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Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 17

CHAPTER 1 5 89 5 89
(x − − )( x − + )=0
bñÉêÅáëÉ=N^=EéKUF 4 4 4 4
5 + 89 5 − 89
1. (a) x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 x= or
4 4
( x − 1)2 = 0
x =1 3. (a) 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0
(b) x − 4x − 5 = 0
2
Let a = 2, b = −5, c = −6.
( x − 5)( x + 1) = 0
Using the formula,
x = 5 or −1
(c) 3 x − 7 x + 4 = 0
2
−( −5) ± ( −5)2 − 4(2)( −6)
(3 x − 4)( x − 1) = 0 x=
2( 2 )
4
x = or 1 5 ± 25 + 48
3 =
4
(d) 8x 2 = 6 x − 1 5 ± 73
=
8x 2 − 6 x + 1 = 0 4
( 4 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0
1
x = or
1 (b) 35 − 100 x + x 2 = 0
4 2 x 2 − 100 x + 35 = 0
(e) 56 − 10 x − 6 x = 0
2 Let a = 1, b = −100, c = 35.
6 x 2 + 10 x − 56 = 0 Using the formula,
3 x 2 + 5 x − 28 = 0 −( −100) ± ( −100)2 − 4(1)(35)
(3 x − 7)( x + 4) = 0 x=
2(1)
7
x= or −4 100 ± 10 000 − 140
3 =
2
(f) 2(5 x 2 − 1) − x = 0 100 ± 9 860
=
10 x 2 − 2 − x = 0 2
10 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 = 50 ± 2 465
(5 x + 2)(2 x − 1) = 0
2 1 (c) 2 x 2 + 4 x = 5 + 5 x
x=− or
5 2 2x2 − x − 5 = 0
Let a = 2, b = −1, c = −5.
2. (a) x2 + 6x + 5 = 0
Using the formula,
6 6
x 2 + 6 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + 5 = 0
2 2 −( −1) ± ( −1)2 − 4(2)( −5)
x=
( x + 3)2 − 9 + 5 = 0 2( 2 )
( x + 3)2 = 4 1 ± 1 + 40
x + 3 = ±2 =
2( 2 )
x = −5 or −1
1 ± 41
(b) 2 x 2 − 5x − 8 = 0 =
4
5
x2 − x − 4 = 0
2 (d) 2 x 2 + 4 x = −3
2 5 5 2 5 2 2x2 + 4x + 3 = 0
x − x +( ) −( ) −4 = 0
2 4 4 Let a = 2, b = 4, c = 3.
5 2 25
(x − ) − −4=0 Using the formula,
4 16
5 89
( x − )2 − =0 −4 ± 4 2 − 4(2)(3) −4 ± −8
4 16 x= =
2( 2 ) 4
5 89 2
( x − )2 − ( ) =0 ∴ The equation has no real solution.
4 4
18 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

x2 x 8. x −2 − x −1 − 56 = 0
(e) −1 =
3 6 ( x −1 − 8)( x −1 + 7) = 0
2x2 − 6 = x x −1 = 8 or −7
2x − x − 6 = 0
2
x=
1
or −
1
Let a = 2, b = −1, c = −6. 8 7
Using the formula, 1
9. 2x − 9x 2 + 4 = 0
−( −1) ± ( −1) − 4(2)( −6)
2
1 1
x= (2 x 2 − 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0
2( 2 ) 1 1
1 ± 49 x2 = or 4
= 2
4 1
1± 7 x= or 16
= 4
4
−3
= or 2 3
2 10. 2y = 5 +
y
(f) 3 x 2 + 5 x − 1 = x ( x + 2)
2 y 2 = 5y + 3
3x 2 + 5x − 1 = x 2 + 2 x
2 y − 5y − 3 = 0
2
2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 (2 y + 1)( y − 3) = 0
Let a = 2, b = 3, c = −1. 1
y=− or 3
Using the formula, 2

−3 ± 32 − 4(2)( −1) 3 x 2 − 11x − 40


x= 11. = x−5
2( 2 ) 2x + 1
−3 ± 17 3 x 2 − 11x − 40 = 2 x 2 − 9 x − 5
=
4 x 2 − 2 x − 35 = 0
( x − 7)( x + 5) = 0
4. (3 x + 7)( x − 1) = 4( x − 1) x = 7 or −5
(3 x + 7)( x − 1) − 4( x − 1) = 0
( x − 1)(3 x + 7 − 4) = 0 8p 2 8p 2
( x − 1)(3 x + 3) = 0 12. (a) x 2 + 8 px + 1 = x 2 + 8 px + ( ) − ( ) +1
2 2
x = 1 or −1 = ( x + 4 p)2 − 16 p 2 + 1
= ( x + 4 p)2 + (1 − 16 p 2 )
5. 5(2 x + 1)2 + 12(2 x + 1) − 9 = 0
[5(2 x + 1) − 3][(2 x + 1) + 3] = 0 ∴ l = 4 p , m = 1 − 16 p 2
(10 x + 5 − 3)(2 x + 1 + 3) = 0 p p
(10 x + 2)(2 x + 4) = 0 (b) x 2 − px + 2 p = x 2 − px + ( )2 − ( )2 + 2 p
2 2
1
x=− or −2 p 2 p2
5 = (x − ) − + 2p
2 4
p p2
6. ( x 2 + 5 x )2 − 8( x 2 + 5 x ) − 84 = 0 = ( x − ) 2 + (2 p − )
2 4
( x 2 + 5 x + 6)( x 2 + 5 x − 14) = 0 p p2
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 2)( x + 7) = 9 ∴ l = − , m = 2p −
2 4
x = −3, −2, 2, −7

2 1
x 3 − 13 x 3 + 36 = 0 5
7. 13. Since is a root of 2 x 2 − 3 x − a = 0 ,
1 1 2
( x 3 − 9)( x 3 − 4) = 0 5 5
1 ∴ 2( )2 − 3( ) − a = 0
x3 = 9 or 4 2 2
x = 729 or 64 a=5
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 19

14. Since −2 is a root of 2 x 2 + 6 x + k = 0 , (b) Since −


3
is a root of (*),
2( −2) + 6( −2) + k = 0
2 4
k=4 ( − 43 )2 + 3( − 43 ) + 1
=l
Substitute k = 4 into the given equation, 2( − 43 )2 − 5( − 43 ) + 2
1
2x2 + 6x + 4 = 0 l=−
10
x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0
( x + 1)( x + 2) = 0 1
(c) Substitute l = − into the equation obtain
10
∴ x = −1 or − 2 in (a),
∴ The other root of the equation is −1 . 1
[2( − ) − 1]x 2 − [5( − ) + 3]x
1
10 10
1
15. 2 x 2 − 5 x + 3 = 2( x 2 −
5 3
x+ ) +[2( − ) − 1] = 0
2 2 10
12 25 12
5 5 5 3
= 2[ x 2 − x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ] − x2 − x− =0
2 4 4 2 10 10 10
5
= 2( x − ) 2 + 2( − )
1 12 x 2 + 25 x + 12 = 0
4 16 (3 x + 4)( 4 x + 3) = 0
5 1 4 3
= 2( x − ) 2 − x=− or −
4 8 3 4
4
∴ The other root of equation is − .
3
16. (a) Since 2 is a root of
m 2 x 2 + 2(2 m − 5) x + 8 = 0 .
m 2 (2)2 + 2(2 m − 5)(2) + 8 = 0 bñÉêÅáëÉ=N_=EéKNPF
4 m + 8m − 20 + 8 = 0
2
1. kx 2 − (3k − 5) x + 14 = 0
4 m + 8m − 12 = 0
2
Let a = k , b = −(3k − 5) , c = 14
m2 + 2m − 3 = 0
( m − 1)( m + 3) = 0 D = [ −(3k − 5)]2 − 4( k )(14)
m = 1 or −3 = 9k 2 − 30 k + 25 − 56k
(b) When m = 1, = 9k 2 − 86k + 25
x 2 + 2(2 − 5) x + 8 = 0
2. (2 k + 1) x 2 − 2 k = ( k + 4) x
x2 − 6x + 8 = 0
( x − 2)( x − 4) = 0 (2 k + 1) x 2 − ( k + 4) x − 2 k = 0
x = 2 or 4 Let a = 2 k + 1 , b = −( k + 4) , c = −2 k
∴ When m = 1, the other root = 4
D = [ −( k + 4)]2 − 4(2 k + 1)( −2 k )
When m = −3 , = k 2 + 8k + 16 + 16k 2 + 8k
9 x 2 + 2( −6 − 5) x + 8 = 0 = 17k 2 + 16k + 16
9 x 2 − 22 x + 8 = 0
(9 x − 4)( x − 2) = 0 3. x 2 − kx + 16 = 0
4 D = k 2 − 4(16) = 0
x = 2 or
9 k 2 = 64
4 k = ±8
∴ When m = −3 , the other root =
9
4. x 2 − k ( x − 1) = 0
x + 3x + 1
2
x 2 − kx + k = 0
17. (a) =l
2 x 2 − 5x + 2 ∴ D = k 2 − 4k = 0
x 2 + 3 x + 1 = 2lx 2 − 5lx + 2l
k ( k − 4) = 0
(2l − 1) x 2 − (5l + 3) x + (2l − 1) = 0 k = 0 or 4
20 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

5. kx 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 If m ≠ n , D < 0 .
D = ( −2)2 − 4 k = 0 ∴ The equation has unreal roots.

