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Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 77

6. y = cos 2 x
CHAPTER 16 dy
= −2 sin 2 x
Exercise 16A (p.119) dx
dy π
1. 4 x 2 + y 2 = 8 = −2 sin 2( )
dx ( 12π , 23 ) 12
dy
4( 2 x ) + 2 y =0 π
dx = −2 sin
dy 4x 6
=− = −1
dx y
dy 4(1)
=− 7. y = x 2 + 5 x − 3
dx (1, 2 ) (2)
dy
= −2 = 2x + 5
dx
dy
2. y 2 = x = 2(1) + 5 = 7
dx (1, 3)
dy
2y =1 The equation of the tangent is
dx
dy 1 y − 3 = 7 ( x − 1)
=
dx 2 y 7x − y − 4 = 0
dy 1 The equation of the normal is
=
dx ( 4, 2 ) 2(2) 1
1 y−3= − ( x − 1)
= 7
4 x + 7 y − 22 = 0

3. x 2 y + xy 2 = 6 8. y = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 7 x − 4
dy dy
2 xy + x 2 + 2 xy + y2 = 0 dy
= 3x 2 − 4 x + 7
dx dx dx
dy y( y + 2 x )
=− dy
= 3(2)2 − 4(2) + 7 = 11
dx x ( x + 2 y) dx ( 2, 10 )
dy (2)(2 + 2)
=− The equation of the tangent is
dx (1, 2 ) (1)(1 + 4)
y − 10 = 11( x − 2)
8
=− 11x − y − 12 = 0
5
The equation of the normal is
4. x + 2 xy = 3 y
2 2 −1
y − 10 = ( x − 2)
dy dy 11
2x + 2x + 2y = 6y x + 11y − 112 = 0
dx dx
dy x+y
= 3
dx 3 y − x 9. y = x x = x 2
dy 1+1 dy 3 12
= = x
dx (1, 1) 3(1) − 1 dx 2
=1 dy 3 1
= ( 4) 2 = 3
dx ( 4, 8) 2
5. x 3 + 3 x 2 y − 6 xy 2 + 2 y 3 = 0 The equation of the tangent is
dy dy dy
3x 2 + 3x 2 + 6 xy − 12 xy − 6 y2 + 6 y2 =0 y − 8 = 3 ( x − 4)
dx dx dx 3x − y − 4 = 0
dy 2 y 2 − 2 xy − x 2
= The equation of the normal is
dx x 2 − 4 xy + 2 y 2
2 − 2 −1 1
dy
= y−8= − ( x − 4)
dx (1, 1) 1 − 4 + 2 3
x + 3 y − 28 = 0
=1
78 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

10. y = ( x 2 − 1)2 14. y =


2
= 2(1 − x ) −2
dy (1 − x )2
= 2( x 2 − 1)(2 x ) = 4 x ( x 2 − 1) dy
dx = 2[( −2)(1 − x ) −3 ( −1)] = 4(1 − x ) −3
dy dx
= 4(1)(12 − 1) = 0 dy
dx (1, 0 ) = 4(1 − 0) −3 = 4
The equation of the tangent is y = 0 . dx ( 0, 2 )
The equation of the normal is x − 1 = 0 . The equation of the tangent is
y − 2 = 4x
1 4x − y + 2 = 0
11. y = x − 1 = ( x − 1) 2
dy 1 The equation of the normal is
= ( x − 1) − 2
1
1
dx 2 y−2= − x
dy 1 1 4
= (2 − 1) − 2 =
1
x + 4y − 8 = 0
dx ( 2, 1) 2 2
The equation of the tangent is
1 15. x 4 − x 2 y = 1
y − 1 = ( x − 2) 1
2 y = x2 − 2
x − 2y = 0 x
When y = 0 , x 4 − 1 = 0
The equation of the normal is
y − 1 = − 2( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 1)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0
2x + y − 5 = 0 ∴ x = 1 or −1
dy
= 2 x − ( −2 x −3 ) = 2 x + 2 x −3
1 dx
12. y = x x 2 + 1 = x ( x 2 + 1) 2 At (1, 0),
dy 1
= ( x 2 + 1) 2 + x ( )( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x )
1 1
dy
dx 2 =2+2= 4
dx (1, 0 )
= ( x 2 + 1) 2 + x 2 ( x 2 + 1) − 2
1 1

The equation of the tangent is


= ( x 2 + 1) − 2 ( x 2 + 1 + x 2 )
1
y − 0 = 4 ( x − 1)
= ( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x 2 + 1)
1
4x − y − 4 = 0
dy The equation of the normal is
= (0 + 1) − 2 = 1
1

dx ( 0, 1
0) y − 0 = − ( x − 1)
The equation of the tangent is 4
x + 4y − 1 = 0
y − 0 = (1)( x − 0)
x−y=0 At (−1, 0),
dy
The equation of the normal is = 2( −1) + 2( −1) −3 = −4
y − 0 = ( −1)( x − 0) dx ( −1, 0 )
x+y=0 The equation of tangent is
y − 0 = − 4( x + 1)
2 4x + y + 4 = 0
13. y = = 2( 4 − x ) −1
4−x The equation of normal is
dy
= 2[( −1)( 4 − x ) −2 ( −1)] = 2( 4 − x ) −2 1
dx y − 0 = ( x + 1)
4
dy
= 2( 4 − 3) −2 = 2 x − 4y + 1 = 0
dx (3, 2 )
The equation of the tangent is 16. x 2 + 5 xy + y 2 = 4
y − 2 = 2 ( x − 3)
When x = 0 , y 2 = 4
2x − y − 4 = 0
∴ y = 2 or −2
The equation of the normal is dy dy
1 2 x + 5x + 5y + 2 y =0
y − 2 = − ( x − 3) dx dx
2 dy 5y + 2 x
x + 2y − 7 = 0 =−
dx 5x + 2 y
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 79

At (0, 2), dy
At ( x1, y1 ) , slope of the tangent =
dy 5(2) + 2(0) 5 dx ( x1 , y1 )
=− =−
dx ( 0, 2 ) 5(0) + 2(2) 2 9x
=− 1
The equation of tangent is 16 y1
5 9 x1 9
y − 2 = − (x − 0) ∴ − =
2 16 y1 8
5x + 2 y − 4 = 0 x1 = −2 y1
The equation of normal is When x1 = −2 y1 ,
2
y − 2 = ( x − 0) 9( −2 y1 )2 + 16 y12 = 52
5
2 x − 5 y + 10 = 0 y12 = 1
y1 = 1, − 1
At (0, −2),
∴ The points of contact are (−2, 1) and (2, −1).
dy 5( −2) + 2(0) 5
=− =− The equation of the tangent at (−2, 1) is
dx ( 0, − 2) 5(0) + 2( −2) 2 9
y − 1 = ( x + 2)
The equation of tangent is 8
5 9 x − 8 y + 26 = 0
y + 2 = − ( x − 0)
2 The equation of the tangent at (2, −1) is
5x + 2 y + 4 = 0
9
y + 1 = ( x − 2)
The equation of normal is 8
2 9 x − 8 y − 26 = 0
y + 2 = ( x − 0)
5
2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0
19. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact.
1
17. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact. Q Slope of the given line = −
3
Slope of the given line = tan135° = −1 ∴ Slope of the tangent = 3
dy dy
= 2x + 7 = 3x 2
dx dx
dy dy
At ( x1, y1 ) , slope of the tangent = Slope of the tangent =
dx ( x1 , y1 ) dx ( x1 , y1 )
= 2 x1 + 7 = 3 x12
∴ 2 x1 + 7 = −1 ∴ 3 x12 = 3
x1 = −4 x1 = 1, − 1
When x1 = −4 , When x1 = 1 , y1 = 6
y1 = ( −4) + 7( −4) + 2
2
When x1 = −1 , y1 = 4
= −10 ∴ The points of contact are (1, 6) and (−1, 4).
∴ The point of contact is ( −4, − 10) .
The equation of the tangent at (1, 6) is
The equation of the tangent is
y + 10 = ( −1)( x + 4) y − 6 = 3 ( x − 1)
3x − y + 3 = 0
x + y + 14 = 0
The equation of the tangent at (−1, 4) is

18. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact. y − 4 = 3 ( x + 1)


3x − y + 7 = 0
9
Slope of the given line =
8
20. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact.
9 x 2 + 16 y 2 = 52
dy Since ( x1, y1 ) lies on the curve,
18 x + 32 y =0
dx ∴ 4 x12 + 9 y12 = 36 ......................(1)
dy 9x
=− dy 4x
dx 16 y Slope of the tangent = =− 1
dx ( x1 , y1 ) 9 y1
80 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

The slope of the line joining ( x1, y1 ) and (3, −3) (2) − (1),
y1 + 3 x1 + 10 y1 = −7
=
x1 − 3 x1 = −7 − 10 y1 ......................(3)
y1 + 3 4x Substitute (3) into (1),
∴ =− 1
x1 − 3 9 y1 ( −7 − 10 y1 )2 − 2 y12 = 7
4 x12 + 9 x12 − 12 x1 + 27 y1 = 0 ...........(2) 98 y12 + 140 y1 + 42 = 0
(1) − (2), 7 y12 + 10 y1 + 3 = 0
12 x1 − 27 y1 = 36 ( y1 + 1)(7 y1 + 3) = 0
4 x1 − 9 x1 = 12 3
y1 = −1 or −
1 7
x1 = (12 + 9 y1 ) ...............(3)
4 When y1 = −1 , x1 = 3
Substitute (3) into (1), 3 19
1 When y1 = − , x1 = −
4[ (12 + 9 y1 )]2 + 9 y12 = 36 7 7
4
∴ The points of contact are (3, −1) and
(12 + 9 y1 )2 + 36 y12 = 144
19 3
y1 (117 y1 + 216) = 0 (− , − ) .
24 7 7
y1 = 0 or − 3
13 At (3, −1), slope of the tangent =
When y1 = 0 , x1 = 3 −2
The equation of the tangent is
24 15
When y1 = − , x1 = − 3
13 13 y + 1 = − ( x − 3)
∴ The points of contact are (3, 0) and 2
3x + 2 y − 7 = 0
15 24
(− , − ) .
13 13 19 3 − 19
At (3, 0), the equation of the tangent is x − 3 = 0 . At ( − , − ) , slope of the tangent = 7
7 7 2( − 37 )
15 24
At ( − , − ) , =
19
13 13 6
4( − 15 )
13 = − 5 The equation of the tangent is
Slope of the tangent = −
9( − 13 )
24 18 3 19 19
y+ = (x + )
The equation of the tangent is 7 6 7
24 5 15 19 x − 6 y + 49 = 0
y+ = − (x + )
13 18 13
5 x + 18 y + 39 = 0
22. y = 4 x 3 − 3 x ...................................(1)
21. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact.
dy
Since ( x1, y1 ) lies on the curve, = 12 x 2 − 3
dx
dy 1
∴ x12 − 2 y12 = 7 ..........................(1) = 12( − )2 − 3 = 0
dx ( − 12 , 1) 2
dy x
Slope of the tangent = = 1
dx ( x1 , y1 ) 2 y1 ∴ The equation of the tangent is

The slope of the line joining ( x1, y1 ) and ( −1, 5) y − 1 = 0 .........................................(2)


y1 − 5 Solving (1) and (2),
=
x1 + 1 ( x − 1)( 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = 0
y1 − 5 x ( x − 1)(2 x + 1)2 = 0
∴ = 1
x1 + 1 2 y1 x = 1 or −
1
2
x12 − 2 y12 + x1 + 10 y1 = 0 ...............(2)
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 81

