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Corus Tubes

SHS Jointing
Structural & Conveyance Business

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SHS Jointing
Contents

Introduction Butt Joints Flange Connections Splice Joints End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets Lattice Joints Beam to Column Connections Slab to Column Connections Cast Joints Mechanical Joints Flowdrill & Hollo-Bolt Jointing Flowdrill Hollo-Bolt

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SHS Jointing: Contents

SHS Jointing
Introduction

Connections with hollow sections are often considered to be complicated and expensive but in reality they can be simple and cost effective. Any connection can be designed in two ways, either as a basic connection or as an architectural connection. Basic connections serve to join two or more components in the cheapest and simplest way. Plates are cut by cropping or profile burning and, whilst sharp edges and burrs are removed, no additional shaping is made. Connections are made in the most accessible way for shop fabrication or site erection and will normally be left exposed. Given freedom of choice and considering that, in todays economic climate, its the lowest bid that usually wins, fabricators will, unless detailed otherwise, plan for basic connections. Architectural connections are designed to give the best appearance generally requiring additional workmanship and extra cost. However one should not focus on designing architectural connections which have diminished visual impact, when considered as a part of the final structure. Frequently hollow sections are employed for their aesthetic appearance and in such cases it is important that the connection used has the necessary strength. It is thus necessary to strike a balance between workmanship and cost. This document is intended to show that, the use of good architectural detailing can, provided a sense of proportion or scale is maintained, be achieved without incurring substantial extra costs. A wide range of joint details are shown in this publication. Many details will automatically seal a hollow section and in this situation no internal protection is required. Where however the jointing system penetrates the tube wall without sealing or leaves the section open, consideration must be given to the question of water ingress and internal corrosion protection. This aspect is particularly relevant to external structures.

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SHS Jointing: Introduction

SHS Jointing
Butt Joints

As most structures are higher or wider in dimension than an individual component, they will need to be jointed. A common connection will be an in-line joint of two similar sized or possibly different sized hollow sections. In-line joints of equal size members are easily made by full penetration butt joints. Full use should be made of the fact that for a given size of section the thickness change is internal and not external thus a constant external dimension can be achieved even when differing thicknesses are being joined. For full welding details refer to Corus Design Guide: SHS Welding CT15.

CHS Butt Joint

Up to 6mm

Up to 20mm

Up to 3mm

SHS Butt Joint

Over 3mm Full Penetration In-Line Butt Welds

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SHS Jointing: Butt Joints 01

SHS Jointing
Butt Joints

Use of these techniques, especially when used at natural joint positions (i.e. at ends of individual mill length members), can achieve clean lines with economy. In-line joints need careful alignment and jigging to ensure correct fit-up. This is not a problem in the work shop where equipment is readily available, but special provision is required for site work. Site work will also be affected by weather conditions and care must be taken when welding. As a result most fabricators would prefer bolted site joints.

CHS Butt Joint Bolts applied to hold joint together for welding, once welded the bolts and cleats are removed.

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SHS Jointing: Butt Joints 02

SHS Jointing
Flange Connections

Flanges are the simplest type of in-line bolted connections and can be of any shape or size but those most generally used are rectangular, square, round or triangular. They should be kept as small as possible but of sufficient thickness to give adequate joint strength and prevent distortion during welding. Flanges can be of the blank or ring type, the latter being useful for external elements such as tubular towers that require galvanizing both internally and externally. NB. Attention must be paid to water drainage in external structures. The following recommendations were established for circular tower leg members (under static load conditions) and assume the same grade of material for the flange and the tube. Thickness is based on strength and may need increasing to control distortion.

SHS Flange Connection

Drainage blank

20mm min 20mm min Ft Pb = 1.2Ft / no bolts Blank flange Ring Flange t Pb

3t min Min PCD

2t min

1.25 x bolt dia Typical flange details Typical drainage details

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SHS Jointing: Flange Connections 01

SHS Jointing
Flange Connections
Similar joints can be used in RHS and CHS lattice construction remember that, whilst close up these can look bulky, in overall perspective their effect is diminished.

SHS Howe / x Girder lattice construction with bolted flange connections

SHS with flanges, connected to I beam

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SHS Jointing: Flange Connections 02

SHS Jointing
Flange Connections

Flange joints can equally be used in lattice or multi-storey construction with either the same or different size members. For multistorey construction the flange joint can normally be accommodated within the floor construction depth. Flanges can be blank or provided with holes for bolting access, to connect floor beams and/or concrete filling of the column.

Base plates can either be plain or stiffened dependent on thickness and loading.

Similarly flanges are used as either cap or base connections for columns.