4 − 4k = 0
4k = 4 11. x 2 + 2 ax + a 2 − b 2 − c 2 = 0
k =1
D = ( 2 a ) 2 − 4( a 2 − b 2 − c 2 )
6. x 2 − kx + k + 3 = 0 = 4 a 2 − 4 a 2 + 4 b 2 + 4c 2
D = ( − k )2 − 4( k + 3) = 0 = 4( b 2 + c 2 )
k − 4 k − 12 = 0
2
If b ≠ 0 and c ≠ 0 , D > 0 .
( k − 6)( k + 2) = 0
∴ The equation has unequal real roots.
k = 6 or −2

7. x 2 − 2 ax + a 2 − b 2 − 2 bc − c 2 = 0 12. ( x − a)( x − b) = c
D = ( −2 a)2 − 4( a 2 − b 2 − 2 bc − c 2 )
x 2 − ( a + b) x + ab − c = 0
= 4 a 2 − 4 a 2 + 4b 2 + 8bc + 4c 2
= 4b 2 + 8bc + 4c 2 D = ( a + b)2 − 4( ab − c)

= 4(b 2 + 2 bc + c 2 ) = a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 − 4 ab + 4c

= 4( b + c ) 2 = a 2 − 2 ab + b 2 + 4c

= [2(b + c)]2 = ( a − b ) 2 + 4c
which is a perfect square for any integers b and c. Q ( a − b)2 ≥ 0 and c > 0
∴ Roots are rational.
∴ ( a − b ) 2 + 4c > 0
8. px 2 + 2 qx − p + 2 q = 0 ∴ The roots of the equation are real.
D = (2 q )2 − 4 p( − p + 2 q )
= 4 q 2 + 4 p 2 − 8 pq 13. x 2 − 2( a + 3) x + (11a + 3) = 0
= 4( p 2 − 2 pq + q 2 ) D = [ −2( a + 3)]2 − 4(11a + 3)
= 4( p − q ) 2
=0
= [2( p − q )]2 4( a 2 + 6 a + 9) − 4(11a + 3) = 0
which is the square of a rational number as p and 4( a 2 − 5a + 6 ) = 0
q are rational.
a 2 − 5a + 6 = 0
∴ Roots are rational. ( a − 2)( a − 3) = 0
a = 2 or 3
9. x 2 − ( a + b + c) x + a(b + c) = 0
D = ( a + b + c ) 2 − 4 a( b + c ) When a = 2 , the equation is

= ( a + a)2 − 4 a ⋅ a x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 0
= 4a − 4a2 2
( x − 5)2 = 0
=0 x=5
∴ The equation has equal roots. ∴ When a = 2 , x = 5
10. ( m + n ) x − 2( m + n) x + 2 = 0
2 2 2
When a = 3 , the equation is
D = [ −2( m + n)] − 4( m + n )(2)
2 2 2
x 2 − 12 x + 36 = 0
= 4( m + n)2 − 8( m 2 + n 2 )
( x − 6) 2 = 0
= 4( m + 2 mn + n ) − 8m − 8n
2 2 2 2
x=6
= 4 m 2 + 8mn + 4n 2 − 8m 2 − 8n 2 ∴ When a = 3 , x = 6
= −4 m 2 + 8mn − 4n 2
= −4( m 2 − 2 mn + n 2 )
= −4( m − n)2
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 21

14. x 2 + 2( a + 2) x + (5a + 24) = 0 D = 16 − 4(c − 1)(3 − c)


= 16 − 4(3c − c 2 − 3 + c)
D = [2( a + 2)]2 − 4(5a + 24) = 0
= 4[ 4 − ( − c 2 + 4c − 3)]
4( a 2 + 4 a + 4) − 4(5a + 24) = 0
= 4( 4 + c 2 − 4c + 3)
4( a − a − 20) = 0
2
Q 4(c 2 − 4c + 7)
a 2 − a − 20 = 0
( a − 5)( a + 4) = 0 = 4[(c 2 − 4c + 4) + 3]
a = 5 or −4 = 4[(c − 2)2 + 3] > 0
When a = 5 , the equation is Hence, if (*) has unequal real roots, c can be
any real numbers. But for (*) to be a quadratic
x 2 + 14 x + 49 = 0 equation, a ≠ c .
( x + 7)2 = 0 ∴ c can be any real number other than 1.
x = −7
∴ When a = 5 , x = −7
bñÉêÅáëÉ=N`=EéKNVF
When a = −4 , the equation is
x2 − 4x + 4 = 0 1. (a) x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0
−4
( x − 2)2 = 0 Sum of the roots = − =4
1
x=2 1
Product of the roots = = 1
∴ When a = −4 , x = 2 1
(b) 48 x = 22 x + 15
2

15. x 2 + ( m + n) x + ( m 2 − n 2 ) = 0 48 x 2 − 22 x − 15 = 0
D = ( m + n ) − 4( m − n ) = 0
2 2 2 22 11
Sum of the roots = =
48 24
m 2 + 2 mn + n 2 − 4( m 2 − n 2 ) = 0
15 5
−3m 2 + 2 mn + 5n 2 = 0 Product of the roots = − =−
48 16
( −3m + 5n)( m + n) = 0
5n (c) ( 4 x + 7)2 = 4 x 2
m= or − n
3 16 x 2 + 56 x + 49 − 4 x 2 = 0
12 x 2 + 56 x + 49 = 0
16. (a) (c − a) x 2 − 2( a − b) x + (b − c) = 0 56 14
Sum of the roots = − =−
D = [ −2( a − b)] − 4(c − a)(b − c)
2 12 3
= 4( a − b)2 − 4(c − a)(b − c) Product of the roots =
49
= 4[( a − b)2 − (c − a)(b − c)] 12
= 4[a 2 − 2 ab + b 2 − (bc − c 2 − ab + ac)] (d) 6 − 5 x − 25 x 2 = 0
= 4( a 2 + b 2 + c 2 − ab − bc − ac) 25 x 2 + 5 x − 6 = 0
5 1
= 2(2 a 2 + 2 b 2 + 2c 2 − 2 ab − 2 bc − 2ca) Sum of the roots = − =−
25 5
= 2( a 2 − 2 ab + b 2 + b 2 − 2 bc + c 2 + c 2
6
− 2ca + a 2 ) Product of the roots = −
25
= 2[( a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 ]
Q a, b and c are not all equal. 2. 3 x 2 − 5 x − 1 = 0
5 1
∴ 2[( a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 ] > 0 α + β = and αβ = −
3 3
∴ The equation has unequal real roots. (a) α + β = (α + β) − 2αβ
2 2 2

(b) If a = 1 , b = 3 , the equation becomes =


25 2
+
(c − 1) x 2 − 2( −2) x + (3 − c) = 0 9 3
31
(c − 1) x 2 + 4 x + (3 − c) = 0 =
9
22 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