When x = 1 , y = 1 y1 = ( 4)2 − 7( 4) + 14 = 2
1
When x = − , y = 1 ∴ The coordinates of C are ( 4, 2) .
2
∴ The required point is (1, 1) . (ii) Slope of the tangent at C
= 2( 4 ) − 7
23. x + 4 xy + 5 y = 1
2 2 =1
The equation of the tangent at C is
dy dy
2x + 4x + 4 y + 10 y =0 y−2= x −4
dx dx
dy x + 2y x−y−2=0
=−
dx 2 x + 5y
Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact. 25. Substitute (0, 4) into y = ax 3 + bx 2 + c ,

1 4 = a( 0 ) 3 + b ( 0 ) 2 + c
Slope of the given line = −
2 ∴ c=4
x1 + 2 y1
Slope of the tangent = − dy
2 x1 + 5 y1 = 3ax 2 + 2 bx
dx
x1 + 2 y1 1
∴ − =− dy
2 x1 + 5 y1 2 = 3a + 2 b = −3 ..................(1)
y1 = 0 dx (1, 2)

Substitute y1 = 0 into the equation of the curve, Substitute (1, 2) into y = ax 3 + bx 2 + 4 ,


x12 = 1 a+b+4=2
x1 = 1, − 1 a + b = −2 .................................(2)
∴ The points of contact are (1, 0) and (−1, 0). Solving (1) and (2),
The equation of the tangent at (1, 0) is ∴ a = 1 , b = −3
1
y − 0 = − ( x − 1)
2 26 − 28. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
x + 2y − 1 = 0
questions because of the copyright reasons.
The equation of the tangent at (−1, 0) is
1
y − 0 = − ( x + 1) Exercise 16B (p.133)
2
x + 2y + 1 = 0
1. y = x3 − 4x2 + 4x − 8
dy
= 3x 2 − 8 x + 4
8−4 dx
24. (a) Slope of AB = =1 = ( x − 2)(3 x − 2)
6−2
d2y
(b) (i) Let the coordinate of C be ( x1, y1 ) . = 6x − 8
dx 2
dy
= 2x − 7 dy d2y
dx When x = 2 , = 0, > 0 and y = −8
dy dx dx 2
= 2 x1 − 7 ∴ (2, − 8) is a minimum point.
dx ( x1 , y1 )

Since the slope of the tangent at C is 2 dy d2y 184


When x = , = 0, 2
< 0 and y = −
parallel to the chord AB, 3 dx dx 27
2 x1 − 7 = 1 ∴
2
( , −
184
) is a maximum point.
x1 = 4 3 27
Substitute x1 = 4 into Also, when x = 0 , y = −8
y1 = x12 − 7 x1 + 14 , A sketch of the curve is shown below:
82 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

y 3. y = 12 x − x 3
dy
y = x 3 − 4x 2 + 4x − 8 = 12 − 3 x 2 = 3(2 − x )(2 + x )
dx
x d2y
O = −6 x
dx 2
dy d2y
When x = 2 , = 0, < 0 and y = 16
dx dx 2
(
2 184
,− ) ∴ (2, 16) is a maximum point.
3 27
dy d2y
−8 When x = −2 , = 0, > 0 and y = −16
(2, −8) dx dx 2
∴ ( −2, − 16) is a minimum point.
Also, when x = 0 , y = 0
2. y = 2 x − 3 x − 12 x + 10
3 2
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
dy y
= 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x − 2)( x + 1)
dx (2, 16)
d2y
= 12 x − 6 = 6(2 x − 1)
dx 2
dy d2y
When x = 2 , = 0, > 0 and y = −10
dx dx 2
∴ (2, − 10) is a minimum point.
dy d2y
When x = −1 , = 0, < 0 and y = 17
dx dx 2 y = 12x − x 3
∴ ( −1, 17) is a maximum point.
Also, when x = 0 , y = 10
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
x
y O
(−1, 17)

10

y = 2x 3 − 3x 2 − 12x + 10
(−2, −16)

x
O
4. y = x 3 − 3x 2 + 1
dy
= 3 x 2 − 6 x = 3 x ( x − 2)
dx
d2y
= 6 x − 6 = 6( x − 1)
dx 2
dy d2y
(2, −10)
When x = 2 , = 0, > 0 and y = −3
dx dx 2
∴ (2, − 3) is a minimum point.
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 83

dy d2y 6. y = ( x + 2)( x − 2)3


When x = 0 , = 0, < 0 and y = 1
dx dx 2 dy
= ( x + 2)[3( x − 2)2 ] + ( x − 2)3
∴ (0, 1) is a maximum point. dx
= 3( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) + ( x − 2)3
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
= 4( x + 1)( x − 2)2
y
d2y
(0, 1) = 4( x + 1)[2( x − 2)] + 4( x − 2)2
y = x 3 − 3x 2 + 1 dx 2
x = 8( x + 1)( x − 2) + 4( x − 2)2
O = 12 x ( x − 2)

dy d2y
When x = −1 , = 0, > 0 and y = −27
dx dx 2
(2, −3) ∴ ( −1, − 27) is a minimum point.

dy d2y
When x = 2 , = 0, = 0 and y = 0
5. y = ( x − 1)3 + 1 dx dx 2
dy dy
= 3( x − 1)2 When x < 2 (slightly), >0
dx dx
d2y dy
= 6( x − 1) When x > 2 (slightly), >0
dx 2 dx
dy d2y dy
When x = 1 , = 0, = 0 and y = 1 This shows that does not change sign as x
dx dx 2 dx
increases through 2.
dy
When x < 1 (slightly), >0 ∴ (2, 0) is neither a maximum point nor a
dx minimum point.
dy
When x > 1 (slightly), >0 Also, when x = 0 , y = −16
dx
As x → − ∞ , y → + ∞ ;
dy
This shows that
dx
does not change sign as x x → + ∞, y → + ∞.
increases through 1, i.e. (1, 1) is neither a A sketch of the curve is shown below:
maximum point nor a minimum point. y
∴ There is no turning point for the function.
x
O
When x = 0 , y = 0 2

Also,
as x → − ∞ , y → − ∞ ;
y = (x + 2)(x − 2)3
x → + ∞, y → + ∞.
A sketch of the curve is shown below: −16
y

(−1, −27)

(1, 1)
x
O
7. y = x 6 (7 − 6 x )
dy
= 42 x 5 − 42 x 6
dx
y = (x − 1) 3 + 1
= 42 x 5 (1 − x )
84 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

d2y x2 + 1
= 210 x 4 − 252 x 5 = 42 x 4 ( −6 x + 5) 9. y=
dx 2
x2 + x + 1
dy d2y dy ( x 2 + x + 1)(2 x ) − ( x 2 + 1)(2 x + 1)
When x = 1 , = 0, < 0 and y = 1 =
dx dx 2 dx ( x 2 + x + 1)2
∴ (1, 1) is a maximum point. = ( x − 1)( x + x + 1) −2
2 2

d2y
dy d2y = ( x 2 − 1)[ −2( x 2 + x + 1) −3 ](2 x + 1)
When x = 0 , = 0, = 0 and y = 0 dx 2
dx dx 2
+ ( x 2 + x + 1) −2 (2 x )
dy
When x < 0 (slightly), <0 = −2( x 2 − 1)(2 x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1) −3
dx
dy + 2 x ( x 2 + x + 1) −2
When x > 0 (slightly), >0
dx = −2( x 2 + x + 1) −3 ( x 3 − 3 x − 1)
∴ (0, 0) is a minimum point. dy d2y 2
When x = 1 , = 0, > 0 and y =
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
dx dx 2 3
2
y ∴ (1,) is a minimum point.
3
(1, 1) dy d2y
y = x 6(7 − 6x ) When x = −1 , = 0, < 0 and y = 2
dx dx 2
∴ ( −1, 2) is a maximum point.

O (0, 0)
x Also, when x = 0 , y = 1
As x → − ∞ , y → 1;
x → + ∞ , y → 1.
x2 A sketch of the curve is shown below:
8. y= 2 y
x +4
dy ( x 2 + 4)(2 x ) − x 2 (2 x ) 8x (−1, 2)
= = 2
dx ( x + 4)
2 2
( x + 4)2 y= x2 + 1
2 2
(1, ) x + x+ 1
d 2 y ( x 2 + 4)2 (8) − 8 x[2( x 2 + 4)(2 x )] 1 3
=
dx 2 ( x 2 + 4) 4
x
8( x 2 + 4)( 4 − 3 x 2 ) O
=
( x 2 + 4) 4
8( 4 − 3 x 2 ) 10. y 2 = x 2 (2 x − x 2 )
= 2 The curve is undefined for x < 0 or x > 2 , and it
( x + 4 )3
is composed of the two curves
dy d2y 1
y = x (2 x − x 2 ) 2 and y = − x (2 x − x 2 ) 2 ,
1

When x = 0 , = 0, > 0 and y = 0


dx dx 2 which are symmetrical about the x-axis.
∴ (0, 0) is a minimum point. Consider
1
Also, y = x (2 x − x 2 ) 2
dy 1
= x[ (2 x − x 2 ) − 2 ](2 − 2 x ) + (2 x − x 2 ) 2
1 1
as x → − ∞ , y → 1;
dx 2
x → + ∞ , y → 1.
= ( 2 x − x 2 ) − 2 (3 x − 2 x 2 )
1

A sketch of the curve is shown below: d2y


= ( 2 x − x 2 ) − 2 (3 − 4 x )
1

y 2 2
y= x dx
x2 + 4 1
+ (3 x − 2 x 2 )[ − (2 x − x 2 ) − 2 ](2 − 2 x )
3
1
2
= ( 2 x − x 2 ) − 2 (3 − 4 x )
1

− (3 x − 2 x 2 )(1 − x )(2 x − x 2 ) − 2
3
x
O (0, 0)
= x (2 x − x 2 ) − 2 (2 x 2 − 6 x + 3)
3
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 85

A sketch of the curve is shown below:


3 dy d2y 3 3
When x = , = 0, 2
< 0 and y = , y
2 dx dx 4
3 3
∴ is a relative maximum of y. π 1 5π 1
4 ( , ) ( , )
4 2 4 2
1
y = sin 2x
3 3 2
By symmetry, − is a relative minimum of y. x
4 O π π 3π 2π
3 3 3 2 2
∴ ( , ) is a maximum point, and (
3π 1
,− ) (
7π 1
,− )
2 4 4 2 4 2

3 3 3
( , − ) is a minimum point.
2 4
A sketch of the curve is shown below: 12. y = x − 2 sin x
dy
3 3 3 = 1 − 2 cos x
y ( , ) dx
2 4
d2y
= 2 sin x
y 2 = x 2(2x −x 2) dx 2
π dy d2y π
x
When x = , =0, 2
> 0 and y = − 3
O 3 dx dx 3
π π
∴ ( , − 3 ) is a minimum point.
3 3

5π dy d2y 5π
3 3 3 When x = , = 0, < 0 and y = + 3
( ,− ) 3 dx dx 2 3
2 4
5π 5π
∴ ( , + 3 ) is a maximum point.
3 3
1
11. y= sin 2 x A sketch of the curve is shown below:
2
dy y 5π 5π
= cos 2 x ( ,
3 3
+ 3)
dx
d2y
= −2 sin 2 x y = x − 2 sin x
dx 2
π dy d2y 1
When x = , = 0, 2
< 0 and y =
4 dx dx 2
π 1 x
∴ ( , ) is a maximum point. O
π π

