + 1)( x − 2)( x − 4)dx
2
When −1 < x < 0 , y > 0 2
= ∫ ( x 3 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 8)dx
When 0 < x < 1 , y < 0 −1
4
∴ The required area + ∫ ( − x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 8)dx
2
0 1 x 4 5x 3
= ∫−1 ( x − x )dx − ∫0 ( x − x )dx
3 3
=[ − + x 2 + 8 x ]2−1
4 3
x4 x2 0 x4 x2 1 − x 4 5x 3
=[ − ]−1 − [ − ]0 +[ + − x 2 − 8 x ]24
4 2 4 2 4 3
1 63 16
= = +
2 4 3
1
= 21
12
142 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

8. y R 1
A2 = 9 − 4
y2 = x 2
1
x =4 =4
2
A ∴ A1 : A2 = 1 : 1
x
O
y = −1 11. (a) For the curve y 2 = 4 x ,
Q dy
2y =4
dx
P dy 2
=
Put x = 4 into y = x , then y = ±2 .
2
dx y
Put y = −1 into y 2 = x , then x = 1 . dy 2
=
Therefore the coordinates of P, Q and R are dx (1, 2 ) 2
P(4, −2), Q(1, −1) and R(4, 2). =1
2
∫−1 (4 − y
∴ The required area = 2
)dy Equation of the tangent is
y − 2 = x −1
y3 x − y +1 = 0
= [ 4 y − ]2−1
3
=9 y2
2
(b) The required area =
∫0 4
− ( y − 1)]dy
[
9. Solving the simultaneous equations x = y 2 and y3 y 2
=[ − + y]20
x = 8 − y 2 , we obtain that y = ±2 . 12 2
2 2
=
∴ The required area =
∫−2 [(8 − y ) − y
2 2
]dy 3
2
= 4 ∫ ( 4 − y 2 )dy 12. (a) The required area
0
= 4[ 4 y − y 3 ]20
3 2 at y2
= 21
1 = ∫
−2 at
( at 2 − )dy
4a
3 2 at y2
=2
0 ∫ ( at 2 − )dy
4a
10. (a) S o l v i n g t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s e q u a t i o n s 1 3 2 at
y = 4 x − x 2 and y = x 2 − 2 x , we obtain that = 2[at y −
2
y ]0
12 a
x = 0 or 3. 8
= a2t 3
∴ The required area 3
3
= ∫0 [(4 x − x ) − ( x − 2 x )]dx
2 2
(b) Area of rectangle = 2( at 2 )(2 at )
3 = 4a 2t 3
= ∫ (6 x − 2 x 2 )dx
0 shaded area 8 a2t 3
2 = 3 23
= [3 x 2 − x 3 ]30 area of rectangle 4 a t
3 2
=9 = for any t > 0
3
(b) The line joining the points of intersection is
y = x. π
∫0 [sin x − k( x − π) ]dx = 4
2
13.
3
A1 = ∫0 [(4 x − x ) − x]dx
2
k ( x − π )3 π
3 [ − cos x − ]0 = 4
= ∫ (3 x − x 2 )dx 3
0 kπ 3
3 1 1 − ( −1 + )=4
= [ x 2 − x 3 ]30 3
2 3 6
1 k=− 3
=4 π
2
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 143

dy
14. (a) = 3 − 6x = 30 + (
4 1
− 4) − (64 − 2 2 )
dx 2 3

y = (3 − 6 x ) dx = 3 x − 3 x 2 + C1
=
14 8
+ 2
3 3
Since (1, 6) lies on curve C, 2
= (7 + 4 2 )
6 = 3(1) − 3(1)2 + C1 3
C1 = 6
Hence the equation of curve C is
y = −3 x 2 + 3 x + 6 .
17. y
(b) When y = 0 , x = 2 or −1 y =x −12