α β α 2 + β2 (d) α 4 + β 4 = α 4 + 2α 2β 2 + β 4 − 2α 2β 2
(b) + =
β α αβ = (α 2 + β 2 )2 − 2(αβ)2
31 = [(α + β)2 − 2αβ]2 − 2(αβ)2
= 9 = [( − p)2 − 2 q]2 − 2 q 2
1
− = ( p 2 − 2 q)2 − 2 q 2
3
=−
31 = p 4 − 4 p2 q + 4q 2 − 2q 2
3 = p 4 − 4 p2 q + 2q 2
(c) (1 − α )(1 − β) = 1 − (α + β) + αβ
5 1 4. (a) Sum of the roots = 4 + ( −5) = −1
= 1− −
3 3
= −1 Product of the roots = 4( −5) = −20
One required equation is x 2 + x − 20 = 0 .
(d) αβ 2 + α 2β = αβ(α + β)
3 2 5
1 5 (b) Sum of the roots = − + =−
=− ( ) 2 3 6
3 3 3 2
5 Product of the roots = ( − )( ) = −1
=− 2 3
9
5
One required equation is x 2 + x − 1 = 0 ,
6
3. x 2 + px + q = 0 i.e. 6 x 2 + 5 x − 6 = 0 .
α + β = − p and αβ = q
(c) Sum of the roots = −1 + 5 + ( −1 − 5 )
(a) α − αβ + β = α + 2αβ + β − 3αβ
2 2 2 2 = −2
= (α + β)2 − 3αβ Product of the roots = ( −1 + 5 )( −1 − 5 )
= ( − p)2 − 3q = ( −1)2 − ( 5 )2
= −4
= p 2 − 3q
One required equation is x 2 + 2 x − 4 = 0 .
(b) α 3β + αβ3 = αβ(α 2 + β 2 ) −5 + 3 2 −5 − 3 2
(d) Sum of the roots = +
= αβ[(α + β)2 − 2αβ] 2 2
= q[( − p)2 − 2 q] −10
=
= p2 q − 2q 2 2
= −5
1 1 −5 + 3 2 −5 − 3 2
(c) + Product of the roots = ( )( )
2α + β α + 2β 2 2
α + 2β + 2α + β ( −5)2 − (3 2 )2
= =
(2α + β)(α + 2β) 4
3(α + β) 7
= =
2α + 4αβ + αβ + 2β 2
2 4
7
3(α + β) One required equation is x 2 + 5 x + = 0 ,
= 4
2(α + 2αβ + β 2 ) + αβ
2
i.e. 4 x 2 + 20 x + 7 = 0 .
3(α + β)
=
2(α + β)2 + αβ 5. x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0
3( − p) α + β = 4 , αβ = 1
=
2( − p ) 2 + q (a) Sum of the roots
−3 p
= = 2α + 1 + 2β + 1 = 2(α + β) + 2
2 p2 + q = 10
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 23

Product of the roots


7. 8 x 2 − ax + 9 = 0
= (2α + 1)(2β + 1)
Let α, 2α be the roots.
= 4αβ + 2(α + β) + 1
a
= 13 Sum of the roots = α + 2α = 3α = ............(1)
8
One required equation is x 2 − 10 x + 13 = 0 . 9
Product of the roots = α(2α ) = 2α 2 = ......(2)
3 3 α+β 8
(b) Sum of the roots = + = 3( ) = 12 3
α β αβ Solving (2), α = ± ,
3 3 1 4
Product of the roots = ( )( ) = 9( ) = 9 3
α β αβ When α = , a = 18 ,
4
One required equation is x 2 − 12 x + 9 = 0 . 3
When α = − , a = −18
(c) Sum of the roots 4
3 3
1
= α 2 + + β2 +
1 ∴ When a = 18 , the roots are , .
α β 4 2
α+β 3
When a = −18 , the roots are − , − .
3
= (α + β)2 − 2αβ +
αβ 4 2
= 18 8. 12 x 2 + mx − 5 = 0
Product of the roots m
1 1 Sum of the roots = −
= (α 2 + )(β 2 + ) 12
α β −5
Product of the roots =
α 2 β2 1 12
= α 2β 2 + + + m 5 11
β α αβ − − (− ) =
12 12 6
α 3 + β3 m 5 11
=2+ − + =
αβ 12 12 6
= 2 + (α + β)(α 2 − αβ + β 2 ) m = −17
= 2 + 4[(α + β)2 − 3αβ] The equation becomes
= 2 + 4(16 − 3)
= 54 12 x 2 − 17 x − 5 = 0
One required equation is x 2 − 18 x + 54 = 0 . ( 4 x + 1)(3 x − 5) = 0
1 or 5
(d) Sum of the roots x=−
4 3
= α −β+β−α = 0
Product of the roots 9. kx 2 + 4 x + k 2 − 21 = 0
k 2 − 21
= (α − β)(β − α ) Product of the roots =
k
= αβ − α 2 − β 2 + αβ =4
= −(α 2 − 2αβ + β 2 ) k 2 − 4 k − 21 = 0
( k − 7)( k + 3) = 0
= −[(α + β)2 − 4αβ]
k = 7 or −3
= −12
One required equation is x 2 − 12 = 0 . 10. ( kx − 1)2 = k
6. Let the other root be α. k 2 x 2 − 2 kx + 1 − k = 0
1− k −3
Sum of the roots = 2 − 5 + α = 4 Product of the roots = =
k2 16
α =2+ 5 16 − 16k = −3k 2
∴ The other root of the equation is 2 + 5 . 3k 2 − 16k + 16 = 0
(3k − 4)( k − 4) = 0
Product of the roots = l = (2 − 5 )(2 + 5 )
4
= (2) 2 − ( 5 ) 2 k= or 4
3
= −1
24 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

Product of the roots


11. (a) x 2 + a(3a − 5) x = 2( x + 4 a)
1 1 1
x 2 + a(3a − 5) x − 2( x + 4 a) = 0 =( )( )= .....................(4)
2α + 1 2β + 1 35
x 2 + a(3a − 5) x − 2 x − 8a = 0
1 1 1
x 2 + [a(3a − 5) − 2]x − 8a = 0...........(*) By (4), ( )( )=
2α + 1 2β + 1 35
Let α, −α be the roots of (*). 1 1
Sum of the roots =
(2α + 1)(2β + 1) 35
= −[a(3a − 5) − 2] = α − α = 0 1 1
=
3a 2 − 5a − 2 = 0 4αβ + 2(α + β) + 1 35
( a − 2)(3a + 1) = 0 1 1
1 By (1) and (2), =
a = 2 or − 4 k + 2(5) + 1 35
3 1 1
=
(b) If a > 0 , by (a), a = 2 . 4 k + 11 35
4 k + 11 = 35
The equation becomes
k=6
x 2 + 2 x = 2( x + 8)
1 1 n
x 2 + 2 x = 2 x + 16 By (3), + =−
2α + 1 2β + 1 35
x 2 = 16 2β + 1 + 2α + 1 n
x = ±4 =−
(2α + 1)(2β + 1) 35
2(α + β ) + 2 n
12. α and β are the roots of x 2 + px − 5 = 0 , =−
(2α + 1)(2β + 1) 35
Sum of the roots = α + β = − p .............(1)
2(5) + 2 n
Product of the roots = αβ = −5 ............(2)
By (1) and (4), =−
35 35
n = −12
α 2 and β 2 are the roots of x 2 − 19 x + q = 0 ,
Sum of the roots = α 2 + β 2 = 19 ..........(3) 14. Let α and α + 1 be the roots of x 2 − px + q = 0 .
Product of the roots = α 2β 2 = q ..........(4) Sum of the roots = α + α + 1 = 2α + 1 = p .....(1)
By (3), α 2 + β 2 = 19 Product of the roots = α(α + 1) = q ..............(2)
1
(α + β)2 − 2αβ = 19 By (1), α = ( p − 1)
2
By (1) and (2), 1
Put α = ( p − 1) into (2),
( − p)2 − 2( −5) = 19 2
p 2 + 10 = 19 1 1
( p − 1)[ ( p − 1) + 1] = q
2 2
p2 = 9 1 1
p = ±3 ( p − 1) ( p + 1) = q
2 2
By (2) and (4),
p 2 − 1 = 4q
( −5)2 = q
p2 − 4q − 1 = 0
q = 25
15. Let α and α − 2 be the roots of x 2 + px + q = 0 .
13. α and β are roots of x 2 − 5 x + k = 0 ,
Sum of the roots
Sum of the roots = α + β = 5 .............(1)
= α + α − 2 = 2α − 2 = − p .................(1)
Product of the roots = αβ = k ...........(2) Product of the roots
1
and
1
are roots of 35 x 2 + nx + 1 = 0 , = α(α − 2) = q ..................................(2)
2α + 1 2β + 1 1
By (1), α = (2 − p)
Sum of the roots 2
1 1 n 1
= + =− ...................(3) Put α = (2 − p) into (2),
2α + 1 2β + 1 35 2
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 25