4 2 ( , − 3)
3 3
3π dy d y 2 1
When x = , = 0, 2
> 0 and y = −
4 dx dx 2
13. (a) The coordinates of A are (n, 0) .
3π 1
∴ ( , − ) is a minimum point.
4 2 The coordinates of B are ( m, 0) .
5π dy d y 2
1
When x = , = 0, < 0 and y = (b) y = −( x − m)( x − n)
4 dx 2 2
dx dy
5π 1 = −( x − m ) − ( x − n)
∴ ( , ) is a maximum point. dx
4 2 = −2 x + m + n
7π dy d2y 1 m+n
When x = , = 0, > 0 and y = − = −2( x − )
4 dx dx 2 2 2
7π 1 d2y
∴ ( , − ) is a minimum point. = −2
4 2 dx 2
86 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

m+n dy d2y 15. (a) y = x 3 − 4 x 2 − 16 x + 15


When x = , =0, < 0 and
2 dx dx 2 dy
= 3 x 2 − 8 x − 16
( m − n) 2 dx
y= , = ( x − 4)(3 x + 4)
4
m + n ( m − n) 2 d2y
∴ ( , ) is a maximum point. = 6x − 8
2 4 dx 2
= 2 (3 x − 4 )
dy d2y
14. (a) (i) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − p) + q When x = 4 , = 0, > 0 and y = −49
dx dx 2
f ' ( x ) = x 2 + ( x − p)(2 x ) ∴ ( 4, − 49) is a minimum point.
= x 2 + 2 x 2 − 2 px
= 3 x 2 − 2 px −4 dy d2y 23
When x = , = 0, 2
< 0 and y = 26
3 dx dx 27
(ii) f ' ( x ) = 3 x 2 − 2 px 4 23
= x (3 x − 2 p ) ∴ ( − , 26 ) is a maximum point.
3 27
By referring to the figure , when x = 2 ,
f ' ( x) = 0 (b) When x = 0 , y = 15
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
3(2) − 2 p = 0
p=3 y

(b) Substitute p = 3 , f ( x ) = 0 and x = 1 into


4 23
f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − p) + q , (−
3
, 26
27
)

(1)2 (1 − 3) + q = 0
q=2
15
The equation becomes f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 3) + 2 .
A sketch of the curve is shown below: y = x 3 − 4x 2 − 16x + 15
y
x
y = x 2(x − 3) + 2 −3 O 6

1− 3
x
O 1 1+ 3

(4, −49)
(2, −2)
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 87

16. (a) y = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c (d) When x = 0 , y = −5


dy A sketch of the curve is shown below:
= 3 x 2 + 2 ax + b y
dx
Since C passes (5, 0),
0 = 125 + 25a + 5b + c .................(1)
Since C touches x-axis at ( −1, 0) ,
0 = −1 + a − b + c ........................(2)
0 = 3 − 2 a + b .............................(3)
(1) − (2),
0 = 126 + 24 a + 6b
0 = 21 + 4 a + b ...........................(4)
(4) − (3),
0 = 18 + 6 a
y = x 3 − 3x 2 − 9x − 5
∴ a = −3
Substitute a = −3 into (3), (−1, 0)
x
0 = 3+6+ b −2 −1 O 5 6
∴ b = −9 −5

Substitute b = −9 into (2),


0 = −1 − 3 + 9 + c
∴ c = −5

(b) By (a),
y = x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x − 5
dy (3, −32)
= 3x 2 − 6 x − 9
dx
= ( x + 1)( x − 3)
d2y 17. (a) Substitute x = 0 into
= 6x − 6
dx 2 y = f ( x ) = 3 sin 2 x + cos 2 x ,
= 6( x − 1)
y = 3 sin 2(0) + cos 2(0) = 1
dy d2y
When x = −1 , = 0, < 0 and y = 0 The coordinates of the point of intersection
dx dx 2
are (0, 1) .
∴ ( −1, 0) is a maximum point.
Substitute y = 0 into
dy d2y
When x = 3 , = 0, > 0 and y = −32 y = f ( x ) = 3 sin 2 x + cos 2 x,
dx dx 2
∴ (3, − 32) is a minimum point. 3 sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 0
1
(c) When x = 5 , tan 2 x = −
3
slope of the tangent π 5π
2x = − ,
= 3(5) − 6(5) − 9
2 6 6
= 36 π 5π
x=− ,
12 12
The equation of the tangent is
y − 0 = 36( x − 5) The coordinates of the points of intersection
36 x − y − 180 = 0 π 5π
are ( − , 0), ( , 0) .
12 12
88 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

(b) y = 3 sin 2 x + cos 2 x (b) From (a),


dy
= 3 x 2 − 18 + 15
dy dx
= 2 3 cos 2 x − 2 sin 2 x
dx d2y
= 6 x − 18
d2y dx 2
= −4 3 sin 2 x − 4 cos 2 x
dx 2 When
dy
= 0 , 3 x 2 − 18 x + 15 = 0
dy dx
When = 0 , 2 3 cos 2 x − 2 sin 2 x = 0
dx x2 − 6x + 5 = 0
tan 2 x = 3 ( x − 1)( x − 5) = 0
2π π x = 1 or x = 5
2x = − ,
3 3 d2y
π π When x = 1 , < 0 and y = 16
x=− , dx 2
3 6 ∴ (1, 16) is a maximum point.
π d2y
When x = − , > 0 and y = −2 d2y
3 dx 2 When x = 5 , > 0 and y = −16
π dx 2
∴ ( − , − 2) is a minimum point. ∴ (5, − 16) is a minimum point.
3
π d2y
When x = , < 0 and y = 2 (c) A sketch of the curve y = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 15 x + 9 is
6 dx 2
shown below:
π
∴ ( , 2) is a maximum point. y
6
(1, 16)
(c) A sketch of the curve is shown below:
y
π
( , 2)
6

1 y = x 3 − 9x 2 + 15x + 9

x
π π O 5π π
− −
2 12 12 2

y= 3 sin 2x + cos 2x x
O 1 3 5

π
(− , −2)
3

18. y = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 15 x + 9, 0 ≤ x ≤ 7
dy
(a) = 3 x 2 − 18 x + 15
dx
dy
For ≤ 0 , 3 x 2 − 18 x + 15 ≤ 0
dx
x2 − 6x + 5 ≤ 0
( x − 1)( x − 5) ≤ 0
1≤ x ≤ 5 (5, −16)
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 89

A sketch of the curve y 2 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 15 x + 9 is 2. Let x cm be the length of side of square base, y cm


shown below: be the height, and V cm 3 be the volume.
y
Q x 2 + 4 xy = 300
y 2 = x 3 − 9x 2 + 15x + 9
300 − x 2
4 y=
4x
75 x
= −
x 4
∴ V = x2y
75 x
= x2 (− )
x x 4
O 3
1
x3
= 75 x −
4
dV 1
= 75 − (3 x 2 )
dx 4
d 2V 3
−4
=− x
dx 2 2
dV
When = 0,
19 − 22. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E. dx
questions because of the copyright reasons. 3x 2
75 − =0
4
x = 10 or −10 (rejected)
Exercise 16C (p.142)
d 2V 3
1. Let x cm, y cm be the length and width respectively When x = 10 , 2
= − (10) = −15 < 0
and A cm 2 be the area. dx 2
Q 2( x + y) = 100 Hence the volume of the box is maximum when
x = 10 .
x + y = 50
x = 50 − y When x = 10 , y = 5
∴ A = xy ∴ If the box has a maximum volume, its
= (50 − y) y dimensions are 10 cm × 10 cm × 5 cm .
= − y 2 + 50 y
dA
= −2 y + 50 3. Transpose a circle of radius 5 cm so that its centre
dy is transposed to the origin. Let θ be the acute
d2A angle between a diagonal and the positive x-axis,
= −2
dy 2 A cm 2 be the area of the inscribed rectangle.
dA y
When =0,
dy
−2 y + 50 = 0
y = 25
cm
d2A 5
When y = 25, = −2 < 0 θ
dy 2 x
O
Hence the area of the rectangle is maximum when
y = 25.
When y = 25,
A = −(25)2 + 50(25)
A = 4(5 cos θ)(5 sin θ)
= 625
= 100 cos θ sin θ
∴ The maximum area of the rectangle is
= 50 sin 2θ
625 cm 2 .
90 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

dA 1 1
= 100 cos 2θ A = x 2 + π[ (3 − 2 x )]2 = x 2 + (3 − 2 x )2
dθ π π
dA 1 4
d2A = 2 x + (2)(3 − 2 x )( −2) = 2 x − (3 − 2 x )
= −200 sin 2θ dx π π
dθ 2
dA 6
dA π When = 0, x =
When = 0, θ = dx π+4
dθ 4
6
d2A When x = ,
= −200 < 0 π+4
dθ 2 θ = π
d2A 4
= 2 − ( −2)
4

∴ The area of a rectangle is maximum when dx 2 π


π 8
=2+ >0
θ= .
4 π
π 6
Maximum area = 50 sin 2( ) cm 2 = 50 cm 2 ∴ When x = , the area is minimum but
4 π+4
not maximum.
4. Let x m, y m be the length and width respectively,
9
and A m 2 be the area. When x = 0 , A =
π
x + 2 y = 120 3 9
A = xy When x = , A =
2 4
∴ A = y(120 − 2 y) = 120 y − 2 y 2
9 9
dA Q >
= 120 − 4 y π 4
dy
∴ If the total area is maximum, the length of
d2A
= −4 the side of the square is 0 .
dy 2
dA
When = 0 , y = 30, x y
dy 6. (a) The equation of AB is + = 1.
a b
d2A
= −4 < 0 Substitute P(5, 3) into the equation,
dy 2
5 3
Hence the area of enclosure is maximum when + =1
a b
y = 30 . 3a + 5b = ab
When y = 30, x = 60 b=
3a
∴ Maximum area of enclosure is a−5

A = (60)(30) m 2 (b) Area of ∆OAB =


1
ab square units
= 1 800 m 2 2
3a 2
= square units
5. Let x m be the length of the side of the square, 2( a − 5)
4x m be part of the wire used to form the square,
(6 − 4x) m be the remaining part of the wire to (c) Let A square units be the area of ∆OAB.
form the circle of radius r m, A m 2 be the sum of 3a 2
A=
the areas of the circle and the square. 2( a − 5)
Q 6 − 4x ≥ 0 dA 3 ( a − 5)(2 a) − a 2
3 =
∴ x≤ da 2 ( a − 5)2
2
3( a − 10 a)
2
i.e. 0 ≤ x ≤
3 =
2 2( a − 5)2
2 πr = 6 − 4 x dA
1 When = 0 , a = 10 or 0 (rejected)
r = (3 − 2 x ) da
π
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 91

d2A dA
When = 0, r = 5
da 2 dr
3 ( a − 5)2 (2 a − 10) − ( a 2 − 10 a)(2 a − 10)
= d2A 1 000 π
2 ( a − 5) 4 2
= 4π +
dr r3
d2A 3 2
d A
2
= >0 = 12 π > 0
da a =10 5 dr 2 r = 5
Hence the area of ∆OAB is minimum when Hence when the base radius of each can is 5 cm ,
a = 10 . the material required will be the least.
∴ Least area of ∆OAB
3(10)2
= square units 9. Let r cm be the radius of the cylindrical can,
2(10 − 5)
= 30 square units h cm be the height and V cm 3 be the volume.

