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AIRPLANE TAKE OFF:

Takeoff in an airplane requires airspeed. An airplane is lined up on a runway that will give it the best headwind. Flaps, which are movable surfaces on the trailing edge of the wing near the fuselage, are lowered. This increases the camber, which amplifies the Bernoulli effect, helping create more lift at lower airspeeds. The engines of the airplane are revved up to a certain percentage of full power.. The airplane then starts building up speed rapidly and the throttles are steadily pushed to full power for takeoff. When the takeoff airspeed is reached for the particular airplane, the nose of the airplane will begin to lift off the ground. The nose is then raised to a certain angle. This changes the angle of attack, or the angle at which the wings are cutting into the wind. This once again changes the airspeed over the top of the wings. When the airspeed over the wings is high enough, the plane will lift off the ground. Once the airplane is off the ground, the flaps must be retracted. Landing gear, if possible, also needs to be retracted. In most cases, once a safe altitude is reached, the airplane must also be turned to clear the traffic pattern for the next airplane in line for takeoff.

LANDING:
In landing, an aircraft's speed is reduced and a predictable decent angle is established, the vertex being the numbers on the runway. Pilots may choose to deploy flaps at this point on aircraft equipped with flaps. Flaps change the aircraft's wing geometry, increasing lift, increasing angle of decent, and lowering stall speed. To land, the aircraft must transition from Vmin (minimum speed required to maintain flight) to a lower, non-flying speed (Vstall). Using flaps helps achieve this end. However, flaps are NOT necessary to land; they're just convenient. Flaps-off landings are made all the time. So you descend to the point where you're just about going to nose it in, then you slowly pull back on the stick, adjusting the throttle if necessary, bleeding off airspeed, watching the ground coming up. It's at this point where you get into what is called "ground effect" where the air is caught between the bottom of the wing and the ground. By and large, it's your friend. You "mush" through the ground effect, continuing to lift the nose, keeping an eye on airspeed, maintaining the aircraft's track in the center of the runway. On high crosswind days, this can be challenging. At the appropriate instant the plane both stalls, and touches down on the runway on the main landing gear. Back pressure on the stick is released, and you taxi off the runway to parking, using rudder and differential braking.