1 p
(2 − p)(1 − − 2) = q 18. (a) Given α and β are roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .
2 2 b
1 p Sum of the roots = α + β = −
(2 − p)( − − 1) = q a
2 2 c
1 1 Product of the roots = αβ =
[ −( p − 2)][− ( p + 2)] = q a
2 2
1 ∴ α 2 + β 2 = (α + β)2 − 2αβ
( p − 2)( p + 2) = q
4 b 2 2c
= −
p 2 − 4 = 4q a2 a
p 2 = 4 + 4q 1 2
= 2 (b − 2 ac)
a
16. Let α and β be the roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . c2
α 2β 2 = 2
b a
Sum of the roots = α + β = − ....................(1) A quadratic equation with roots α 2 and β 2 is
a
c 1 c2
Product of the roots = αβ = ....................(2) x 2 − 2 (b 2 − 2 ac) x + 2 = 0
a a a
α m m a 2 x 2 − (b 2 − 2 ac) x + c 2 = 0
Q = , ∴ α = β ..............................(3)
β n n (b) α and β are roots of 2 x 2 − 4 x − 1 = 0 .
m b By (a), take a = 2 , b = −4 , c = −1 .
Put (3) into (1), β+β = −
n a A quadratic equation with roots α 2 and β 2 is
m+n b
( )β = − 4 x 2 − [16 − 2(2)( −1)]x + ( −1)2 = 0
n a
β=−
bn 4 x 2 − 20 x + 1 = 0
a( m + n ) By (a), take a = 4 , b = −20 , c = 1.
m c A quadratic equation with roots α 4 and β 4 is
Put (3) into (2), ( β)β =
n a
cn 16 x 2 − [20 2 − 2( 4)(1)]x + 1 = 0
β2 = 16 x 2 − 392 x + 1 = 0
am
b2n2 cn
= 19. (a) α and β are the roots of 2 x 2 + ax + b = 0 .
a ( m + n)2 am
2
a
ab 2 mn 2 = a 2 cn( m + n)2 Sum of the roots = α + β = −
2
a 2 cn( m + n)2
mnb 2 = b
an Product of the roots = αβ =
2
= ( m + n)2 ac
(b) (α − 1) and (β − 1) are the roots of
17. Let α and β be the roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . 2 x 2 + mx + n = 0 .
Sum of the roots
b
Sum of the roots = α + β = − ....................(1) m
a = (α − 1) + (β − 1) = − ...............(1)
2
c Product of the roots
Product of the roots = αβ = ....................(2)
a n
= (α − 1)(β − 1) = ......................(2)
α 2 + β 2 = 4 .................................................(3) 2
m
By (3), α 2 + 2αβ + β 2 − 2αβ = 4 By (1), α + β − 2 = −
2
(α + β)2 − 2αβ = 4 a m
By (a), − − 2 = −
b2 c 2 2
− 2( ) = 4 a m
a 2 a +2=
2 2
b 2 − 2 ac = 4 a 2 m=a+4
b 2 = 2 ac + 4 a 2
26 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

n f
By (2), (α − 1)(β − 1) = By (2), (α − 2)(β − 2) =
2 2
n f
αβ − (α + β) + 1 = αβ − 2(α + β) + 4 =
2 2
b a n 1 3 f
By (a), − ( − ) + 1 = − − 2( ) + 4 =
2 2 2 2 2 2
b+a+2=n f =1
n=a+b+2
(c) (i) α and β are the roots of 4 x 2 + 3 x − 5 = 0 .
bñÉêÅáëÉ=Na=EéKOUF
3
Sum of the roots = α + β = − 1. (a) 4 x 2 − 8x + 7
4
7
Product of the roots = αβ = −
5 = 4( x 2 − 2 x + )
4 4
2 2 7
(α − 1) and (β − 1) are the roots of = 4[ x − 2 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ]
2
2 2 4
4 x 2 + cx + d = 0 . = 4( x − 1)2 + 3
c ∴ a = −1 , b = 3
(α − 1) + (β − 1) = −
4 (b) For all real values of x,
c
(α + β ) − 2 = − ( x − 1)2 ≥ 0
4
3
− −2= −
c 4( x − 1)2 ≥ 0
4 4 4( x − 1)2 + 3 ≥ 0 + 3
∴ c = 11
4 x 2 − 8x + 7 ≥ 3
d
(α − 1)(β − 1) = ∴ The minimum value of 4 x 2 − 8 x + 7 is 3 .
4
d
αβ − (α + β) + 1 = 2. (a) 3 x 2 − 12 x + 14
4
5 3 d 14
− − (− ) + 1 = = 3( x 2 − 4 x + )
4 4 4 3
d=2 4 4 14
= 3[ x − 4 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ]
2
2 2 3
(ii) α and β are the roots of 2 x 2 − 3 x − 1 = 0 .
= 3( x − 2)2 + 2
3
Sum of the roots = α + β = ∴ p = −2 , q = 2
2
(b) For all real values of x,
1
Product of the roots = αβ = −
2 ( x − 2)2 ≥ 0
(α − 2) and (β − 2) are the roots of 3( x − 2)2 ≥ 0
2 x 2 + ex + f = 0 . 3( x − 2)2 + 2 ≥ 0 + 2
3 x 2 − 12 x + 14 ≥ 2
Sum of the roots = (α − 2) + (β − 2)
1 1
e ≤
= − ...................(1) 3 x 2 − 12 x + 14 2
2 8 8
Product of the roots = (α − 2)(β − 2) ≤
f 3 x − 12 x + 14
2 2
= ................(2) 8
2 ≤4
3 x − 12 x + 14
2
e
By (1), α + β − 4 = − 8
2 ∴ The maximum value of
3 e 3 x 2 − 12 x + 14
−4=− is 4 .
2 2
e=5
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 27

3. (a) 3 x 2 − 6 x + 10 (b + 1)
Product of the roots = αβ = −
10 2
= 3( x 2 − 2 x + ) b−a
3 Consider x 2 + x − (b − 1) = 0 .......... (∗2 )
2 2 10 2
= 3[ x − 2 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ]
2
2 2 3 Since (∗1 ) and (∗2 ) cut the same points on the
= 3( x − 1) + 7
2 points on the x-axis, α and β are also the roots of
(∗2 ) .
(b) For all real values of x,
b−a
( x − 1)2 ≥ 0 Sum of the roots = α + β = −( )
2
3( x − 1)2 ≥ 0 Product of the roots = αβ = −(b − 1)
3( x − 1)2 + 7 ≥ 7 (b + 1)
− = −(b − 1)
1 1 2
≤ b + 1 = 2b − 2
3( x − 1) + 7 7
2

5 5 b=3
≤ b−a
3 x − 6 x + 10 7
2
− a = −( )
5 5 2
− 2 ≥− 2a = b − a
3 x − 6 x + 10 7
3a = b = 3
5 5
1− 2 ≥1− a =1
3 x − 6 x + 10 7
2
= 7. (a) f ( x ) = − x 2 + qx + r = −( x 2 − qx − r )
7
∴ The given expression is always greater q q
= −[ x 2 − qx + ( )2 − ( )2 − r ]
2 2 2
than or equal to . q q2
7 = −( x − ) 2 + ( + r)
2 4
2 7
4. −3 x 2 + 2 x − 7 = −3( x 2 − x+ ) (b) The maximum value of f ( x ) occurs when
3 3 x = 3.
2 2 2 7 q
= −3[ x 2 − x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ] ∴ 3− = 0
3 6 6 3 2
1
= −3( x − )2 −
20 q=6
3 3 (c) f ( x ) ≤ 0
For all real values of x,
1 q q2
( x − )2 ≥ 0 −( x − ) 2 + ( + r) ≤ 0
3 2 4
1 2 q2
−3( x − ) ≤ 0 Form (b), +r =0
3 4
1 2 20 −20
−3( x − ) − ≤ 62
3 3 3 +r =0
20 4
−3 x + 2 x − 7 ≤ −
2
r = −9
3
∴ −3 x 2 + 2 x − 7 is always negative for all real 8. (a) y-intercept = k
values of x.
x-intercept = 1, 3
5. The graph of y = ax 2 − 8 x − 4 lies below the k
f ( x ) = ( x − 1)( x − 3)
x-axis for all values of x, i.e. a < 0 and D < 0 . 3
D = ( −8)2 − 4 a( −4 ) < 0 k
64 + 16 a < 0 (b) f ( x ) = ( x − 1)( x − 3)
3
a < −4 k
= ( x 2 − 4 x + 3)
3
6. Consider 2 x 2 + 2 ax − (b + 1) = 0 .............. (∗1 ) k 2 4 4
= [ x − 4 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + 3]
Let α and β be the roots of (∗1 ) . 3 2 2
2a k k
Sum of the roots = α + β = − = −a = ( x − 2)2 −
2 3 3
28 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