2 πr 2 + 2 πrh = 600 π
7. Let x cm be the length of side of square base, V = πr 2 h = π(300 r − r 3 )
h cm be the height and $C be the cost. dV
= π(300 − 3r 2 )
dr
x 2 h = 64
C = 20 x 2 + 40 xh dV
When = 0 , r = 10
2 560 dr
= 20 x 2 +
x d 2V
= π( −6r )
dC 2 560
= 40 x − 2 dr 2
dx x d 2V
= −60 π < 0
dC dr 2 r =10
When = 0, x = 4
dx
Hence the can will have the largest volume when
d 2C 5 120 the base radius is 10 cm .
2
= 40 + 3
dx x
2
d C 10. Let s km be the distance between A and B after t
= 120 > 0 hours.
dx 2 x = 4
Then
Hence the cost of the container is minimum when
x = 4. s 2 = (15t )2 + (90 − 20t )2
2 560 ds
∴ C = 20( 4)2 + 2s = 450t + 2(90 − 20t )( −20)
4 dt
= 960 ds 625t − 1 800
=
The minimum cost of the container is $960 . dt s
ds
When = 0 , t = 2.88
8. Let r cm be the radius of each can, dt
h cm be the height, ds
When t > 2.88 (slightly), >0
2
A cm be the surface area. dt
ds
πr 2 h = 250 π When t < 2.88 (slightly), <0
dt
A = 2 πr 2 + 2 πrh
When t = 2.88 , s attains its minimum.
500 π
∴ A = 2 πr 2 + Hence two ships will be closest at
r
dA 500 π 2 : 52 : 48 p.m.
= 4 πr − 2
dr r
92 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

11. Let x km be BP,


13. (a) πr 2 h = 48π
s km be the length of the road. 48
h= 2
r
s = x 2 + 4 + (10 − x )2 + 9
1
= ( x 2 + 4) 2 + (100 − 20 x + x 2 + 9) 2
1
Hence S = 2 πrh + πr 2
48
= 2 πr ( 2 ) + πr 2
1 1
= ( x 2 + 4) 2 + (109 − 20 x + x 2 ) 2
r
ds 1 2 96 π
= ( x + 4) − 2 (2 x ) = + πr 2
1

dx 2 r
1
+ (109 − 20 x + x 2 ) − 2 ( −20 + 2 x )
1
(b) By (a),
2 96 π
= x ( x 2 + 4) − 2 + ( x − 10)(109 − 20 x + x 2 ) − 2
1 1
S= + πr 2
r
ds dS 96 π
When = 0, x = 4 = − 2 + 2 πr
dx dr r
d 2 S 192 π
d 2s = 3 + 2π
= 4( x 2 + 4) − 2 + 9(109 − 20 x + x 2 ) − 2
3 3

2 dr 2 r
dx
d 2s dS
>0 Set = 0,
dr
dx 2 x = 4
96 π
Hence the length of the road is its smallest when − + 2 πr = 0
r2
the location is 4 km from B. 96 π
2 πr = 2
r
12. (a) CD = CE 2 + DE 2 r 3 = 48
1
r = ( 48) 3
= 36 x 2 + 64 x 2
= 10 x
d 2S 192 π
(b) 8 x + y + 6 x + y + 10 x = 144 2
= + 2π = 4π + 2π = 6π > 0
dr r = ( 48) 3
1 48
2 y + 24 x = 144
2 y = 144 − 24 x 1
Hence S attains a minimum when r = ( 48) 3 .
y = 72 − 12 x
(c) Let A cm 2 be the area of ABCD.
1 1 2 128
A = (6 x )(8 x + y + y) 14. (a) πr h = π
2 3 3
= 3 x (8 x + 2 y) 128
r2 =
= 3 x (8 x + 144 − 24 x ) h
= 3 x (144 − 16 x )
(b) The slant height of the cone
= 48(9 x − x 2 )
dA = h 2 + r 2 cm
= 48(9 − 2 x )
dx 128
= h2 + cm
d2A h
= −96
dx 2 (c) Let l cm be the slant height.
dA
When = 0 , 48(9 − 2 x ) = 0 128
dx 9 l = h2 +
x= h
2 dl 1 2 128 − 12
9 = (h + ) (2 h − 128h −2 )
When x = , dh 2 h
2 128 − 12
= (h 2 + ) (h − 64h −2 )
81 81 d2A h
A = 48( − ) = 972 and = −96 < 0
2 4 dx 2 h 3 − 64
= 3
Hence the maximum area of ABCD is h 2 (h 3 + 128) 2
1

972 cm 2 .
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 93

dl 16. (a) B
When = 0, h = 4
dh
dl
When h > 4 (slightly), >0
dh 16 m
dl
When h < 4 (slightly), <0
dh
Hence the slant height is minimum when
h = 4.
θ A
128 C D 4m
l = 42 + 2m φ
4
xm
=4 3
Let φ be ∠ACD.
∴ The minimum slant height is 4 3 cm .
16 + 2
tan(θ + φ) =
x
tan θ + tan φ 18
15. (a) xy − (2)(2 y) − (2)( 4)( x − 4) = 200 =
8( x + 21) 1 − tan θ tan φ x
y= tan θ + 2x
x−4 18
=
(b) The area of the board including the margins 1 − (tan θ)( x ) x
2

16 x
tan θ = 2 (x > 0)
= xy m 2 x + 36
8 x ( x + 21) 2
= m (b) Let T = tan θ
x−4
dT ( x 2 + 36)(16) − 16 x (2 x )
(c) Let A m 2 be the area of the board. =
dx ( x 2 + 36)2
8 x ( x + 21) −16( x 2 − 36)
A= =
x−4 ( x 2 + 36)2
dA 8( x − 4)(2 x + 21) − 8( x 2 + 21x )
=
dx ( x − 4)2 dT
(c) When = 0 , x = 6 or −6 (rejected)
8 x − 64 x − 672
2 dx
=
( x − 4)2 dT
8( x − 14)( x + 6) When x > 6 (slightly), <0
= dx
( x − 4)2 dT
When x < 6 (slightly), >0
dA dx
When = 0 , x = 14 or −6 (rejected) Thus when x = 6 , T attains its maximum
dx
value.
dA
When x > 14 (slightly), >0 16(6)
dx tan θ =
6 2 + 36
dA θ = 0.93 (corr. to 2 d.p.)
When x < 14 (slightly), <0
dx ∴ The required position is 6 m from the
Hence the area of the board attains minimum
screen and the greatest view angle is
when x = 14 .
0.93 rad.
When x = 14 , y = 28
A = (14)(28)
= 392 17. (a) y 2 = 2 mx
dy
The minimum area of the board is 392 m 2 2y = 2m
dx
and the corresponding height is 14 m . dy m
=
dx y
94 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

dy m 1 1
= Thus when t = or − , L 2 attains a
dx ( 2 mt 2 , 2 mt ) 2 mt 2 2
1 minimum value and so does L.
=
2t 1 1
When t = or − ,
2 ms − 2 mt 2 2
Slope of AB =
2 ms 2 − 2 mt 2 m 2 (1 + 2)3
2 m( s − t ) L 2=
= 1
2 m( s − t )( s + t ) = 27m 2
1
= L = 3 3m or −3 3m (rejected)
s+t
∴ The minimum value of L is 3 3m .
(b) Q Line AB is perpendicular to the tangent
to C at A.
1 1 18. (a) Base radius = R cot θ
∴ ( )( ) = −1
2t s + t Height = ( R cot θ) tan 2θ
1 = −2t ( s + t ) 1
∴ V = π( R cot θ)2 ( R cot θ tan 2θ)
1 = −2ts − 2t 2 3
2ts = −(1 + 2t 2 ) 1 3
= πR tan 2θ cot 3 θ
1 + 2t 2 3
s=−
2t dV 1 3 d
(b) = πR tan 2θ cot 3 θ
dθ 3 dθ
L 2 = (2 mt 2 − 2 ms 2 )2 + (2 mt − 2 ms)2 1
= 4 m 2 [(t 2 − s 2 )2 + (t − s)2 ] = πR3 ( −3 tan 2θ cot 2 θ csc 2 θ
3
= 4 m 2 [(t − s)2 (t + s)2 + (t − s)2 ] + 2 cot 3 θ sec 2 2θ)
m 2 (1 + 4t 2 )3 1 3 cot 2 θ sin 2θ(1 − 3 cos 2θ)
= = πR
4t 4 3 cos 2 2θ sin 2 θ
dV 1
m 2 (1 + 4t 2 )3 When = 0 , cos 2θ =
(c) L 2 = dθ 3
4t 4
1 dV
d( L 2) m2
= [( 4t 4 )3(1 + 4t 2 )2 (8t ) When 2θ > cos −1 (slightly), >0
dt 16t 8 3 dθ
− (1 + 4t 2 )3 (16t 3 )] 1
When 2θ < cos −1 (slightly),
dV
<0
m (1 + 4t ) (2t − 1)
2 2 2 2 3 dθ
= ∴ The minimum volume of the cone occurs
t5
1
d( L 2) at cos 2θ = .
When = 0, 3
dt
(c) By (b),
m 2 (1 + 4t 2 )2 (2t 2 − 1) = 0
1
Q 1 + 4t 2 ≠ 0 and m 2 ≠ 0 cos 2θ =
3
∴ 2t 2 − 1 = 0 1
1 1 2 cos θ − 1 =
2
t= or − 3
2 2 2 1
cos θ = , sin 2 θ =
2
d 2 ( L 2 ) m 2 (32t 6 + 18t 2 + 5) 3 3
=
dt 2 t6 ∴ cot 2 θ = 2
2
d (L ) 2
m ( 4 + 9 + 5)
2
π
2
= 1
= 144 m 2 > 0 Since 0 < θ < ,
dt t= 1 8 4
2
2
d (L ) 2
m 2 ( 4 + 9 + 5) ∴ cot 3 θ = ( 2 )3
= = 144 m 2 > 0
dt 2 t = − 1
1
8
=2 2
2
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 95

dV 3
sin 2θ = 1 − cos 2 2θ ∴ When r = 10 , = (10) = 15
dt 2
1
= 1− ∴ The increase rate is 15 cm 3 / s .
9
8
=
3 3. Let x, y be OA, OB respectively.
sin 2θ
tan 2θ = x 2 + y 2 = 132
cos 2θ
dx dy
=2 2 2x + 2y =0
dt dt
∴ The minimum volume of the cone
dx
1
= ( πR3 )(2 2 )(2 2 ) (a) When x = 5 , y = 12 , =2
3 dt
8 3 dy
= πR ∴ 2(5)(2) + 2(12) =0
3 dt
dy 5
=−
dt 6
19 − 22. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons. 5
∴ B is moving at unit/s towards the
6
origin.
Exercise 16D (p.153)
(b) Let m be the slope of AB.
1. (a) L e t v m / s , a m/s 2 b e t h e v e l o c i t y a n d
y
acceleration of the particle respectively. m=−
x
ds
v= = 4t 3 − 12t 2 + 8t dy
dm − x dt + y dt
dx
dt =
dv dt x2
a= = 12t 2 − 24t + 8
dt
dm −(5)( − 6 ) + (12)(2)
5
When t = 1 , v = 0 and a = −4 When x = 5 , =
dt 52
∴ The velocity of the particle is 0 m / s . 169
=
The acceleration of the particle is 150
−4 m / s 2 . The slope of AB is increasing at the rate of
169
(b) When t = 0 , s = 20 m per second.
150
When t = 3 , s = 29 m
When t = 1 , s = 21 m 4. Let r cm, h cm, A cm 2 , V cm 3 and l cm be the
∴ The maximum distance between the radius of surface, height area, volume and slant
particle and A within the time internal height of water inside the cone respectively.
0 ≤ t ≤ 3 is 29 m . r 6
=
h 12
2. Let r cm, S cm 2 and V cm 3 be the radius, surface h
area and volume of the balloon respectively. ∴ h = 2r , r =
2
S = 4 πr 2 1 1
V = πr 2 h = πh 3
dS dr 3 12
= 8πr dV 1 2 dh
dt dt = πh
dr 3 dt 4 dt
=
dt 8πr dh 4π 1
When h = 6 , = =
4
V = πr 3 dt π(6)2 9
3 1
dV dr 3 3 ∴ The rate of the water level rising is cm / s .
= 4 πr 2 = 4 πr 2 ( )= r 9
dt dt 8πr 2
96 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

h 5 8. Let s km be the distance between two cars after


l = h 2 + ( )2 = h t hours.
2 2
h 5h 5π 2 s 2 = 6 400t 2 + 3 600t 2 = 10 000t 2
A = πrl = π( )( )= h
2 2 4 When t = 3 , s = 300
dA 5π dh
= h ds
dt 2 dt 2s = 20 000t
dt
dA 5π 1
When h = 6 , = (6) ds 60 000
dt 2 9 When t = 3 , =
dt 2(300)

= = 100
3
∴ After 3 hours, two cars are separating at the
∴ The rate of change of the area of the wet part rate 100 km / h .