## When −1 < x < 2 , y > 0

B
∴ The required area
2
= ∫−1 (−3x + 3 x + 6)dx
2

3x 2
= [− x 3 + + 6 x ]2−1 A1
2 A
7
= 10 + x−y+5 =0
2 O
x
27 C D
= A2
2

## Put y = 0 into y = x 2 − 1 , then x 2 − 1 = 0

15. (a) 1 + sin α = 2 cos α (α is acute)
x = 1 or −1
1 + 2 sin α + sin 2 α = 4 cos 2 α
The coordinates of C and D are (−1, 0) and (1, 0)
5 sin 2 α + 2 sin α − 3 = 0 respectively.
(sin α + 1)(5 sin α − 3) = 0
3 Solving the simultaneous equations y = x 2 − 1 and
sin α = (Q α is acute) y = x + 5, we obtain that the coordinates of A and
5
B are (−2, 3) and (3, 8) respectively.
4
cos α = 3
∫−2 ( x + 5 − x + 1)dx
5
A1 + A2 = 2

## (b) The required area 3

3π = ∫ ( − x 2 + x + 6)dx
= ∫α (1 + sin x − 2 cos x )dx −2
2

x3 x2
3π = [− + + 6 x ]3−2
= [ x − cos x − 2 sin x ]α 2
3 2
3π 4 3 5
= + 2 − α + + 2( ) = 20
2 5 5 6
3π −1 3
= + 4 − sin ( ) 1
A2 = − ∫−1 ( x − 1)dx
2
2 5
x3
= −[ − x ]1−1
16. By solving y = x 2 , y = 4 x and x 2 y = 4 , the points 3
1
of intersection are (1, 4), ( 2 , 2) and (4, 16). =1
3
∴ The required area 5 1
∴ A1 = 20 − 1
4 2 4 6 3
∫1 4 xdx − ∫1 ∫
4
= dx − x 2 dx 1
x 2 2 = 19
4 1 2
= [2 x 2 ]14 + [ ]1 2 − [ x 3 ]4 2
x 3
144 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

## 18. (a) A sketch of the graph of y = cos 2 x on the π π π 3

given figure is shown as follows. = ( − − )
2 2 3 4
y
π2 3π
= −
y = cos 2x
12 8

2
3. The required volume =
∫1 πx dy
2
x
π π 2
= π ∫ ( y + 1)2 dy
O
2
1
y = cos x 2
= π ∫ ( y 2 + 2 y + 1)dy
1

## (b) cos x = cos 2 x y3

= π[ + y 2 + y]12
2 cos 2 x − cos x − 1 = 0 3
19π
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x − 1) = 0 =
3
1
cos x = − or cos x = 1
2
2π π
x= x=0
or 4. The required volume =
∫0 πx dy
4 2
3
π
(c) The required area = π ∫ tan 2 ydy
4

0
= ∫0 (cos x − cos 2 x )dx
3
π

= π ∫ (sec 2 y − 1)dy
4

π
+ ∫ (cos 2 x − cos x )dx
0
π

3 = π[tan y − y]04
sin 2 x 23π sin 2 x π
= [sin x − ]0 + [ − sin x ]π2 π = π(1 − )
2 2 3
4
3 3 3 3
= +
4 4
4 x+2
∫2 π[( 2 ) − ( 2 )
x
=
3 3 5. The required volume = 2 2
]dx
2
π 4
= ∫ ( 4 x + 4)dx
4 2
π
Exercise 20B (p.233) = [2 x 2 + 4 x ]24
4
1 = 8π
1. The required volume = ∫0 πy dx
2

1
= ∫ πx 4 dx 6. By solving the simultaneous equations y = x 2 and
0
x5 y = 2 − x 2 , the points of intersection are (1, 1)
= π[ ]10 and (−1, 1).
5
π ∴ The required volume
= 1
∫−1[π(2 − x ) − π( x ) ]dx
5 = 2 2 2 2

π 1
= π ∫ ( 4 − 4 x 2 + x 4 − x 4 )dx
2. The required volume = ∫ πy 2 dx
2

π −1
3
1
= π ∫ ( 4 − 4 x 2 )dx
π

= ∫ π cos 2 xdx
2

π
−1
3
4x3 1
π
= π[ 4 x − ]−1

1
= π π (1 + cos 2 x )dx
2
3
3 2 16 π
π sin 2 x π2 =
= [x + ]π 3
2 2 3
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 145