For all real values of x, α 2 + β2 = 9


If
( x − 2)2 ≥0 (α + β)2 − 2αβ = 9
k 4a + 1
( x − 2)2 ≥0 ( −4)2 − 2( )=9
3 a
k k k 8a + 2
( x − 2)2 − ≥0− 16 − =9
3 3 3 a
k −a − 2 = 0
∴ f ( x) ≥ −
3 a = −2
k
∴ The least value of f ( x ) is − . y
3 (c)
(c) If f ( x ) ≥ −2 , y = −2(x + 2)2 + 1 1
k
from (b), − = −2 x
3 −4 − 2 −2 −1 O
k=6 −4 + 2
2
k 2
f ( x ) = ( x − 1)( x − 3)
3 −2
6
= ( x − 1)( x − 3)
3
= 2( x − 1)( x − 3) −4
= 2 x − 8x + 6
2

−6
 y = x + m........................(1)
9. (a) 
 y = x + 4 x − 3m...........(2)
2

P( x1, y1 ) a n d Q( x2 , y2 ) a r e p o i n t s o f
intersection,
By (1) and (2), x + m = x 2 + 4 x − 3m
bñÉêÅáëÉ=Nb=EéKPQF
x 2 + 3x − 4m = 0
(b) If P and Q coincide, x 2 + 3 x − 4 m = 0 has 1. − 2 + 7 − 9 − 15 − − 3
two equal real roots, i.e. D = 0 . = 5 − −6 − −3
32 − 4( −4 m) = 0 = 5−6−3
9 = −4
m=−
16
2. 4 − 9 + 7 − 16 − 12 − 5
10. (a) Consider y = a( x + 2) + 1 . 2
= −5 + −9 − 7
y = a( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 1 = 5+9−7
y = ax 2 + 4 ax + 4 a + 1 =7
D = ( 4 a)2 − 4( a)( 4 a + 1)
= 16 a 2 − 16 a 2 − 4 a 3. f ( x ) = 2 x − 5 + x
= −4 a f ( 0 ) = 2( 0 ) − 5 + 0 = − 5 = 5
If a < 0 , D > 0
f (1) = 2(1) − 5 + 1 = − 3 + 1 = 3 + 1 = 4
∴ The graph of y = a( x + 2)2 + 1 cuts the
x-axis at two distinct points if a < 0 . f ( −3) = 2( −3) − 5 + − 3
(b) From (a), = − 11 + − 3
y = ax 2 + 4 ax + 4 a + 1......(∗) = 11 + 3
= 14
α and β are roots of ax 2 + 4 ax + 4 a + 1 = 0 .
4a
Sum of the roots = α + β = − = −4 x
a 4. g( x ) =
4a + 1 x
Product of the roots = αβ = −6 −6
a g( −6) = = = −1
−6 6
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 29

−3 −3 12. x 2 − 5 x + 5 = 1
g( −3) = = = −1
−3 3
x 2 − 5x + 5 = 1 or x 2 − 5 x + 5 = −1
7 7
g(7) = = =1 x 2 − 5x + 4 = 0 or x 2 − 5x + 6 = 0
7 7
( x − 1)( x − 4) = 0 or ( x − 2)( x − 3) = 0
5. 3 x + 7 = 5 x = 1, 4 or x = 2, 3
3x + 7 = 5 ∴ x = 1, 2, 3, 4
or 3 x + 7 = −5
2
x=− or x = −4
3 13. x 2 − x − 4 = 2
x2 − x − 4 = 2 or x 2 − x − 4 = −2
6. − 3 x = −6
x2 − x − 6 = 0 or x2 − x − 2 = 0
Since any absolute value should be non-negative, ( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 or ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0
∴ The equation has no solution. x = 3, − 2 or x = 2, − 1
∴ x = −1, − 2, 2, 3
7. x + 1 = 3x − 2
x + 1 = 3 x − 2 or x + 1 = −(3 x − 2)
14. (2 x − 1)2 + 2 x − 1 − 12 = 0
3 = 2x or x + 1 = −3 x + 2
2
3 2 x − 1 + 2 x − 1 − 12 = 0
x= or 4x = 1
2 ( 2 x − 1 − 3)( 2 x − 1 + 4) = 0
3 1
x= or x= 2x − 1 = 3 or 2 x − 1 = −4 (rejected)
2 4
2x − 1 = 3 or 2 x − 1 = −3
x=2 or x = −1
8. x + 1 = 3 x − 2
x + 1 = 3x − 2 or x + 1 = −3 x + 2
3 15. 2( x + 3)2 − 3 x + 3 − 14 = 0
1
x= or x= 2
2 4 2 x + 3 − 3 x + 3 − 14 = 0
But 3 x − 2 should be non-negative, (2 x + 3 − 7)( x + 3 + 2) = 0
1 1 2 x + 3 = 7 or
Q 3( ) − 2 < 0 , ∴ x = is not a solution. x + 3 = −2 (rejected)
4 4 2( x + 3) = 7 or 2( x + 3) = −7
3 3
Q 3( ) − 3 > 0 , ∴ x = 1 13
2 2 x= or x=−
2 2
2x − 1
9. =9 16 − 17. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
5 questions because of the copyright reasons.
2 x − 1 = 45
2 x − 1 = 45 or 2 x − 1 = −45
2 x = 46 or 2 x = −44 18. y
x = 23 or x = −22 y = x −1
2
6−x 1
10. = 1
3+ x 2
6−x 1 6−x 1 x
= or =− O 1 3
3+ x 2 3+ x 2
12 − 2 x = 3 + x or 12 − 2 x = −3 − x
9 = 3x or 15 = x
y
x=3 or x = 15 19.

11. 3 x + 4 = 4 x − 6 1 y = − x +1
3( x + 4) = 4 x − 6 or 3( x + 4) = −4 x + 6 x
3 x + 12 = 4 x − 6 or 3 x + 12 = −4 x + 6 −2 −1 O 1 2 3
−1
6
x = 18 or x=−
7
For the same reason as question 8, x = 18 .
30 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

20. y 4
Product of the roots = αβ = − = −2
2
6 (a) α 2β + αβ 2 = αβ(α + β)
5
= −2( )
5 2
= −5
4
(b) (α − 3β)(3α − β) = 3α 2 − αβ − 9αβ + 3β 2
2
y= x +x −6
3 = 3(α 2 + β 2 ) − 10αβ
= 3[(α + β)2 − 2αβ] − 10αβ
2 5
= 3[( )2 − 2( −2)] − 10( −2)
2
1
3
= 50
x 4
−3 −2 −1 O 1 2 3
6. α and β are roots of x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 .
Sum of the roots = α + β = 2
oÉîáëáçå=bñÉêÅáëÉ=N=EéKPSF Product of the roots = αβ = −1
(a) α + 2β + β + 2α = 3α + 3β
1. 2(3 x 2 + 5) = 19 x
= 3(α + β)
6 x − 19 x + 10 = 0
2
= 3(2)
(3 x − 2)(2 x − 5) = 0 =6
2 5 (α + 2β)(β + 2α ) = 2α 2 + 5αβ + 2β 2
x= or
3 2 = 2(α 2 + β 2 ) + 5αβ
2. 4( x − 1)2 + 5( x − 1) − 6 = 0 = 2[(α + β)2 − 2αβ] + 5αβ
[ 4( x − 1) − 3][( x − 1) + 2] = 0 = 2[(2)2 − 2( −1)] + 5( −1)
( 4 x − 7)( x + 1) = 0 =7
7
or −1 One required equation is x 2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 .
x=
4 (b) α 2β + αβ 2 = αβ(α + β)
= −1(2)
3. The equation x 2 − 2 kx + 36 = 0 has equal roots. = −2
D = ( −2 k )2 − 4(1)(36) = 0 (α 2β)(αβ 2 ) = α 3β3
4 k 2 − 144 = 0 = (αβ)3
k 2 = 36 = ( −1)3
k = ±6 = −1
One required equation is x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 .
4. The equation (6k + 1) x 2 − 2(2 k − 3) x + 1 = 0 has
equal roots. 7. y = 3 x 2 + 12 x + 7 + k ( x 2 − 1)
D = [ −2(2 k − 3)]2 − 4(6k + 1) = 0 = 3 x 2 + 12 x + 7 + kx 2 − k
4( 4 k 2 − 12 k + 9) − 4(6k + 1) = 0 = (3 + k ) x 2 + 12 x + 7 − k
4 k − 12 k + 9 − 6k − 1 = 0
2
D = 12 2 − 4(7 − k )(3 + k )
4 k 2 − 18k + 8 = 0 = 144 − 4(21 + 4 k − k 2 )
2 k 2 − 9k + 4 = 0 = 144 − 84 − 16k + 4 k 2
(2 k − 1)( k − 4) = 0 = 4 k 2 − 16k + 60
1
k= or 4 = 4( k 2 − 4 k + 15)
2 4 4
= 4[k 2 − 4 k + ( )2 − ( )2 + 15]
5. α and β are roots of 2 x 2 − 5 x − 4 = 0 . 2 2
5 = 4( k − 2)2 + 44
Sum of the roots = α + β =
2
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 31