of the cone at this instant is cm 2 / s .
3
9. Let r cm, C cm and A cm 2 be the radius,
circumference and area of the circle respectively.
5. Let x cm and V cm 3 be the side and volume of the
cube respectively. A = πr 2
V = x3 dA dr
= 2 πr
dV dx dt dt
= 3x 2 dr −6
dt dt =
dt 2 πr
dV −3
When x = 20 , = 3(20)2 (0.01) =
dt πr
= 12 C = 2 πr
∴ The rate of change of the volume is dC dr
= 2π
12 cm 3 / h . dt dt
dC −3
= 2 π( )
6. Let x m be the distance between the man and the dt πr
−6
lamp post, y m be the distance between the lamp =
post and tip of the shadow. r
y − x 180 1 dC 6
= = When r = 3 , = − = −2
y 540 3 dt 3
3x = 2 y ∴ The rate of change of the circumference is
−2 cm / s .
Differentiate both sides with respect to time t:
dx dy
3 =2 10. Let s m be the distance between B and the balloon
dt dt
after t seconds.
dy 3
= (2) = 3
dt 2 s 2 = 36t 2 + 2 500
∴ The tip of his shadow is moving at the rate ds
3 m / s. 2s = 72t
dt
ds 72t 36t
= =
7. Let x cm, y cm and A cm 2 be the length, width dt 2s s
and area of the rectangle respectively. When t = 20 , s = 130 ,
A = xy
dA dy dx ds (36)(20)
=x +y =
dt dt dt dt 130
7
When x = 20 , y = 10 , =5
13
dA −3
= 20( ) + 10(1) ∴ The rate of change of the distance of the
dt 2
= −20 7
balloon from place B is 5 m / s.
13
∴ The rate of change of the area is −20 cm 2 / s .
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 97

11. s = 5t 2 dh 3 3
= =
ds dt 4 3 1 2
= 10t ( )
3 2
dt
∴ The rate of change of the water level rising is
When t = 5 ,
3
m / min.
ds 2
= 10(5) = 50
dt
∴ The velocity of the stone is 50 m / s . 14. Let r cm, h cm and V cm 3 be the base radius,
Let x m be the distance between the stone and height and volume of the conical pile.
boat. 2
h= r
x = 10 000 + (200 − 5t )
2 2 2 3
1 2
dx V = πr 2 h = πr 3
2x = 2(200 − 5t 2 )( −10t ) 3 9
dt dV 2 2 dr
dx −50t ( 40 − t 2 ) = πr
= dt 3 dt
dt x
When r = 12 ,
When t = 5 , x = 125
dV 2 1
= π(12)2 ( ) = 12 π
dx 50(5)( 40 − 25) dt 3 8
=−
dt 125 ∴ The rate of change of the volume is
= −30
12π cm 3 / s .
∴ The rate of change of the distance between
the stone and the boat is −30 m / s .
15. Let r cm, h cm and V cm 3 be the radius, height
and volume of water inside the circular cone
12. y = x2 + 8 respectively.
1 1 r
= ( x 2 + 8) 2 V = πr 2 h , h = = 3r
dy 1 2 dx 3 tan 30°
= ( x + 8) − 2 (2 x )
1

3 3 1 3
dt 2 dt V= πr = πh
x dx 3 9
=
dV 1 2 dh
x 2 + 8 dt = πh
dt 3 dt
dy 1
When x = 1 , = (3) When h = 6 ,
dt 3
=1 dV 1
= π(6)2 (0.2)
dt 3
= 2.4 π
13. Let x m, h m and V m 3 be the side, height and ∴ The rate of water leaking away is
volume of water in the trough respectively.
(10 − 2.4 π) cm 3 / s .
h = x cos 30°
2
x= h 16. Let x m be the length of shadow, θ be the angle of
3 elevation.
1
V = ( x 2 sin 60°)(2) ∴ x = 180 cot θ
2 dx dθ
3 2 = −180 csc 2 θ
= x dt dt
2
When θ = 30° ,
2 3 2
= h dx 0.25π
3 = −180( 4)( )
dV 4 3 dh dt 180
= h = −π
dt 3 dt
∴ The rate of change of the length of the shadow
1 is −π m / min.
When h = ,
2
98 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

17. (a) Let r cm be the radius of the stain. dx −6 x


∴ =
After 4 seconds, the area of the stain = 4 cm . 2
dt 2 x − 3
3 +4
∴ πr 2 = 4 −6( 2 )
=
4 1 3 +4
r = ( )2 2( 2 )− 3
π
−3( 3 + 4)
∴ The radius of the stain 4 seconds after the =
4
4 1
ink first touched the shirt was ( ) 2 cm . ∴ The rate of change of OQ with respect to
π
−3( 3 + 4)
(b) Let A cm 2 be the area of the stain. time is m / s.
4
A = πr 2
dA dr
= 2 πr 20. (a) When the depth is h m, using the properties
dt dt of similar figures,
dA 4 1 h
Q = 1, r = ( ) 2 (at this instant, from (a)) upper base = 1 + 2( ) = 1 + h
dt π 2

4 12 dr ∴ V = 1 (1 + h + 1)h(3)
1 = 2 π( ) 2
π dt
3
dr
=
1 = (h 2 + 2 h)
dt 4 π 2
3 2
∴ The rate of increase of the radius of the (b) V = (h + 2 h)
1 2
stain at this instant is cm / s . dV 3 dh
4 π = (2 h + 2)
dt 2 dt
dh
= 3(h + 1)
18. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. dt
question because of the copyright reasons. 1
When h = ,
2
19. (a) Using cosine formula, we obtain dh 4 8
= =
PQ 2 = OP 2 + OQ 2 − 2(OP)(OQ)cosθ dt 3( 12 + 1) 9
π
When Q = , ∴ The rate of change of the water level is
3
8
5 2 π m / min.
( ) = ( 3 )2 + x 2 − 2 3 ( x ) cos 9
2 3
13
x − 3x −
2
=0
4 21. (a) Let r cm, h cm and V cm 3 be the radius, height
3+4 3−4 and volume of space left inside the circular
x= or (rejected) conical vessel.
2 2
r = h tan 45° = h
5 1
(b) ( )2 = ( 3 )2 + x 2 − 2 3 ( x ) cos θ ∴ V = πh 3
2 3
13 dV dh
x 2 − 2 3 x cosθ − = 0 = πh 2
4 dt dt
Differentiate both sides with respect to time t, When h = 6 ,
dx dθ dx −12
2x + 2 3 x sin θ − 2 3 cos θ =0 dh
=
dt dt dt dt π(36)
π dθ 1
When Q = and = 2, =−
3 dt 3π
dx π π dx ∴ The rate of the water level rising is
2x + 2 3 x (sin )(2) − 2 3 cos =0
dt 3 3 dt 1
dx dx cm / s .
2x + 6x − 3 =0 3π
dt dt
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 99

(b) Let A cm 2 be the area of the surface of water ∴ − 4 A sin 2t − 4 B cos 2t + 6 A cos 2t
in the vessel. − 6 B sin 2t − 4 A sin 2t − 4 B cos 2t
A = πr 2 = πh 2 = sin 2t
dA
= 2 πh
dh −8 A − 6 B = 1
 6 A − 8B = 0
dt dt 
When h = 6 ,
2 3
dA 1 ∴ A=− , B=−
= 2 π(6)( − ) 25 50
dt 3π
= −4
2 3
∴ The rate of decrease of the area of the (b) x = − sin 2t − cos 2t
surface of the water at that moment is 25 50
4 cm 2 / s . =−
1 4 3
( sin 2t + cos 2t )
10 5 5
π 1 4
22. (a) V = (16 + 12 h − h 3 ) =−cos(2t − θ) where θ = tan −1 ( )
3 10 3
dV π ∴ The maximum displacement
= (12 − 3h 2 )
dh 3
1
= π( 4 − h 2 ) = −
10
dV dV dh 1
= ⋅ =
dt dh dt 10
dh
= π( 4 − h 2 )
dt (c) Let v be the speed of the particle.
dx
dV dh v=
(b) From (a), = π( 4 − h 2 ) dt
dt dt 4 3
dV = − cos 2t + sin 2t
When h = 1 and = −6π , 25 25
dt
dh 2 A2 + B2 − x 2
−6 π = π[ 4 − (1)2 ]
dt 4 9 2 3 1

dh = 2[ + − ( − sin 2t − cos 2t )2 ] 2
= −2 625 2 500 25 50
dt 4 4
= 2[ − sin 2 2t
∴ The rate of change of h is −2 m / hour. 625 625
2 3
− 2( sin 2t )( cos 2t )
(c) (i) Radius of the surface = 2 2 − h 2 25 50
9 9 1
∴ A = π( 4 − h 2 ) 2 + − cos 2 2t ] 2
2 500 2 500
= π( 4 − h 2 ) 4
= 2[ cos 2 2t
dA dh 625
(ii) = π( −2 h) 2 3 9 1
dt dt − 2( )( )(sin 2t cos 2t ) + sin 2 2t ] 2
dA 25 50 2 500
When h = 1 , = π( −2)( −2) 16 4 3
dt =[ cos 2 2t − 2( )( )(sin 2t cos 2t )
= 4π 625 25 25
9 1
∴ The rate of change of A is + 2
sin 2t ] 2

625
4π m 2 / hour.
4 3
= ( − cos 2t + sin 2t )2
25 25
23. (a) x = A sin 2t + B cos 2t 4 3
dx = − cos 2t + sin 2t
= 2 A cos 2t − 2 B sin 2t 25 25
dt
d2x ∴ v = 2 A2 + B2 − x 2
= −4 A sin 2t − 4 B cos 2t
dt 2
100 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

(d) v = 2 A2 + B2 − x 2 s 2 = 2 2 + 12 − 2(2)(1) cos θ


= 5 − 4 cos θ
As x 2 ≥ 0 , it is obvious that v is maximum
ds dθ
when x = 0. ∴ 2s = 4 sin θ
dt dt
∴ The maximum speed = 2 A2 + B2 ds 2 sin θ dθ
=
1 dt s dt
=
5 At 4:00 p.m.,

θ= ,
3
24. (a) (i) Since the minute-hand and the hour-hand 2π
move in the same direction at constant s 2 = 5 − 4 cos
3
rates, the required rate
s= 7
= the rate at which the hour-hand moves
− the rate at which the minute-head dθ 11π
Q =−
moves dt 360
π 2π 2π
=( − ) rad. / min. ∴ When θ = ,
360 60 3
−11π
= rad. / min. ds 2 sin 23π 11π
360 =( )( − )
dt 7 360

(ii) At 4:00 p.m., θ = 11 3π
3 =−
If OA coincide with OB after t minutes, 360 7
11π 2π = −0.06 (corr. to the nearest 0.01)
t=
360 3 ∴ The rate of change of AB with respect to
t = 21
9 time at 4:00 p.m. is −0.06 cm / min.
11
∴ OA first coincides with OB at
25 − 26. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
4 : 21 : 49 p.m. (corr. to the nearest
questions because of the copyright reasons.
second).