## 7. By solving the simultaneous equations y = x and 4

The required volume = π
∫−4 ( y − 3 )dx
2 2
y = x , the points of intersection are (0, 0) and
2
4
(1, 1). = π ∫ (16 − x 2 )dx
1 −4
∴ The required volume =
∫0 π( y − y 4 )dy
2
1 3 4
= 2 π[16 x − x ]0
y3 y5 1 3
= π[ − ]0 256
3 5 π =
2π 3
= ∴ The volume of the remaining part of the
15
256
sphere is π cm 3 .
3
1
8. The required volume =
∫0 π(4 y − y)dy
3y 2 1 x 2 y2
= π[ ]0 12. + =1
2 a2 b2

=
2 x2
y 2 = b 2 (1 − 2 )
a
2
b
9. Consider a circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r, = b2 − 2 x 2
then the equation of the circle is a
x 2 + y2 = r 2 ∴ The required volume
y2 = r 2 − x 2 a
= ∫a − h πy dx
2
r
The volume of sphere = ∫−r πy dx
2
a b2
r
= 2 π ∫ (r 2 − x 2 )dx
=π ∫
a−h
(b 2 − 2 x 2 )dx
a
0 2 3
b x
x3 r = π[b 2 x − 2 ]aa − h
= 2 π[r 2 x − ]0 a 3
3 b2h2 π
1 = (3a − h)
= 2 π(1 − )r 3 3a 2
3
4 3
= πr
3
13. y
10. B y s o l v i n g t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s e q u a t i o n s
4 x 2 + 9 y 2 = 36 a n d y = 0 , t h e p o i n t s o f
intersection are (3, 0) and (−3, 0). 2 C
3 36 − 4 x 2
The required volume =
∫−3
π(
9
)dx
1
V1

3 4x2 A V2

= π (4 −
−3 9
)dx 1
2 B
3 4x2

x
= 2π (4 − )dx O
0 9
4x3 3
= 2 π[ 4 x − ]0 (a) Solving the simultaneous equations y =
1
,
27 x
= 16 π x = 2 and y = x ,
∴ the coordinates of A are (1, 1) ,
11. Consider the equation of the circle x 2 + y 2 = 25 . 1
the coordinates of B are (2, ),
When y = 3, 2
x 2 = 25 − 9 the coordinates of C are (2, 2) .
x = ±4
146 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

2 8
∫1 [πx − π( x ) ]dx
1
(b) The required volume =
∫0 πydy
2 2
15. (a) (i) Capacity of the pot =
2
= π ∫ ( x 2 − 2 )dx
1 y2 8
= π[ ]0
1 x 2
x3 1 2 = 32 π
= π[ + ]1
3 x (ii) The required volume
11π
= 8
∫−1 π( y + 1)dy − 32π
6
=
2
(c) V1 =
∫1 π(2 − y )dy
2 2
y2
2
= π[ + y]8−1 − 32 π
= π ∫ ( 4 − y 2 )dy
2
1
1 = 40 π − 32 π
y3 2 2
= π[ 4 y − ]1 17π
3 =
5π 2
=
3 (b) The volume of liquid inside the pot at a height
1

1
V2 = 1
π(2 2 − 2 )dy h units is given by
2 y
h πh 2
∫0
1
∫ V= πydy =
1
= π 1 ( 4 − 2 )dy 2
2 y
11 dV π dh dh
= π[ 4 y + ] 1 = (2 h) = πh = 2π
y 2 dt 2 dt dt

∴ The required volume = V1 + V2 =
8π ∴ ∫ hdh = 2∫ dt
3
h2
= 2t + C
14. (a) Let V cm 3 be the volume of water inside the 2
bowl when the depth is h cm. When t = 0 , h = 0 . ∴ C = 0
h
V=π
∫0 x dy
2
∴ h 2 = 4t
h
= π ∫ (20 y − y 2 )dy
16
When h = 4 , t = =4
0 4
1 3 h ∴ The time taken to fill the pot with water
= π[10 y 2 − y ]0
3 up to a level of 4 units is 4 minutes.
1 2
= πh (30 − h)
3
∴ The volume of water inside the bowl is Revision Exercise 20 (p.236)
1 2
πh (30 − h) cm 3 . 1. A sketch of the graph is shown as follows.
3
y
1
(b) V = 10 πh 2 − πh 3
3 y = |(x − 1)(x + 1)|
dV dh
= (20 πh − πh 2 )
dt dt
dV
When h = 5 and = 10 ,
dt
dh
10 = [20 π(5) − π(5)2 ] A2
dt
dh 2 A1
=
dt 15π x
−1 O 1 2
∴ The rate of increase of the water level is
2
cm / s .
15π
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 147