Q ( k − 2)2 ≥ 0 , ∴ D > 0 (b) When k = −5 ,


the equation becomes
∴ The graph of y = 3 x 2 + 12 x + 7 + k ( x 2 − 1)
cuts the x-axis for any value of k. x 2 + [( −5)2 + 14( −5) + 45]x + 2( −5) − 5 = 0
x 2 − 15 = 0
8. α and β are roots of 2 x − 3 x − 5 = 0 .
2
x = ± 15
3
Sum of the roots = α + β = When k = −9 ,
2 the equation becomes
5
Product of the roots = αβ = − x 2 + [( −9)2 + 14( −9) + 45]x + 2( −9) − 5 = 0
2
x 2 − 23 = 0
α + 2 and β + 2 are roots of 2 x 2 + px + q = 0 .
p x = ± 23
Sum of the roots = (α + 2) + (β + 2) = − .......(1)
2
q 11. (a) x 2 − ( k + 3) x + ( k 2 − 3k + 6) = 0
Product of the roots = (α + 2)(β + 2) = ........(2)
2 D = [ −( k + 3)]2 − 4( k 2 − 3k + 6) = 0
p
By (1), α + β + 4 = − k 2 + 6k + 9 − 4 k 2 + 12 k − 24 = 0
2
3 p −3k 2 + 18k − 15 = 0
+4=−
2 2 k 2 − 6k + 5 = 0
p = −11 ( k − 5)( k − 1) = 0
q k = 1 or 5
By (2), (α + 2)(β + 2) =
2 (b) 2 kx 2 + 4( 4 k − 5) x + (2 k + 5) = 0
q
αβ + 2(α + β) + 4 = D = [ 4( 4 k − 5)]2 − 4(2 k )(2 k + 5) = 0
2
5 3 q 16(16k 2 − 40 k + 25) − (16k 2 + 40 k ) = 0
− + 2( ) + 4 =
2 2 2 256k 2 − 640 k + 400 − 16k 2 − 40 k = 0
q=9 240 k 2 − 680 k + 400 = 0
6k 2 − 17k + 10 = 0
9. (a) α 3 + β3 = (α + β)(α 2 − αβ + β 2 ) = 335
(6k − 5)( k − 2) = 0
5(α 2 − αβ + β 2 ) = 335 5
k = or 2
α 2 + β 2 − αβ = 67......(∗) 6
(α + β)2 − 2αβ − αβ = 67
12 − 16. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
52 − 3αβ = 67 questions because of the copyright reasons.
αβ = −14
By (∗) , α 2 + β 2 = 67 + αβ 17. α and β are roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .
= 67 − 14 Sum of the roots = α + β = −
b
= 53 a
c
(b) α 2 and β 2 are roots of equation Product of the roots = αβ =
a
Sum of the roots = α 2 + β 2 = 53
(a) α 3 + β3 = (α + β)(α 2 − αβ + β 2 )
Product of the roots = α 2β 2 = (αβ)2
= (α + β)[(α + β)2 − 2αβ − αβ]
= ( −14)2
= 196 = (α + β)[(α + β)2 − 3αβ]
One required equation is x 2 − 53 x + 196 = 0 . b −b c
= − [( )2 − 3( )]
a a a
10. (a) Let α, −α be the roots of b b 2 − 3ac
=− ( )
x 2 + ( k 2 + 14 k + 45) x + 2 k − 5 = 0 . a a2
Sum of the roots = α + ( −α ) − b(b 2 − 3ac)
=0 =
a3
= −( k 2 + 14 k + 45)
k + 14 k + 45 = 0
2 c3
α 3β3 = (αβ)3 =
( k + 5)( k + 9) = 0 a3
k = −5 or −9
32 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

A quadratic equation with roots α 3 and β3 is If x = β , f [ f (β)] − β = f (β) − β


b(b 2 − 3ac) c3 =β−β
x2 + 3
x + 3 = 0, =0
a a ∴ α, β are also the roots of f [ f ( x )] − x = 0 .
i.e. a x + b(b − 3ac) x + c 3 = 0
3 2 2
(b) For f ( x ) = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ,
(b) By (a), take a = 1 , b = −3 , c = −2 .
One required equation is We set f ( x ) − x = 0 ,
(1) x 2 + ( −3)[( −3)2 − 3(1)( −2)]x + ( −2)3 = 0 , i.e. x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0
i.e. x 2 − 45 x − 8 = 0 −( −4) ± ( −4)2 − 4(2)
x=
2
18. α and β are roots of x 2 + ax + b = 0 . 4± 8
=
Sum of the roots = α + β = − a 2
Product of the roots = αβ = b =2± 2
(a) (i) α 3 + β3 = (α + β)(α 2 − αβ + β 2 ) By (a), f [ f ( x )] − x = 0 has roots 2 ± 2 .
= (α + β)[(α + β)2 − 2αβ − αβ] f [ f ( x )] − x = 0
= − a[( − a)2 − 3b] ( x 2 − 3 x + 2)2 − 3( x 2 − 3 x + 2) + 2 − x = 0
= − a( a 2 − 3b) x 4 − 6 x 3 + 13 x 2 − 12 x + 4 − 3 x 2 + 9 x
− 6+2−x =0
(ii) (α − β 2 + 1)(β − α 2 + 1) x 4 − 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 4 x = 0
= αβ − α + α − β + α β − β
3 3 2 2 2
x ( x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 4) = 0
+ β − α2 + 1 x ( x − 2)( x 2 − 4 x + 2) = 0
= αβ − (α 3 + β3 ) + (α + β) ∴ x = 0, 2 or 2 ± 2
− (α 2 + β 2 ) + (αβ)2 + 1
= αβ − (α 3 + β3 ) + (α + β) 20. (a) Let α be the common root of the two equations
− [(α + β) − 2αβ] + (αβ) + 1 3α 2 + aα + b = 0 ..........(1)
2 2
 2
= b + a( a 2 − 3b) − a − ( a 2 − 2 b) + b 2 + 1 3α + bα + a = 0 .........(2)
= b + a 3 − 3ab − a − a 2 + 2 b + b 2 + 1 (1) − (2), ( a − b)α = a − b
= b 2 + 3b − 3ab + a 3 − a 2 − a + 1 α = 1 (Q a ≠ b)
= b 2 − 3( a − 1)b + a 3 + 1 − ( a 2 + a) (b) As α = 1, 3 + a + b = 0
= b − 3( a − 1)b + ( a + 1)( a − a + 1)
2 2 a + b = −3
− a( a + 1) a and b are roots of x 2 + hx + k = 0
= b 2 − 3( a − 1)b + ( a + 1)( a 2 − 2 a + 1) Sum of the roots = a + b = − h
−3 = − h
= b 2 − 3( a − 1)b + ( a − 1)2 ( a + 1)
h =3
(b) If one root of the equation plus 1 is equal to Product of the roots = ab = k
the square of the other, i.e. α + 1 = β 2 or Since h, k are positive integers and a + b = −3 ,
β + 1 = α 2 , then k = ab = ( −1)( −2) = 2 is the only solution.
(α + 1 − β 2 )(β + 1 − α 2 ) = 0 . ∴ k=2
From (a)(ii),
21. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
b 2 − 3( a − 1)b + ( a − 1)2 ( a + 1) = 0 question because of the copyright reasons.