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SHS Jointing: Flange Connections 03

SHS Jointing
Flange Connections

CHS and SHS with bolted flange connections

CHS with bolted flange connections

CHS with bolted ring flange connections

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SHS Jointing: Flange Connections 04

SHS Jointing
Splice Joints

As an alternative to flanges, in-line joints can be made by bolted splice plates which can be either left exposed or used in conjunction with cover plates to give a smooth external appearance.

Splice Joint with cover plate removed CHS

Splice Joint with cover plate removed - SHS

Splice joint with Cover Plate CHS

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SHS Jointing: Splice Joints 01

SHS Jointing
Splice Joints

Exposed Splice Joint - CHS

Exposed Splice Joint - SHS

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SHS Jointing: Splice Joints 02

SHS Jointing
Splice Joints

SHS Splice Joint with cover plate removed & exposed RHS splice joint

Exposed Splice Joint - CHS

Splice Joint preparation

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SHS Jointing: Splice Joints 03

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

End fittings, cleats and brackets form a part of any connection whether for main components or secondary items. They can vary from simple flat plates or off-cuts of rolled sections, to complicated brackets. As has been previously said, simplicity is the key and simple connections are often the most economical and can be visually acceptable. As a further bonus, a simple connection usually creates a direct load path between the elements.

Longitudinal gusset plate with single forked pinned joint

Double fork end fitting, pinned onto column head cruciform plate

Bolted single forked plate end fittings

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 01

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

End forks with single or multiple bolts or pins can be made from standard rolled sections or from plates. As an alternative to adding plates, ends of CHS members may be fully flattened. Cold flattening may be used, but repair by welding may be required on the weld and outer edges of the tube due to the amount of cold working carried out. Double forks reduce plate thickness and put bolts or pins into double shear. Single forks can be either on or off the center line, and end plates or sections seal the SHS member and negate internal corrosion. N.B. Sealed SHS members must be vented if galvanized. End of SHS can be left open but internal protection must be considered especially for external structures. Extended plates reduce crowding at joint.

Bolted single forked plate end fittings

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 02

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Column bases, bracing and main chord connections shown here, are all based on the continuing theme of simple plates with either single pin or bolt connections. Shaping and relative dimensions of the plates combine to create their own architectural style.

Pinned double forked column base

Pinned double forked bracing joints

General Photograph showing column base and bracing jointing

Pinned double forked bracing joints

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 03

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

SHS bolted into a double forked bracket

Longitudinal gusset plates, with double forked pinned joint

Column base supporting a single forked pinned joint

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 04

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Double forked end fitting on stiffening plate

Double forked end fitting, pinned onto column base

Single forked end fitting

Simple flange welded onto SHS, ready to be bolted onto another section

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 05

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Double forked fabricated bracket bolted to column

Longitudinal gusset plate with pinned double forked end fittings

CHS with plated end fitting, bolted to longitudinal cleat

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 06

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Transverse cleat

Fabricated bracket attaching beam to a column

Transverse cleat bolted to plate end fitting on CHS. Also a fabricated bracket supporting an I beam

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 07

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Longitudinal gusset plate

Double forked end fittings, pinned to fabricated bracket

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 08

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Longitudinal gusset plate, pinned to a double forked fabricated column head

Double forked end fitting pinned to ring cleat

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 09

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

SHS bracing bolted to double forked longitudinal gusset plate

Cast end fittings welded to SHS, pinned to fabricated bracket

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 10

SHS Jointing
End Fittings, Cleats & Brackets

Transverse gusset plate

Transverse gusset plate, used to join the two sections

Double forked end fittings pinned to a longitudinal gusset plate

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SHS Jointing: End Fittings 11

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

Structural hollow sections are highly efficient in compression as well as tension and the added fact of a clean, slender appearance means they are regularly used in lattice construction. A warren bracing system is generally preferred, as the compressive strength of SHS bracings allow longer strut lengths to be used, thus reducing the number of bracings and joints, when compared to an equivalent N Brace system. Additional struts can be added at nonnodal purlin positions to reduce chord bending if required. Care in selecting member sizes and adjusting the joint eccentricity can minimise the complexity.

N Brace system used for roof structure

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 01

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

CHS Warren brace system (One near vertical brace)

Warren brace system

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 02

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

Design Notes 1 Design rules have been established for most of the common range of joints in lattice construction. See Corus Tubes publication CT16 Design of Welded Joints. 2 The strength of such joints is dependent on the relative size of the bracing and chord members, the angles of the bracings, whether the bracings have a gap between or overlap each other, and the thickness of the chord and any compressive load in it. As a consequence, when selecting member sizes the engineer predetermines the strength of the joint.