## 1 (b) The required area

A1 = ∫−1 −( x − 1)( x + 1)dx 3x + 4 x 2
4
1
= ∫ (1 − x 2 ) dx
= ∫
−1 4
( −
4
)dx
−1 1 4
= [x −
x3 1
]−1
=
4 −1 ∫
(3 x + 4 − x 2 )dx
3 1 3x 2 x3
4 = [ + 4 x − ]4−1
= 4 2 3
3 5
2
=5
∫1 ( x − 1)( x + 1)dx
24
A2 =
2
= ∫ ( x 2 − 1)dx  y = x 2
1 4. (a) 
 y = cx
3
x3
=[ − x ]12 1
3 ∴ x=
4 c
= 1 1
3 ∴ The coordinates of A are ( , 2 ) .
c c
∴ The required area = A1 + A2
8 (b) The area of the shaded region
= 1

∫0 ( x
3
= − cx 3 )dx
c 2

x 3 cx 4 1c
2. x 4 − 4 x 2 = 5x 2 =[ − ]
3 4 0
x 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 0 1 1
= 3− 3
x = 0 , ±3 3c 4c
3 1
∴ The required area = 2
∫0 [5x − ( x − 4 x =
2 4 2
)] dx
12c 3
3 2
= 2 ∫ (9 x 2 − x 4 ) dx =
3
0
1 5 3 1 1
= 2[3 x 3 − x ]0 ∴ c3 = , c =
5 8 2
= 64.8
π
5. (a) sin(2 x + )=0
3
3. (a) 3 x − 4 y + 4 = 0 ........................(1) π
 2x + = π
 x 2 ...................................(2) 3
 y = 4 π
x=
Put (2) into (1), 3
π
∴ The coordinates of A are ( , 0) .
3x − x 2 + 4 = 0 3
x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 π
π − 2x = 2x +
( x − 4)( x + 1) = 0 3
x = 4 or −1 π
x=
1 6
Put x = −1 into (2), y = , y = sin 2 x
4
π
∴ The coordinates of A are ( −1,
1
). = sin 2( )
4 6
3
1 =
Put x = 4 into (2), y =(16) , 2
4
π 3
∴ The coordinates of B are ( 4, 4) . ∴ The coordinates of B are ( , ).
6 2
148 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

## (b) The required area 0

π π
π
A2 = ∫−1[ y( y − 1) − y]dy
∫ ∫
= sin 2 xdx + π sin(2 x + )dx
6 3

0
= ∫ ( y 2 − 2 y)dy
0 6 3
1 π 1 π π −1
= [ − cos 2 x ]06 + [ − cos(2 x + )] π3
2 2 3 6 y3
1 1 =[ − y 2 ]0−1
= + 3
4 4 4
1 =
= 3
2 ∴ The required area = A1 + A2
8
 y =
6. (a)  x = sin 3
 2
 x = − sin y
y
sin = − sin y 8. When x 2 − 6 = 0 , x = ± 6
2
y When x 2 − 6 = x , x = −2, 3
sin + sin y = 0
2 ∴ The required area
y y y
sin + 2 sin cos = 0 −2 0 6
2
y
2
y
2 = ∫− 6 ∫−2
−( x 2 − 6)dx + − xdx + ∫0 xdx
sin (1 + 2 cos ) = 0 3
2 2 + ∫ x − ( x 2 − 6)dx
y y 1
sin = 0 or cos = − 6
2 2 2 1 3 −2 1 x2
4 π 8π = [6 x − x ]− 6 + [ − x 2 ]0−2 + [ ]0 6
∴ y = 0, 2 π, 4 π, L or y = , , L 3 2 2
3 3 x2 x3
4π 2π 3 +[ − + 6 x ]3 6
When y = , x = sin = 2 3
3 3 2 8 ( 6 )3 27 ( 6 )3
3 4π = −12 + + 6 6 − +2+ +
∴ The coordinates of Q are ( , ). 3 3 2 3
2 3 −6 6