19. f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c båêáÅÜãÉåí=N=EéKPUF
(a) α and β are roots of f ( x ) − x = 0 .
∴ f (α ) − α = 0 f (α ) = α 1. (a) x 2 − 6 acx + a 2 (9c 2 − 4b 2 ) = 0
f (β) − β = 0 f (β) = β x 2 − 6 acx + [a(3c + 2 b) ⋅ a(3c − 2 b)] = 0
For the equation, f [ f ( x )] − x = 0 [ x − a(3c + 2 b)][ x − a(3c − 2 b)] = 0
If x = α , f [ f (α )] − α = f (α ) − α x = a(3c ± 2 b)
=α−α
=0
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 33

(b) (1 − l 2 ) x 2 − 2 mx + m 2 = 0 Since kf ( x ) = g( x ) has equal roots,


(1 + l )(1 − l ) x − 2 mx + m = 0
2 2 D = [ −(6k + 3)]2 − 4 k[ −(3 + 3k )] = 0
[(1 + l ) x − m][(1 − l ) x − m] = 0 36k 2 + 36k + 9 + 12 k + 12 k 2 = 0
m m 48k 2 + 48k + 9 = 0
x= or
1+ l 1− l
16k 2 + 16k + 3 = 0
4 2 ( 4 k + 3)( 4 k + 1) = 0
2. x 3 − 5x 3 + 4 = 0
3 1
2 2
( x 3 − 4)( x 3 − 1) = 0 k =− or −
2 4 4
x3 =1
2
x3 = 4 or
x = ±8 or x = ±1 7. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 and px 2 + qx + r = 0 have one
root in common.
3. 22 x +2 = 9 ⋅ 2 x − 2 Let the common root be α.
aα 2 + bα + c = 0 .......(1)
22 x ⋅ 22 = 9 ⋅ 2 x − 2  2
4⋅2 2x
− 9 ⋅ 2x + 2 = 0  pα + qα + r = 0 ......(2)
(2 x − 2)( 4 ⋅ 2 x − 1) = 0 (1) × p − (2) × a,
1 bpα + cp − aqα − ar = 0
2 x = 2 or 2 x = α(bp − aq ) = ar − cp
4
x = 1 or x = −2 ar − cp
α=
bp − aq
4. x + 9 + 11 = x (1) × q − (2) × b,
x + 9 = x − 11 aqα 2 + cq − bpα 2 − br = 0
x + 9 = x 2 − 22 x + 121 α 2 ( aq − bp) = br − cq
x 2 − 23 x + 112 = 0 br − cq
α2 =
( x − 16)( x − 7) = 0 aq − bp
x = 16 or 7 ∴ ar − cp 2 br − cq
( ) =
Check: When x = 16 , bp − aq aq − bp
L.H.S. = 16 + 9 + 11 ( ar − cp) 2
= br − cq
= 16 aq − bp
= R.H.S. (br − cq )( aq − bp) = ( ar − cp)2
When x = 7 ,
L.H.S. = 7 + 9 + 11 8. y
= 15 y= x ⋅ x
≠ R.H.S. 8
∴ x = 16
6

5. (1 − x ) + (1 − x ) − 6 = 0
2
4
[(1 − x ) − 2][(1 − x ) + 3] = 0
1− x = 2 or 1 − x = −3 2

x = −1 (rejected) or x =4
x
∴ x = 16 −3 −2 −1 O 1 2 3
−2
3(1 + k )
6. f ( x ) = x − 6 x −
2
, g( x ) = 3 x
k −4
kf ( x ) = g( x )
−6
kx 2 − 6kx − 3(1 + k ) = 3 x
kx 2 − 6kx − 3 − 3k − 3 x = 0 −8
kx 2 − (6k + 3) x − (3 + 3k ) = 0
34 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

`ä~ëëïçêâ=N=EéKPF 4 13 2
( x − )2 − ( ) =0
1. 3 x − 14 x + 8 = 0
2 3 3
( x − 4)(3 x − 2) = 0 4
(x − +
13 4
)( x − −
13
)=0
2
x = 4 or 3 3 3 3
3 4 ± 13
x=
2. 6 x 2 − 13 x − 5 = 0 3
(2 x − 5)(3 x + 1) = 0
5 1 4. x2 + 2x − m = 0
x= or − 2 2
2 3 x 2 + 2 x + ( )2 − ( )2 − m = 0
2 2
3. ( y − 3)2 − 10( y − 3) − 56 = 0 ( x + 1)2 − (1 + m) = 0
[( y − 3) + 4][( y − 3) − 14] = 0 ( x + 1)2 − ( 1 + m )2 = 0
y − 3 = −4 or y − 3 = 14 ( x + 1 − 1 + m )( x + 1 + 1 + m ) = 0
y = −1 or y = 17
x = −1 ± 1 + m
1 1
4. y 2 − 3y 4 + 2 = 0 4n 2 4n
1 1 5. x 2 − 4n + 1 = x 2 − 4n + ( ) − ( )2 + 1
( y − 2)( y − 1) = 0
4 4 2 2
1 1
y 4 = 2 or y 4 = 1 = ( x − 2 n) 2 − 4 n 2 + 1
y = 16 or y = 1 = ( x − 2 n) 2 + 1 − 4 n 2

∴ a = −2 n , b = 1 − 4n 2
`ä~ëëïçêâ=O=EéKSF
1. x2 + 4x + 2 = 0 `ä~ëëïçêâ=P=EéKUF
4 4
x 2 + 4 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + 2 = 0 1. Let a = 2 , b = −7 , c = 4 .
2 2
( x + 2)2 − 2 = 0 Using the formula,
( x + 2)2 − ( 2 )2 = 0
−( −7) ± ( −7)2 − 4(2)( 4) 7 ± 17
( x + 2 − 2 )( x + 2 + 2 ) = 0 x= =
2( 2 ) 4
x = −2 ± 2
2. 9 + 3x − 4 x 2 = 0
2. x 2 − 3x + 1 = 0
3 3 −4 x 2 + 3 x + 9 = 0
x 2 − 3 x + ( )2 − ( )2 + 1 = 0 Let a = −4 , b = 3 , c = 9 .
2 2
3 2 5 Using the formula,
(x − ) − = 0
2 4
−3 ± 32 − 4( −4)(9) −3 ± 153 3 ± 3 17
3 2 5 2 x= = =
(x − ) − ( ) = 0 2( −4) −8 8
2 2
3 5 3 5
(x − + )( x − − )=0 3. 5 x + 12 = 3 x 2
2 2 2 2
3± 5 3 x 2 − 5 x − 12 = 0
x=
2 Let a = 3 , b = −5 , c = −12 .
Using the formula,
3. 3x 2 − 8 x + 1 = 0 −( −5) ± ( −5)2 − 4(3)( −12)
8 1 x=
x2 − x + = 0 2(3)
3 3
5 ± 169
2 8 8 2 8 2 1
x − x +( ) −( ) + = 0 x=
3 6 6 3 6
4
4 2 13
(x − ) − =0 x = 3 or x = −
3 9 3
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 35

4. Let a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 5 . `ä~ëëïçêâ=R=EéKNNF
Using the formula, 1. 2 x 2 − x − 21 = 0
−4 ± 4 − 4(3)(5) −4 ± −44
2 D = ( −1)2 − 4(2)( −21)
x= = = 169
2(3) 6
The equation has no real solution. = 132
Q D > 0 and D is a perfect square.
∴ The equation has two rational roots.
5. Since 4 is a root of 3 x 2 + ax + 8 = 0 .
∴ 3( 4)2 + a( 4) + 8 = 0 2. 9 − 5 x + x 2 = 0
4 a = −56 x 2 − 5x + 9 = 0
a = −14 D = ( −5)2 − 4(1)(9)
Substitute a = −14 into the given equation, = −11
Q D<0
3 x 2 − 14 x + 8 = 0
∴ The equation has unreal roots.
( x − 4)(3 x − 2) = 0
∴ 2
x = 4 or 3. x 2 − 2 x = 5
3 2
∴ The other root of the equation is . x2 − 2x − 5 = 0
3
D = ( −2)2 − 4( −5)
= 24
`ä~ëëïçêâ=Q=EéKVF Q D > 0 and D is not a perfect square.
∴ The equation has two real roots.
5x 2 + 9 x − 2 = 0
4. 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49 = 0
D = 9 2 − 4(5)( −2)
= 121 D = ( −28)2 − 4( 4)( 49)
=0
= 112 Q D=0
D is a perfect square. ∴ The equation has two equal rational roots.
x 2 + 8 x + 16 = 0
D = 82 − 4(16) `ä~ëëïçêâ=S=EéKNNF
=0
1. x 2 + 8 x + 5k = 0
D is a perfect square.
D = 82 − 4(1)(5k )
2 x − 7x + 3 = 0
2
= 64 − 20 k
D = ( −7)2 − 4(2)(3)
= 25 2. 2 x 2 − kx − ( k − 3) = 0

= 52 D = ( − k )2 − 4(2)[ −( k − 3)]
D is a perfect square. = k 2 + 8( k − 3)
= k 2 + 8k − 24
2 x 2 − 5x + 4 = 0
D = ( −5)2 − 4(2)( 4)
= −7 `ä~ëëïçêâ=T=EéKNPF
D is not a perfect square. 1. x 2 − (2 m − 1) x − 2 m = 0
9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 D = [ −(2 m − 1)]2 − 4( −2 m)
D = ( −30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 4 m 2 − 4 m + 1 + 8m
=0 = 4m 2 + 4m + 1
D is a perfect square. = (2 m + 1)2
which is the square of a rational number.
Therefore the roots of the given equation are
rational.
36 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