(b) Let A cm 2 be the area of ∆OAB. Revision Exercise 16 (p.158)


1
A= (2)(1)sin θ 1. y + xy = 6 x 3
2
= sin θ
dy 1 y 1 x dy
dA dθ + + = 18 x 2
= cos θ dx 2 x 2 y dx
dt dt
1 x dy 1 y
2π (1 + ) = 18 x 2 −
When θ = , 2 y dx 2 x
3
y
dy 18 x − 2 x
2 1
dA 2 π 11π =
= cos (− ) dx y
dt 3 360 1+ 1 2 x
= −0.05 (corr. to the nearest 0.01)
The slope of the tangent to the curve at (1, 4) is
∴ The rate of change of the area of ∆OAB
dy 18 − 2 4
1
with respect to time at 4:00 p.m. is
=
− 0.05 cm 2 / min. dx 1 + 1 1
2 4
68
(c) Let s cm be AB. Using cosine formula, =
5
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 101

2. y 2 + 10 x = 0 When x = 0 , y = 3
dy A sketch of the curve is shown below :
2y + 10 = 0
dx 2 17 y
(− , 4 )
dy 5 3 27
=−
dx y
1
Slope of the line = −
2
5 1 y = 2x 3 − x 2 − 4x + 3
∴ − =− 3
y 2
y = 10
− y2
∴ x= = −10
10
∴ The equation of the tangent is
1
y − 10 = − ( x + 10)
2
x + 2 y − 10 = 0
x
O (1, 0)

3. f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x + 4
f ' ( x ) = 3x 2 − 3 5. y = 2 cos 2 x − cos 4 x
dy
When f ' ( x ) > 0 , the value of f ( x ) increases. = −4 sin 2 x + 4 sin 4 x
dx
Consider 3x 2 − 3 > 0 dy
When = 0,
x −1 > 0
2
dx
( x + 1)( x − 1) > 0
−4 sin 2 x + 4 sin 4 x = 0
x < −1 or x > 1 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x − sin 2 x = 0
sin 2 x (2 cos 2 x − 1) = 0

y = 2x3 − x2 − 4x + 3 1
4. ∴ sin 2 x = 0 or cos 2 x =
dy 2
= 6x2 − 2x − 4 π 5π
dx 2 x = 0, π, 2 π or 2 x = ,
dy 3 3
When = 0,
dx π π 5π
x = 0, , π or x = ,
6x2 − 2x − 4 = 0 2 6 6
3x 2 − x − 2 = 0 d2y
(3 x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 = −8 cos 2 x + 16 cos 4 x
dx 2
2
x=− or 1 d2y
3 For x = 0 , > 0 , y = 1;
d2y dx 2
= 12 x − 2
dx 2 π d2y 3
x= , < 0, y = ;
2 d2y 17 6 dx 2 2
When x = − , < 0 and y = 4 ,
3 dx 2 27 π d2y
x= , > 0 , y = −3 ;
2 17
∴ ( − , 4 ) is a maximum point. 2 dx 2
3 27
5π d 2 y 3
x= , < 0, y = ;
d2y 6 dx 2 2
When x = 1 , > 0 and y = 0 ,
dx 2 d2y
∴ (1, 0) is a minimum point. x = π, > 0 , y = 1.
dx 2
102 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

π 3 5π 3 d2A πH
∴ ( , ) and ( , ) are maximum points; =− <0
6 2 6 2 dr 2 4
π ∴ When the radius is 8 cm , the curved surface
(0, 1), ( , −3) and (π, 1) are minimum points.
2 area is maximum.
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
y
7. Let x m be the distance between the man and the
π 3 5π 3 light, y m be the height of the man’s shadow on
( , ) ( , )
6 2 6 2 the wall.

(0, 1) (π, 1)
ym

x 2m
O π
xm
10 m
y = 2 cos 2x − cos 4x 2 y
=
x 10
20
y=
x
dy 20 dx
=− 2
dt x dt
π
( , −3) dx 8 000 20
2 Q = =
dt 3 600 9
6. Let r cm, h cm and A cm 2 be the radius, height ∴ When x = 4 ,
and surface area of the cylinder respectively.
dy 20 20 25
Let H cm be the height of the cone. =− ( )=−
dt 16 9 9
∴ The rate of change of the height of the man’s
shadow on the wall is
25 1
− × 3 600 × km / h = −10 km / h
9 1 000
H cm

h cm 8. Let r cm, h cm and V cm 3 be the radius, depth


and volume of water in the filter respectively.
6 cm
16 cm r cm
Using the properties of similar triangles,
r cm
16 H
= 12 cm
r H−h
H
h=H− r h cm
16
H
A = 2 πrh = 2 πr ( H − r)
16 r 6
dA H H H =
= 2 π[( H − r ) + r ( − )] = 2 π( H − r ) h 12
dr 16 16 8 1
dA r= h
When = 0, 2
dr 1 2 1 1 1
V = πr h = π( h 2 )h = πh 3
H 3 3 4 12
H− r=0 dV 1 2 dh
8 = πh
r=8 dt 4 dt
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 103

dh d2y
When h = 8 , = 0.5 When x = π + tan −1 (2) , >0
dt dx 2
∴ The rate of change of the volume of water ∴ When x = tan −1 (2) , y attains a maximum.
1 The maximum value of y = 5
= π(8)2 (0.5)
4
= 8π cm 3 / s
11 − 16. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
Since the rate of change of the volume of water questions because of the copyright reasons.
= the rate of water pouring into the filter −
the rate of water flowing out of the filter
17. (a) When f ' ( x ) = 0 , x = 0 , 2 or 3
∴ The rate of water pouring into the filter is
When x = 0 , f "( x ) < 0
(8π + 4) cm 3 / s .
When x = 2 , f "( x ) > 0
When x = 3 , f "( x ) < 0
9. (a) Let $P be the daily profit. 7
∴ (0, 10), (3, − ) are maximum points,
2
P = x (800 − x ) − ( x 2 + 52 x + 38)
and (2, − 6) is a minimum point.
= 800 x − x 2 − x 2 − 52 x − 38
= −2 x 2 + 748 x − 38 (b) A sketch of the curve is shown below:
y
dP
= −4 x + 748
dx (0, 10)
10
d2P
= −4
dx 2
dP
When = 0 , −4 x + 748 = 0
dx x = 187 y = f (x)
2
d P
When x = 187 , = −4 < 0
dx 2
x
∴ When the number of fans produced daily O 1
is 187 , the daily profit is a maximum. 7
(3, − )
2
(b) The maximum daily profit
= $[ −2(187)2 + 748(187) − 38] (2, −6)
= $69 900

18. (a) 4 y2 = x 3
dy dy
10. (a) = 2 cos x − sin x 8y = 3x 2
dx dx
d2y dy 3 x 2
= −2 sin x − cos x =
dx 2 dx 8 y
dy
= 0, dy 3( 4t 2 )2 3
(b) When = = t
dx dx ( 4t 2 , 4t 3 ) 8( 4t 3 ) 2
2 cos x − sin x = 0 The equation of the tangent is
tan x = 2
3
x = tan −1 (2) , π + tan −1 (2) y − 4t 3 = t ( x − 4t 2 )
2
d2y 2 y − 8t 3 = 3tx − 12t 3
When x = tan −1 (2) , < 0 and y = 5 3tx − 2 y − 4t 3 = 0
dx 2
104 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

(b) 4 y 2 = x 3 ...............................................(1) dy
Substitute x = 0 , = tan 45° = 1 into (2),
dx
3tx − 2 y − 4t 3 = 0 ..................................(2) ∴ 1=
c
9
3 c=9
From (2), y = tx − 2t 3.........................(3)
2
dy
Substitute (3) into (1), Substitute x = 3 , = 0 into (2),
dx
3
4( tx − 2t 3 )2 = x 3 1 2
∴ 0 = a(3)2 + b(3) +
c
2 3 9 9
9t 2 x 2 − 24t 4 x + 16t 6 − x 3 = 0 2
∴ 3a + b + 1 = 0 ...............................(3)
x 3 − 9t 2 x 2 + 24t 4 x − 16t 6 = 0 ................(4) 3
Substitute x = 3 , y = 0 into (1),
Let g( x ) = x 3 − 9t 2 x 2 + 24t 4 x − 16t 6
g(t 2 ) = t 6 − 9t 6 + 24t 6 − 16t 6 = 0 ∴ 0 = 27a + 9b + 3c + d
∴ 3a + b + 3 = 0 .................................(4)
∴ x = t 2 is a root of equation (3).
Solving (3) and (4), we obtain a = 1, b = −6 .
Substitute x = t 2 into (3),
(b) ∴ The equation of C is 9 y = x 3 − 6 x 2 + 9 x
3 t3
y = t (t 2 ) − 2 t 3 = − dy 1 2 4
2 2 = x − x +1
t3 dx 3 3
∴ The coordinates of B are (t 2 , − ). dy
2 When = 0,
dx
(c) Let P(x, y) be the mid-point of AB. 1 2 4
x − +1 = 0
4t 2 + t 2 3 3
x=
2 x2 − 4x + 3 = 0
5 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) = 0
= t ................................................(5)
2 x = 1 or 3
3
4t 3 − t2 When x = 1 , y = ;
4
y= 9
2
7 3 when x = 3 , y = 0
= t ................................................(6)
4 d2y 2 4
2
= x−
dx 3 3
(5)3 ÷ (6)2 ,
d2y 2 d2y 2
x 3 ( 25 )3 t 6 2
= − < 0 ; 2
= >0
= dx x =1 3 dx x =3 3
y2 ( 47 )2 t 6
4
250 2 ∴ (1, ) is a maximum point, and
x3 = y 9
49
250 y 2 = 49 x 3 (3, 0) is a minimum point.

∴ The equation of the locus of P is (c) When x = 0, y = 0;


16
250 y = 49 x .
2 3
when x = −1, y = − ;
9
4
when x = 4, y =
19. (a) 9 y = ax + bx + cx + d ......................(1)
3 2 9
dy A sketch of the curve is shown below:
9 = 3ax 2 + 2 bx + c y
dx
(1, 4 ) y = x − 2 x 2 + x
3
dy 1 2 2 c
= ax + bx + ........................(2) 9
9 3
dx 3 9 9 (3, 0)
x
Substitute (0, 0) into (1), −1 O 3 4
∴ 0=0+d
d=0
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 105

20. (a) The length of the tangent is 2r 2


∴ h= 2
z = a 2 + b 2 + ( −2)a + ( −6)b + 5 r −1
z 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2 a − 6b + 5 ...................(1) r 2 h − h = 2r 2
Since (a, b) lies on L, r 2 (h − 2) = h
∴ 3a + b + 4 = 0 h
r2 =
b = −3a − 4 ........................(2) h−2
(b) Volume of cone
Put (2) in (1),
1 2 1 h πh 2
z = a + (3a + 4) − 2 a + 6(3a + 4) + 5
2 2 2 = πr h = π( )h =
3 3 h−2 3(h − 2)
= a 2 + 9a 2 + 24 a + 16 − 2 a
+ 18a + 24 + 5 (c) Let V be the volume of cone.
= 10 a + 40 a + 45
2 πh 2
∴ V=
1
3(h − 2)
(b) z = (10 a 2 + 40 a + 45) 2
dz 1 dV π 2 h(h − 2) − h 2 π(h 2 − 4h)
= (10 a 2 + 40 a + 45) − 2 (20 a + 40) = =
1

da 2 dh 3 (h − 2)2 3(h − 2)2


dz dV
When = 0 , a = −2 Put = 0,
da dh
As 10 a 2 + 40 a + 45 = 10( a + 2)2 + 5 > 0 , ∴ h 2 − 4h = 0
dz h( h − 4 ) = 0
when a > −2 (slightly), > 0; ∴ h = 4 or h = 0 (rejected)
da
dz dV
when a < −2 (slightly), <0 When h > 4 (slightly), >0
da dh
∴ z attains its minimum when a = −2 . When h < 4 (slightly),
dV
<0
Put a = −2 in (2), dh
∴ b=6−4=2 ∴ When h = 4 , V attains a minimum.