∫0
y 37
(b) The required area = + sin y)dy
3
(sin =
2 6
y 4π
= [ −2 cos − cos y]03
2
= 4.5 9. y y 2 = 2x
A1 A
7. y
L
x = y(y −1)
(2, 2)

A1 A2
x
O C
x
O
A2
y = −1

The equation of L is y = x .
2
A1 = ∫0 [ y − y( y − 1)]dy (a) By solving the simultaneous equations
2
= ∫ (2 y − y 2 )dy y2 = 2 x a n d x 2 + y2 − 4 x = 0 , x = 0 o r
0 x=2
y3 2
= [y2 − ]0 Put x = 2 into y 2 = 2 x ,
3
4 ∴ y = ±2
=
3
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 149

## The coordinates of A are (2, 2) . The required area

3
∫0 ( x − 6 x + 8x − x + 4 x ) dx
4
The coordinates of centre C = ( −( − ), 0) = 3 2 2
2
= (2, 0) 4
+ ∫ ( x 2 − 4 x − x 3 + 6 x 2 − 8 x ) dx
3
(b) Let A3 be the area of the quarter-circle OAC. 3
= ∫ ( x 3 − 7 x 2 + 12 x )dx
π( 2 ) 2 0
A3 = =π 4
4 − ∫ ( x 3 − 7 x 2 + 12 x )dx
2
∫0
3
A2 = 2 xdx 1 7
= [ x 4 − x 3 + 6 x 2 ]30
2x 2
3
2 4 3
= 2[ ]0 1 7
3 − [ x 4 − x 3 + 6 x 2 ]34
4 3
2 2 45 7
= ( 2 )3 = +
3 4 12
8 5
= = 11
3 6
8
A1 = A 3 − A 2 = π −
3
∴ The required area = 2 A1 = 2 π −
16 12. (a) y = (1 + x )(3 − x )
3
When y = 0 , x = −1 , 3
∴ The coordinates of P are ( −1, 0) .
10. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
question because of the copyright reasons. ∴ The coordinates of Q are (3, 0) .

## 11. (a) C1: y = x 3 − 6 x 2 + 8 x y = 3 + 2x − x2

= x ( x − 2)( x − 4) dy
= 2 − 2x
dx
C2 : y = x 2 − 4 x
= x ( x − 4) dy dy
= 4, = −4
A sketch of the curves is shown as follows. dx x = −1 dx x = 3
y The equation of RP is y = 4( x + 1) .
C 1: y = x 3 − 6 x 2 + 8 x
The equation of RQ is y = −4( x − 3) .
By solving the equation of RP and RQ, the
coordinates of R are (1, 8) .
(2, 0) (b) The required area
x
O (4, 0)
3
∫−1 (1 + x )(3 − x )dx
1
= ( 4)(8) −
2
1 33
= 16 − [3 x + x 2 − x ]−1
3
32
= 16 −
2
C 2: y = x − 4 x 3
1
=5
(b) S o l v i n g t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s e q u a t i o n s 3
y = x 3 − 6 x 2 + 8 x and y = x ( x − 4) ,
x ( x − 2)( x − 4) = x ( x − 4) 13 − 14. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
x ( x − 3)( x − 4) = 0 questions because of the copyright reasons.
x = 0 , 3, 4
150 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

## 15. Capacity of the vessel 18. (a) (i) y = Ax 2 − 4 x + B ...............(1)

= ∫0 πx dy Put (1, 0) into (1),
2

2π A − 4 + B = 0 ....................(2)
= π ∫ (1 + cos y)2 dy Put (0, 2) into (1),
0
2π 3 B=2
= π ∫ ( + 2 cos y + cos 2 y)dy
1
0 2 2 Put B = 2 into (2),
3 sin 2 y 2 π
= π[ y + 2 sin y + ]0 A=2
2 4
= 3π 2 
(ii)  y = 2 x − 4 x + 2
2

y = 2
16. (a) Solving the simultaneous equations y = cos x
∴ 2x2 − 4x + 2 = 2
π π x = 0 or 2
and y = sin 2 x , we obtain that x = or .
2 6
π 3 When x = 2 , y = 2(2)2 − 4(2) + 2 = 2
Put x = into y = cos x , y =
6 2 ∴ The coordinates of P are (2, 2) .
π 3 (b) Volume of the solid
∴ The coordinates of P are ( , ).
6 2 2
= ∫0 π[2 − (2 x − 4 x + 2) ]dx
2 2 2
(b) Volume of the solid
π π 2
= − π ∫ ( 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 + 24 x 2 − 16 x )dx
∫0 π sin 2 2 xdx + ∫ π cos 2 xdx
6 2