2. qx 2 + ( p + 3q ) x + 2 p = 0 `ä~ëëïçêâ=V=EéKNSF
D = ( p + 3q )2 − 4(q )(2 p) 1. 2 x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 0
= p + 6 pq + 9q − 8 pq
2 2 3
Sum of the roots = α + β = −
2
= p 2 − 2 pq + 9q 2 7
= p 2 − 2 pq + q 2 + 8q 2 Product of the roots = αβ = −
2
= ( p − q ) 2 + 8q 2 (a) α 2 + β 2 = (α + β)2 − 2αβ
Q ( p − q )2 ≥ 0 and q 2 > 0 3 7
= ( − ) 2 − 2( − )
∴ D>0 2 2
37
∴ The equation has real roots. =
4

3. (a) x 2 − kx + ( k + 3) = 0 ............(*) α β α 2 + β2
(b) + =
D = ( − k )2 − 4( k + 3) β α αβ
37
= k 2 − 4 k − 12 = 47
−2
(b) If (*) has equal roots, D = 0.
37
From (a), ( k + 2)( k − 6) = 0 =−
14
k = −2 or 6
(c) (α + 2β + 1)(β + 2α + 1)
(c) For k = −2 , (*) becomes
= αβ + 2α 2 + α + 2β 2 + 4αβ + 2β + β + 2α + 1
x2 + 2x + 1 = 0
= 5αβ + 2(α 2 + β 2 ) + 3(α + β) + 1
( x + 1)2 = 0 7 37 3
x = −1 = 5( − ) + 2( ) + 3( − ) + 1
2 4 2
5
=−
`ä~ëëïçêâ=U=EéKNQF 2

1. x 2 − 3 x + 1 = 0 2. α and β are the roots of x 2 + px + q = 0 .


Sum of the roots = 3 Sum of the roots = α + β = − p
Product of the roots = 1 Product of the roots = αβ = q
( pα − q )2 + ( pβ − q )2
2. x 2 + 5 x − 3 = 0 = p 2 α 2 − 2 pqα + q 2 + p 2β 2 − 2 pqβ + q 2
Sum of the roots = −5 = p 2 (α 2 + β 2 ) − 2 pq(α + β) + 2 q 2
Product of the roots = −3 = p 2 [(α + β)2 − 2αβ] − 2 pq(α + β) + 2 q 2
= p 2 ( p 2 − 2 q ) − 2 pq( − p) + 2 q 2
3. 2 x 2 − 4 x − 7 = 0 = p 4 − 2 p2 q + 2 p2 q + 2q 2
Sum of the roots = 2 = p 4 + 2q 2

7
Product of the roots = −
2 `ä~ëëïçêâ=NM=EéKNUF
1. α and β are the roots of x 2 − x − 7 = 0 .
4. 5 x + (3k − 1) x + 2 k = 0
2
Sum of the roots = α + β = 1
3k − 1 Product of the roots = αβ = −7
Sum of the roots = −
5 1 1 β+α
1 − 3k α+ +β+ = α+β+
= α β αβ
5 1
= 1+
2k −7
Product of the roots = 6
5 =
7
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 37

1 1 (b) For all real values of x,


(α + )(β + )
α β 1
α β 1 ( x − )2 ≥0
= αβ + + + 3
β α αβ 1 2
3( x − ) ≥0
α 2 + β2 1 3
= αβ + + 1 2 4 4
αβ αβ 3( x − ) − ≥0−
3 3 3
(α + β)2 − 2αβ 1 1 2 4 4
= αβ + + 3( x − ) − ≥−
αβ αβ 3 3 3
1 − 2( −7) 1
= −7 + + 4
−7 −7 ∴ The least value of 3 x 2 − 2 x − 1 is − .
65 3
=−
7
One required equation is 2. (a) −4 x 2 + 2 x − 1
6 65 1 1
x2 − x − = 0 , i.e. = −4( x 2 − x + )
7 7 2 4
7 x 2 − 6 x − 65 = 0 2 1 1 1 1
= −4[ x − x + ( )2 − ( )2 + ]
2 4 4 4
1 2 3
2. Let α and α 2 be the two roots. = −4( x − ) −
4 4
Product of the roots = α(α 2 ) = 27
α 3 = 27 (b) For all real values of x,
α =3 1
( x − )2 ≥ 0
Sum of the roots = α + α = − q 2 4
1 2
3 + 32 = − q −4( x − ) ≤ 0
q = −12 4
1 2 3 3
−4( x − ) − ≤ 0 −
3. Let α and 2α be the two roots. 4 4 4
3
Product of the roots = α(2α ) = r −4 x 2 + 2 x − 1 ≤ −
4
Sum of the roots = α + 2α = −2q 3
4x2 − 2x + 1 ≥
2α 2 = r ............(1) 4

3α = −2 q .........(2)
−2 q
(2) : α = `ä~ëëïçêâ=NO=EéKOUF
3
−2 q
Put α = into (1), 1. (a) y
3
2q
2( − ) 2 = r x
3
−1 O 1 2 3
8q 2
=r −1
9
8q 2 = 9 r
−2

`ä~ëëïçêâ=NN=EéKOQF −3

2 1
1. (a) 3 x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 3( x 2 − x− ) −4 y = x 2 − 2x − 3
3 3
2 2 2 2 1
= 3[ x − x + ( )2 − ( )2 − ]
3 6 6 3
1 2 4
= 3( x − ) −
3 3
38 Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions

y (d) y
(b)
y = x 2 + 2x + 4
1 4

x 3
O 1 2 3 4 5 6
−1
2

−2
1
−3
x
−4 −2 −1 O 1 2

−5

−6 y = −x 2 + 6x − 8 2. Since y = x 2 + (2 a + 1) x + a 2 intersects the x-axis


at two distinct points, D > 0 .
−7
D = (2 a + 1)2 − 4 a 2 > 0
−8 4a 2 + 4a + 1 − 4a 2 > 0
1
a>−
4

y
(c)
3. Consider the discriminant of x 2 − 2 mx + m( m + 3) .
x D = ( −2 m)2 − 4 m( m + 3)
O 1 2 3 4 5 6
= 4 m 2 − 4 m 2 − 12 m
−1
= −12 m
−2 m > 0 , −12 m < 0
Q D < 0 and the graph opens upwards
−3
∴ x 2 − 2 mx + m( m + 3) is always positive for
−4 any real values of x if m > 0 .

−5
`ä~ëëïçêâ=NP=EéKPOF
−6
1. (a) 5 + 2x = 3
−7 5 + 2x = 3 or 5 + 2 x = −3
y = 6x − 9 − x 2 x = −1 or x = −4
−8
(b) 2 + 3x = 6 − 2 x
−9 2 + 3 x = 6 − 2 x or 2 + 3 x = −(6 − 2 x )
5x = 4 or 2 + 3 x = −6 + 2 x
4
x= or x = −8
5
Chapter 1 Quadratic Equations & Quadratic Functions 39

2x + 1 1 `ä~ëëïçêâ=NR=EéKPQF
2. (a) =
3− x 4 y

2x + 1 1 2x + 1 1
= or =−
3− x 4 3− x 4
4(2 x + 1) = 3 − x or 4(2 x + 1) = x − 3
8x + 4 = 3 − x or 8x + 4 = x − 3 3 y = 2 + 3x − 2x 2
1
x=− x = −1
9

(b) 2 x + 1 = 9 + 3x 2

2 x + 1 = 9 + 3 x or 2 x + 1 = −9 − 3 x
x = −8 or x = −2
But 9 + 3 x ≥ 0 1
∴ x = −2

`ä~ëëïçêâ=NQ=EéKPOF x
−1 O 1 2

1. x 2 + 3 x − 4 = 6
x 2 + 3x − 4 = 6 or x 2 + 3 x − 4 = −6
x 2 + 3 x − 10 = 0 or x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0
( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 or ( x + 1)( x + 2) = 0
x = −5, 2 or x = −1, − 2
∴ x = −5, −2, −1 or 2

2. 3( x + 1)2 − 7 x + 1 + 2 = 0
Let a = x +1 ≥ 0
2
a = x +1
2

= ( x + 1)2
∴ The equation becomes
3a 2 − 7a + 2 = 0
( a − 2)(3a − 1) = 0
1
a = 2 or a =
3
Q x +1 = 2
x +1 = 2 or x + 1 = −2
x =1 or x = −3
1
Q x +1 =
3
1 1
x +1 = or x + 1 = −
3 3
2 4
x=− or x=−
3 3
2 4
∴ x = −3, − , − or 1
3 3