∴ The coordinates of A are ( −2, 2) . π( 4 2 )


∴ Minimum volume =
3( 4 − 2)
(c) Let O be the centre of C,
8
∴ the coordinates of O are (1, 3). = π
3
3−2 1
Slope of AO = =
1+ 2 3 22. (a) Curved surface of one of the cones
Slope of line L = −3 = πr r 2 + h 2
1 1
(Slope of AO) × (Slope of L) = ( −3) ∴ S = 2 πr (r 2 + h 2 ) 2 + 2 πrh
3 S 1
= −1 − h = (r 2 + h 2 ) 2
∴ AO is perpendicular to L. 2 πr
S
( − h)2 = r 2 + h 2
2 πr
21. (a) Let ∠EBD = θ
S2 hS
− + h2 = r 2 + h2
DE = r tan θ 4 π 2 r 2 πr
r tan θ = 1 hS S2
AD = h = − r2
πr 4 π 2 r 2
= r tan 2θ
hS S 2 − 4 π 2 r 4
r (2 tan θ) =
= πr 4π 2 r 2
1 − tan 2 θ
S 2 − 4π 2 r 4
2 r ( 1r ) h=
= 4 πrS
1 − ( 1r )2
106 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

2 2 1
(b) V = πr h + πr 2 h (ii) A = (1 + h) x
3 2
5 1
= πr 2 h = (1 + h)( 4 cos θ − cot θ)
3 2
S 2 − 4π 2 r 4 1
5
= πr 2 ( ) = (1 + 4 sin θ)( 4 cos θ − cot θ)
3 4 πrS 2
1
=
5r 2
(S − 4π 2 r 4 ) = (16 sin θ cos θ − cot θ)
12 S 2
1
5 = 4 sin 2θ − cot θ
(c) From (b), V = (rS 2 − 4 π 2 r 5 ) 2
12 S
dV 5 dx
= ( S 2 − 20 π 2 r 4 ) (b) = −4 sin θ + csc 2 θ
dr 12 S dθ
dV 1 − 4 sin 3 θ
When = 0 , S 2 − 20 π 2 r 4 = 0 =
dr sin 2 θ
S2 dx
r4 = When = 0,
20 π 2 dθ
S 12 1 − 4 sin 3 θ
r=( ) =0
2 5π sin 2 θ
d 2V 5 1 − 4 sin 3 θ = 0
= ( −80 π 2 r 3 ) 1
dr 2 12 S sin 3 θ =
3 4
2 −100 π 2 ( S ) 2 1 1
S 12 d V 2 5π sin θ = ( ) 3
When r = ( ) , = 4
2 5π dr 2 3S
<0 1 1 dx
S 12 When θ > sin −1[( ) 3 ] (slightly), <0
∴ When r = ( ) , V attains a 4 dθ
2 5π 1 1 dx
maximum, When θ < sin −1[( ) 3 ] (slightly), >0
4 dθ
S 12
i.e. r0 = ( ) 1 1
2 5π ∴ When sin θ = ( ) 3 , x attains a maximum.
2 4
S 2 − 4π 2 ( S 2 )
h0 = 20 π
1 dA 1
4 πS( S )2 (c) = 8 cos 2θ + csc 2 θ
2 5π dθ 2
2 1
4S 1 1
= = 8(1 − 2 sin 2 θ) +
5 4 πS r0 2 sin 2 θ
S 16 sin θ(1 − 2 sin 2 θ) + 1
2
= =
5πr0 2 sin 2 θ
h0 S −32 sin θ + 16 sin 2 θ + 1
4
= =
r0 5πr0 2 2 sin 2 θ
S 2 5π dA
= When = 0,
5π S dθ
=
2 −32 sin 4 θ + 16 sin 2 θ + 1
=0
5 2 sin 2 θ
∴ h0 : r0 = 2 : 5 −32 sin 4 θ + 16 sin 2 θ + 1 = 0
−16 ± 16 2 − 4( −32)
sin 2 θ =
23. (a) (i) tan θ =
1 2( −32)
OA
OA = cot θ 2+ 6 2− 6
= or (rejected)
x = OB − OA 8 8
= 4 cos θ − cot θ sin θ = 0.75 (corr. to the nearest 0.01)
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 107

(b)
d2A
= −16 sin 2θ − csc 2 θ cot θ 0 0
dθ 2 −t 0
As θ is acute, −16 sin 2θ − csc 2 θ cot θ < 0 , 1 −2t −2t 3
Area =
2 1 + t4 1 + t4
d2A
i.e. < 0 when sin θ = 0.75 . 0 −
1
dθ 2 t
∴ W h e n sin θ = 0.75 , t h e a r e a o f t h e 0 0
trapezium attains a maximum. 1 2t 4 2
=
( + )
2 1 + t4 1 + t4
=1
∴ The area of the quadrilateral is a constant.
24. (a) C1: x 2 + y 2 + 2tx = 0 ................(1) (c) Let L be the length of common chord.
∴ The coordinates of the centre of C1 are 2t 2 2t 3 2
L2 = (0 + ) + ( 0 + )
( −t, 0) . 1 + t4 1 + t4
2y 4t 2 + 4t 6
C2 : x 2 + y 2 + = 0 ...............(2) =
t (1 + t 4 )2
∴ The coordinates of the centre of C2 are 4t 2 (1 + t 4 )
1 =
(0, − ) . (1 + t 4 )2
t 4t 2
(1) − (2), =
(1 + t 4 )
2y
2tx − =0 When L > 0 ,
t
t2x − y = 0 d ( L2 ) (1 + t 4 )8t − 4t 2 ( 4t 3 )
=
y = t 2 x .........................(3) dt (1 + t 4 )2
dL 8t + 8t 5 − 16t 5
Put (3) into (1), 2L =
dt (1 + t 4 )2
x 2 + t 4 x 2 + 2tx = 0
dL 4t − 4t 5
(1 + t 4 ) x 2 + 2tx = 0 =
dt L(1 + t 4 )2
x[(1 + t 4 ) x + 2t ] = 0
dL
−2t When = 0,
x = 0 or x = dt
1 + t4 ∴ 4t (1 − t 4 ) = 0
Put x = 0 into (3), t = 0 or t = ±1
y=0 Put t = 0 into L,
−2t L=0
Put x = into (3),
1 + t4 Since the length of chord should be greater
than zero,
−2t 3
y= ∴ L = 0 is rejected.
1 + t4
Put t = ±1 into L,
The coordinates of intersecting points are
4
−2t −2t 3 ∴ L2 = = 2
(0, 0) and ( , ). 2
1 + t4 1 + t4 L = 2 or − 2 (rejected)
∴ The coordinates of the vertices of the ∴ The stationary value of the length of the
q u a d r i l a t e r a l a r e (0, 0) , ( −t, 0) , common chord is 2.
1 −2t −2t 3
(0, − ) and ( , ).
t 1+ t 4
1 + t4 25 − 34. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons.
108 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

Enrichment 16 (p.167) Classwork 1 (P.116)


4x y = x3 − 2x2 + 4
1. (a) f ( x ) = 2 1.
x − x +1 dy
1 3 = 3 x 2 − 2( 2 x )
Consider x 2 − x + 1 = ( x − )2 + dx
2 4 = 3x 2 − 4 x
1 2
Q (x − ) ≥ 0 dy
2 = 3(2)2 − 4(2)
1 2 3 dx ( 2, 4)
(x − ) + > 0 =4
2 4
x2 − x + 1 > 0 The equation of the tangent is
∴ f ( x ) is defined for all real values of x. y − 4 = 4 ( x − 2)
4x − y − 4 = 0
( x 2 − x + 1)( 4) − ( 4 x )(2 x − 1)
(b) f ' ( x ) =
( x 2 − x + 1)2 The equation of the normal is
−4( x 2 − 1) 1
= 2 y − 4 = − ( x − 2)
4
( x − x + 1)2 x + 4 y − 18 = 0
Q ( x 2 − x + 1)2 > 0
Consider x2 − 1 < 0 2. x 2 − xy 2 + y 2 = 9
( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 dy dy
−1 < x < 1 2 x − y 2 − 2 xy + 2y =0
∴ dx dx
(c) f "( x ) = [ −4( x 2 − x + 1)2 (2 x ) + 4( x 2 − 1) dy y2 − 2 x
=
( 4 x − 6 x + 6 x − 2)] ÷ ( x − x + 1)
3 2 2 4
dx 2 y − 2 xy
−8 x 5 − 8 x 4 − 16 x 3 + 32 x 2 − 32 x + 8 dy (2)2 − 2( −1)
= =
( x 2 − x + 1) 4 dx ( −1, 2 ) 2(2) − 2( −1)(2)
When x = 1 , f ' ( x ) = 0 , f "( x ) < 0 and y = 4 3
=
∴ (1, 4) is a maximum point. 4
The equation of the tangent is
W h e n x = −1 , f ' ( x ) = 0 , f "( x ) > 0 a n d 3
4 y − 2 = ( x + 1)
y=− 4
3 3 x − 4 y + 11 = 0
4
∴ ( −1, − ) is a minimum point. The equation of the normal is
3
(d) When x = 0 , y = 0 4
y − 2 = − ( x + 1)
3
A sketch of the curve is shown below: 4 x + 3y − 2 = 0
y
(1, 4)

Classwork 2 (P.119)
4x
y= 1. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact of a required
x2 − x + 1
tangent.
Slope of the given line = −9
x
O y = x 3 − 12 x + 4
dy
4
= 3 x 2 − 12
(−1, − ) dx
3
dy
At ( x1, y1 ) , slope of the tangent =
dx ( x1 , y1 )
2 − 5. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons. = 3 x12 − 12
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 109

∴ 3 x12 − 12 = −9 Substitute x1 = 0 into (3),


x1 = ±1 y1 = 3(0) − 5 = −5
When x1 = 1 , Substitute x1 = 3 into (3),

y1 = (1)3 − 12(1) + 4 y1 = 3(3) − 5


= −7 =4
∴ (1, − 7) is a point of contact. ∴ ( x1, y1 ) = (0, − 5) or (3, 4)

At (1, − 7) , the equation of the tangent is At (0, −5), slope of the tangent = 0.
y + 7 = − 9( x − 1) ∴ At (0, −5), the equation of the tangent is
9x + y − 2 = 0 y + 5 = 0.

When x1 = −1 , y1 = ( −1) − 12( −1) + 4 = 15


3 3
At (3, 4), slope of the tangent = − ,
∴ ( −1, 15) is another point of contact. 4
∴ At (3, 4), the equation of the tangent is
At ( −1, 15) , the equation of the tangent is
3
y − 15 = −9( x + 1) y − 4 = − ( x − 3)
4
9x + y − 6 = 0 3 x + 4 y − 25 = 0

2. Let ( x1, y1 ) be the point of contact of a required


Classwork 3 (P.125)
tangent. Since ( x1, y1 ) lies on the curve,
1. A sketch of the curve is shown below:
∴ x12 + y12 = 25 .........................(1) y
dy
2x + 2y =0 (0, 5)
dx
dy x
=−
dx y
dy
Slope of the tangent =
dx ( x1 , y1 )
y = f (x)
x
=− 1
y1
Slope of the line joining ( x1, y1 ) and (15, −5)
y +5
= 1
x1 − 15
x1 y +5 (2, 1)
∴ − = 1
y1 x1 − 15
x
x12 + y12 − 15 x1 + 5 y1 = 0 ................(2) O

(1) − (2),
15 x1 − 5 y1 = 25 2. f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 12 x + 2
3 x1 − y1 = 5
f ' ( x ) = 6 x 2 + 6 x − 12
y1 = 3 x1 − 5 ........................(3)
= 6( x − 1)( x + 2)
Substitute y1 = 3 x1 − 5 into (1), ∴ When x = 1 or x = −2 , f ' ( x ) = 0
x12 + (3 x1 − 5) = 25
2
x x < −2 x = −2 −2 < x < 0 x = 0 0 < x < 1 x = 1 x > 1
x12 + 9 x12 − 30 x1 + 25 = 25
f (x) 22 2 −5
10 x1 ( x1 − 3) = 0
x1 = 0 or 3 f' (x) + 0 − − − 0 +
110 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

A sketch of the curve is shown below: 5π


y Put x = into f ( x ),
6
(−2, 22) 5π 5π 5π
f( ) = 2 − − 2 cos
6 6 6

=2+ 3−
6
5π 5π
f "( ) = 2 cos
6 6
=− 3
<0
y = 2x 3 + 3x 2 − 12x + 2
5π 5π
∴ ( , 2 + 3 − ) is a maximum point.
6 6
(c) When x = 0 , y = 0
A sketch of the curve is shown below:
y
5π 5π
( ,2+ 3− )
6 6
2

x y = 2 − x − 2 cos x
O
x
O π
π π
( ,2 − 3− )
6 6
(1, −5)