π 0
6
π 4x5
= − π[ − 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 − 8 x 2 ]20

1 1
= π ( − cos 4 x )dx
6

0 2 2 5
π 32 π
=

2 1 1
+ π π ( + cos 2 x )dx 5
6 2 2
x sin 4 x π6 x sin 2 x π2
= π[ − ]0 + π[ + ]π 19. (a) The equation of L is y − 2 = m( x − 1) .
2 8 2 4 6
π 2 3 3π (b) Put y = x 2 into the equation of L,
= −
4 16
x 2 − 2 = m( x − 1)
x 2 − mx + ( m − 2) = 0
1
17. (a) Put y = 2 into y = x 2 , x = ±2 (i) α + β = m
2
∴ The coordinates of B are (2, 2) . (ii) αβ = m − 2

## Put y = 2 into y = 2 x , x = 1 (iii) β − α = m 2 − 4( m − 2)

∴ The coordinates of A are (1, 2) . = m 2 − 4m + 8
Solving the simultaneous equations y = 2 x (c) The required area
1 β
and y = x 2 , we obtain that x = 0 or 4.

1 2
2 = (β + α 2 )(β − α ) − x 2 dx
2 α
∴ The coordinates of C are ( 4, 8) . 1 2 1 3
= (β + α )(β − α ) − (β − α 3 )
2
2 3
8 8 y2 1
∫ ∫2
y
(b) π [(2 y) − ( )2 ]dy = π (2 y − )dy = (β − α )[3(β + α ) − 2(β 2 + αβ + α 2 )]
2 2
2 2 4 6
y3 8 1
= π[ y 2 − ]2 = (β − α )3
12 6
= 18π 1 2 3
= ( m − 4 m + 8) 2
6
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 151

(d) m 2 − 4 m + 8 = ( m − 2)2 + 4 dA
= π( 4 h 3 + 4 h )
dh
∴ When m = 2 , the area of the shaded dt dt
dh
region attains its minimum. = 4hπ(h + 1)
2
dt
∴ Equation of L is y − 2 = 2( x − 1)
dh 9
y = 2x When h = 3 , =− (From (b)(i)),
dt 20
dA 9
20. (a) Let V cubic units be the volume of water. ∴ = 4(3)π(9 + 1)( − )
dt 20
h = −54 π
V= ∫0 πx dy
2
∴ The rate of change of the surface area
h of the water at this moment is −54π
= π ∫ ( y 2 + 1)2 dy
0 square units per minute.
h
= π ∫ ( y 4 + 2 y 2 + 1)dy
0
y5 2 y3 21 − 25. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
= π[ + + y]0h questions because of the copyright reasons.
5 3
h 5 2h3
= π( + + h)
5 3 Enrichment 20 (p.244)
∴ Volume of water
h 5 2h3 Solving the simultaneous equations y = x 2 and
= π( + + h) cubic units
5 3 y 2 = 8 x , we obtain that x = 0 , y = 0 or x = 2 , y = 4 .
(b) (i) From (a), ∴ The volume of the solid
2
h 5 2h3 = 2π ∫0 x( 8x − x )dx
2
V = π( + + h)
5 3
2
= 2 π ∫ ( 8 x − x 3 )dx
3
dV dh
= π(h 4 + 2 h 2 + 1)
2

dt dt 0
5
dV 4 2x 2 x4 2
= −5πh 2 (given) = 2 π[ − ]0
dt 5 4
24 π
When h = 3 ,
dV =
= −5π(9) 5
dt
= −45π
dh
π[34 + 2(3)2 + 1] = −45π
dt Classwork 1 (p.220)
dh −45
= 1. Rewrite the equation y 2 = x as y = ± x .
dt 100
−9
= y
20
∴ The rate at which the level of the y2 = x
9
water is falling when h = 3 is
20
unit per minute. A1