Classwork 4 (P.127)
Classwork 5 (P.129)
(a) y = 2 − x − 2 cos x
2x
dy (a) f ( x) =
= −1 + 2 sin x = 0 1 + x2
dx
1 (1 + x 2 )(2) − (2 x )(2 x )
sin x = f ' ( x) =
2 (1 + x 2 )2
π 5π 2(1 − x 2 )
x= , =
6 6
(1 + x 2 )2
(b) f ' ( x ) = −1 + 2 sin x
2(1 − x 2 )
Set f ' ( x ) = 0 for turning points. Consider >0
(1 + x 2 )2
π 5π
From (a), x = , 2(1 − x 2 ) > 0
6 6
(1 + x )(1 − x ) > 0
π
Put x = into f ( x ), −1 < x < 1
6 ∴
π π π (b) When x = −1 or x = 1 , f ' ( x ) = 0
f ( ) = 2 − − 2 cos
6 6 6
π x x < −1 x = −1 −1 < x < 0 x = 0 0 < x < 1 x = 1 x > 1
=2− 3−
6 f (x) −1 0 1
f "( x ) = 2 cos x f' (x) − 0 + + + 0 −
π
When x = ,
6 The turning points of C are ( −1, − 1) and (1, 1) .
π π
f "( ) = 2 cos dy
6 6 Since changes sign from negative to positive
= 3>0 dx
as x increases through −1,
π π
∴ ( , 2 − 3 − ) is a minimum point. ∴ ( −1, − 1) is a minimum point.
6 6
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 111

dy 1
Since changes sign from positive to negative (b) When x = − or x = 1 , f ' ( x ) = 0
dx 2
as x increases through 1,
1
∴ (1, 1) is a maximum point. When x = − , f "( x ) = 18 > 0 and
2
(c) When x = 0 , y = 0 27
f ( x) = − ,
A sketch of the curve is shown below: 8
y 1 27
∴ ( − , − ) is a minimum point.
(1, 1) 2 8

2x When x = 1 , f "( x ) = 0 , f ( x ) = 0
y=
1 + x2 When x < 1 (slightly), f ' ( x ) > 0
x
O
When x > 1 (slightly), f ' ( x ) > 0
dy
This shows that does not change sign as
(−1, −1) dx
x increases through 1.

Classwork 6 (P.130) ∴ (1, 0) is neither a maximum point nor a


minimum point.
(a) f ( x ) = −( x + 1) 4 When x = 0 , f ( x ) = −2
f ' ( x ) = −4( x + 1)3
When x = −1 , f ( x ) = 0
f "( x ) = −12( x + 1)2 Also,
(b) When x = −1 , f ' ( x ) = 0 as x → −∞ , y → +∞ ;
When x = −1 , f "( x ) = 0 x → +∞ , y → +∞ .
When x < −1 (slightly), f ' ( x ) > 0
(c) A sketch of the curve is shown below:
When x > −1 (slightly), f ' ( x ) < 0 y
dy
Since changes sign from positive to negative
dx
as x increases through −1,
∴ ( −1, 0) is a maximum point. x
−1 O (1, 0)
(c) A sketch of the curve is shown below:
y

(−1, 0)
x y = 2(x − 1)3(x + 1)
O
−2

−1

y = −(x + 1)4
1 27
(− , − )
2 8

Classwork 7 (P.131)
1. (a) f ( x ) = 2( x − 1)3 ( x + 1)
Classwork 8 (P.133)
f ' ( x ) = 2( x + 1)[3( x − 1)2 ] + 2( x − 1)3
= 6( x + 1)( x − 1)2 + 2( x − 1)3 1. (a) y 2 = (1 − x )( x + 2)2
= 4(2 x + 1)( x − 1)2 The curve is composed of the two curves:
1
f "( x ) = 4(2 x + 1)[2( x − 1)] + 4( x − 1) (2)
2
y = (1 − x ) 2 ( x + 2) and
= 8(2 x + 1)( x − 1) + 8( x − 1)2 1
y = −(1 − x ) 2 ( x + 2) .
= 24 x ( x − 1)
112 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

For each value of x, the values of y of the Classwork 9 (P.139)


above two curves only differ from each other
1. h + r = 15
by an opposite sign. Therefore, the curve of
1
the given equation is symmetrical about the (a) V = πr 2 h
x-axis. 3
1 2
(b) y 2 = (1 − x )( x + 2)2 = πr (15 − r )
3
dy
2y = (1 − x )[2( x + 2)] + ( x + 2)2 ( −1) where 0 < r < 15
dx
= 2(1 − x )( x + 2) − ( x + 2)2 (b)
dV 1
= π(30 r − 3r 2 )
dy dr 3
2y = −3 x ( x + 2) = πr (10 − r )
dx
dy −3 x ( x + 2) d 2V
= 1 = π(10 − 2 r )
dx ±2(1 − x ) 2 ( x + 2) dr 2
3 = 2 π( 5 − r )
= ± x (1 − x ) − 2
1

2 dV
When = 0 , r = 10 or r = 0 (rejected)
(c) Consider y = (1 − x ) ( x + 2)
1
2 dr
d 2V
dy 3 When r = 10 , = −10 π < 0
= − x (1 − x ) − 2
1
dr 2
dx 2 ∴ The volume of the cone is maximum
d2y 3 1 3 when r = 10 .
= − x[ − (1 − x ) − 2 ] − (1 − x ) − 2
3 1

2 2 2 2
dx
3 3
= x (1 − x ) − (1 − x ) − 2
− 23 1 2. (a) The height of trapezium ABCD
4 2
3 = (2 3 ) 2 − x 2
− 23
= (1 − x ) (3 x − 2)
4 = 12 − x 2
dy d2y
When x = 0 , = 0, < 0 and y = 2 The area of trapezium ABCD
dx dx 2
1
∴ 2 is a relative maximum of y. = (10 + 10 + 2 x ) 12 − x 2
2
By symmetry, −2 is a relative minimum of y.
= (10 + x ) 12 − x 2
∴ (0, 2) and (0, − 2) are the turning points
(b) As the height and x are positive,
for the curve.
∴ 12 − x 2 > 0 and x > 0 ,
(d) When x = 1 , y = 0 ;
i.e. 0 < x < 2 3
when x = −2 , y = 0
When x → −∞ , (c) Let A be the area of the trapezium.
1
y = (1 − x ) ( x + 2) → −∞ ,
2
A = (10 + x ) 12 − x 2
dA 1
= 12 − x 2 + (10 + x )[ (12 − x 2 ) − 2 ( −2 x )]
1
y = −(1 − x ) ( x + 2) → +∞
1
2

dx 2
A sketch of the curve is shown below :
= 12 − x 2 − x (10 + x )(12 − x 2 ) − 2
1

y
= −2( x − 1)( x + 6)(12 − x 2 ) − 2
1

maximum point dA
(0, 2) When = 0 , x = 1 or x = −6 (rejected)
dx
y 2 = (1 − x)(x + 2)2 or x = 2 3 (rejected)
dA
O
x When x > 1 (sightly), <0
−2 1 dx
dA
When x < 1 (sightly), >0
dx
(0, −2)
minimum point Hence the area of the trapezium is maximum
when x = 1 .
Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation 113

Classwork 10 (P.142) ∴ The total rental and travelling cost of a


factory is minimum when A is located
1. Let s km be the distance between A and B after 2.5 km from O, and the minimum total
t minutes.
cost is $4 000 .
Then
1 1
s 2 = (5 + t )2 + ( 2 t )2 − 2(5 + t )( 2 t )cos 45°
2 2 Classwork 11 (P.150)
1 2 1
= (5 + t ) + ( 2 t ) − 2t (5 + t )
2
2 2 15t
1. s = −t 3 + 3t 2 + +1
ds 1 1 1 4
2s = 2(5 + t )( ) + 2( 2 t )( 2 ) − t − 2(5 + t )
dt 2 2 2 ds 15
(a) = −3t 2 + 6t +
ds 1 5t dt 4
= ( − 5)
dt 2 s 2
5 (b) Let v and a be the velocity and acceleration
= (t − 2 ) respectively at time t.
4s
ds ds 15
When = 0, t = 2 v= = −3t 2 + 6t +
dt dt 4
ds
When t < 2 (slightly), <0 a=
dv
= −6t + 6
dt dt
ds
When t > 2 (slightly), >0 15
dt When t = 0 , v = and a = 6
4
∴ When t = 2 , s attains its minimum.
15
The required velocity is units per second.
When t = 2 , s = 2 5 4
Hence they will be closest to each other at The required acceleration is 6 units per square
12: 02 p.m. with distance 2 5 km . second.

(c) Since the particle is instantaneously at rest at


2. (a) Let T and R be the travelling cost and rental ds
cost respectively. point B, = 0 then.
dt
R ds 15
C = Tx + From (a), = −3t 2 + 6t + =0
x dt 4
When x = 2 ,
12t 2 − 24t − 15 = 0
C = 1 600 + 2 500 4t 2 − 8t − 5 = 0
5 000 (2t + 1)(2t − 5) = 0
= 800(2) +
2 1 5
5 000 t=− (rejected) or t =
∴ C = 800 x + 2 2
x
∴ It happens at 2.5 s .
5 000
(b) C = 800 x +
x
dC
= 800 − 5 000 x −2 2. Let θ, y km and x km be ∠ALP, AP and LP
dx
respectively.
d 2C
= 10 000 x −3
dx 2 L
dC 5 5 θ
When = 0 , x = or − (rejected)
dx 2 2 x km
2 3 km
5 d C
When x = , > 0 and C = 4 000
2 dx 2
P
5 A y km
Hence, when x = , C attains its minimum.
2
114 Chapter 16 Applications of differentiation

dy dθ When h = 2 ,
= 3 sec 2 θ
dt dt dA 25π ⋅ 2 8
= (− )
dθ y dt 8 5π
When = 4 π , y = 4 , x = 5 and tan θ = , = −10
dt 3
dy 5 2 ∴ The rate of decrease of the area of water
= 3( ) ( 4 π)
dt 3 surface is 10 m 2 / hour.
100 π
=
3
100 π 2. (a) Using cosine formula, we obtain
∴ The required velocity is km / min.
3 AB2 = OA2 + OB2 − 2(OA)(OB)cosθ

(2 2 )2 = (2 2 )2 + x 2 − 2(2 2 )( x ) cos θ
Classwork 12 (P.152) 0 = x 2 − 4 2 x cos θ
0 = x ( x − 4 2 cos θ)
1. (a) Let h m, r m and V m 3 be the depth, radius of x = 0 (rejected) or x − 4 2 cos θ = 0
the surface and volume of water in the tank
respectively. x = 4 2 cos θ
Using the properties of similar triangles, (b) Given that A is 2 revolutions per second,
r 5 dθ
= = 4π
h 4 dt
5
r= h From (a), x = 4 2 cos θ
4
1 2 1 5
V = πr h = π( h)2 h =
25 3
πh dx dθ
3 3 4 48 = −4 2 sin θ
dt dt
π
dV 25 dh = −4 2 (sin )( 4 π)
= π(3h 2 ) 4
dt 48 dt = −16 π
25 2 dh
= πh
16 dt ∴ The rate of change of OB is
When h = 2 , −16π units per second.

25 dh
10 = π( 2 ) 2
16 dt
dh 8
=
dt 5π
∴ The rate of increase of the depth of water
8
is m / hour.

(b) Let A m 2 be the area of the surface of water.


A = πr 2
5
= π( h ) 2
4
25 2
= πh
16
dA 25 dh
= π( 2 h )
dt 16 dt
25πh dh
=
8 dt