## (ii) Put y = h into y 2 = x − 1 , O 2 3

x

∴ h 2 = x − 1 , or x = h 2 + 1 A2

## Let the surface area of water be A square

units.
A = πx 2
= π(h 2 + 1)2
= π(h 4 + 2 h 2 + 1)
152 Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals

## As shown in the diagram, the curve y 2 = x is Classwork 3 (p.225)

split into two parts y = x and y = − x . The 1. By solving the simultaneous equations y 2 = 4 x
required area is the sum of A1 and A2 . Since the and x + y = 8, the points of intersection are (4, 4)
curve y 2 = x is symmetrical about the x-axis, and (16, −8). The equations of the parabola and
A1 = A 2 . the line can be respectively written as
y2
3 x= and x = 8 − y .
A1 = ∫2 xdx 4
4 y2
∴ The required area =
∫ (8 − y −
3
2x 3 2 )dy
=[ ]2 −8 4
3
y 2 y3 4
6 3−4 2 = [8 y − − ]−8
= 2 12
3 56 160
= +
∴ The required area = A1 + A 2 3 3
= 72
12 3 − 8 2
=
3 y
2.

2. y = − x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x 1 P y1 = sin x
A1
= − x ( x − 3 x + 2)
2
A2
= − x ( x − 2)( x − 1) x
O π
When 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 , y ≤ 0
−1
∴ The required area y2 = cos x
2
= ∫0 − x + 3x − 2 x dx
3 2
The graphs of y1 = sin x and y2 = cos x on the
1
= ∫ − x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x dx interval 0 ≤ x ≤ π are shown. The two curves
0 intersect at P. Solving for the x-coordinate of P,
2
+ ∫ − x 3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x dx sin x = cos x
1
1 2 tan x = 1
= ∫ ( x 3 − 3 x 2 + 2 x )dx − ∫ ( x 3 − 3 x 2 + 2 x )dx π
0 1 x=
4
x4 x4 π
=[ − x 3 + x 2 ]10 − [ − x 3 + x 2 ]12 The x-coordinate of P is .
4 4 4
1 1 π
= + ∴ A1 = ∫0 ( y2 − y1 )dx
4

4 4
1 π
=
= ∫ (cos x − sin x )dx
4
2
0
π
= [sin x + cos x ]04
= 2 −1
Classwork 2 (p.221)
π

## Rewrite the equation y = x 2 as x = ± y .

1
2
∴ A2 = ∫ ( y1 − y2 )dx
π
4
π
9 = ∫ (sin x − cos x )dx
∴ The required area =
∫0 y
1
π
2
dy 4

## 3 = [ − cos x − sin x ]ππ

2y 2 9 4
=[ ]0 = 1+ 2
3
= 18 ∴ The required area = A1 + A2
=2 2
Chapter 20 Applications of Definite Integrals 153

## Classwork 4 (p.231) (b) The required volume

50 y + 30 2
∫18 π[ 2 − (
y
8 =
∫0
1. The required volume = ) ]dy
πx 2 dy 16
50 − y 2 17 y 225

8
= ∫ πy =π + −
2
3
dy ( )dy
0 18 256 64 64
5
− y 3 17 y 2 225 y 50
3y 8 = π[ + −
3
= π[ ]0 ]18
5 768 128 64
96 π 64 π
= =
5 3

4
2. The required volume =
∫0 πy dx
2

4
= ∫ πxdx
0
x2 4
= π[ ]0
2
= 8π

π
3. The required volume =
∫0 πx dy
2

π
= ∫ π sin 2 ydy
0
π1
= π∫ (1 − cos 2 y)dy
0 2
π sin 2 y π
= [y − ]0
2 2
π2
=
2

Classwork 5 (p.233)
By solving the simultaneous equations y = 2 x 2 and
y = 16 x − 30 , the points of intersection are (3, 18) and
(5, 50).
(a) The required volume
5
= ∫3 π[(16 x − 30) − 4 x ]dx
2 4

5
= π ∫ (256 x 2 − 960 x + 900 − 4 x 4 )dx
3
256 x 3 4x5 5
= π[ − 480 x 2 + 900 x − ]3
3 5
2 656 π
=
15
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