Warren Brace system for CHS truss with multiplanar gap joints

Multiplanar gap joint

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 03

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

There are two basic types of lattice bracing joints, gap and overlap. The gap joint is the easiest for fabrication as it confines the work to a single bevel cut or end profiling. A minimum bracing angle of 30 should be used to ensure welding access. The joint strength can be increased by overlapping the bracings. This will however increase the fabrication work due to the double shaping required unless a full overlap is made. A combination of the chosen member sizes and gap or overlap condition may create an eccentricity. This must be included in the chord design check. In both cases the physical dimensions will affect the joint strength and this should be checked. See Corus Tubes design guides.

CHS overlap joint

CHS overlap joint, for arched roof trusses

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 04

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

When two or more bracings overlap the shaping required can be reduced by using a central division plate. This is especially useful for overlapped CHS bracings or where additional vertical bracing is required, to allow a division cap plate to be added forming a T connection. If at the design stage joints need to be strengthened this can often be achieved by increasing the bracing member size or thickness. Alternatively, extra strength can be achieved by adding plates to the chord face or the use of SHS fillet pieces between bracings. It should also be noted that 100% overlap will increase joint strength and reduce end shaping.

Overlap joint, with central division plate and end cap plate forming a T connection, supporting additional vertical bracing, creating a KT joint

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 05

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

For joints with CHS members the requirement of end profiling must be considered. However, not all bracings need to be profiled or saddled. When bracings are between 1/3rd to 2/3rds of the chord diameter partial profiling is needed, when over 2/3rds of the diameter full end profiling is required to achieve the weld fit up requirement. For bracings smaller than 1/3rd of the chord diameter a single end cut will normally achieve the required fit up. With CHS bracings the technique of partial flattening can be used to increase welding access and reduce/avoid profiling or double shaping. This method will however increase the bracing width and the resultant fit up should be considered.

Profiled CHS, for close tolerance connection.

CHS end profiling

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 06

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

Joint complexity can increase when bracings exist in more than one plane (multi-planar) as those found in triangulated girders. In these cases necessary weld clearance can be obtained by partial flattening the ends of the bracings, double shaping the bracings or alternatively the main member diameter may be increased to ensure necessary weld clearance is obtained without complex forming.

Multiplanar K-K overlap joint

Howe girder with X joints and multiplanar KT joints

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 07

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints
When RHS members are used in triangulated girders the selection of member sizes for the bracings and chords must be done by considering their relative sizes and fit up. Failure to do this can cause extra fabrication and complicate details. Additional work can often be eliminated by rotating the chord member and avoiding expensive bird mouthing. It should always be remembered that chords can be made of twin members. This can reduce the bracing complexity and also allows the girders to be split for fabrication and transport.

Triangular girder with N side bracing and Warren bracing between bottom chords

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 08

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

Where multiple bracings occur the bracing connection can be moved back from the intersection point creating a simple joint . This can be achieved by introducing a short length of CHS, or by employing hollow spheres. Spheres give the advantage of a square cut bracing end regardless of the intersection angle but are limited in their source.

Sphere joint used in space frame roof structure

Short length of CHS for joining multiple bracings

Short length of CHS, used for joining multiple bracings

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 09

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

SHS overlap joint, with central division plate and an end cap plate, forming a T connection

CHS overlap Joint, with central division plate

Warren Brace system, for SHS and RHS roof truss

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 10

SHS Jointing
Lattice Joints

Triangular girder with N side bracing and warren bracing on plan/between top chords

KX joints for a CHS truss

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SHS Jointing: Lattice Joints 11

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections

It is impossible to illustrate all the varieties of end-plates and shoes which may be used with structural hollow sections to fabricate trusses and lattice girders. The designer has a wide scope to exercise his ingenuity, to produce aesthetically pleasing connections, which will keep fabrication to minimum, but which are adequate to perform the task for which they are required. Some connections use the flange of the universal column to transmit the loads from the girder or truss, which are more or less, simple plate flanges. They are probably the cheapest type of joint. However, great care must be taken during design and fabrication to avoid cumulative tolerances which may give rise to difficulties during erection and necessitate an excessive amount of shimming. It should also be borne in mind that the connecting bolts transmit all the loads from the truss or girder.

Transverse beam to column connection (in horizontal plane)

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SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 01

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections
When RHS columns are used it is not always possible to bolt through the column as with open sections. Alternative face connections can be made by combination of plates or section off cuts.

RHS warren braced truss joined to RHS column

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SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 02

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections
Combinations of simple connections, often exposed, can with ingenuity create aesthetic and visually pleasing structures.

CHS bracing with end fittings bolted to a flange, which is welded onto the column

Fabricated bracket to attach the beam to the column

I section beams welded to column Corus Tubes, Structural & Conveyance Business www.corustubes.com SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 03

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections
As with lattice construction, connection of rolled beams to RHS columns can be made via simple plate details. Beams can be twin channels (for access of vertical services) or single universal beam sections.

Face plates welded onto column, allow twin channels to be bolted to the column, supporting secondary I beams

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SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 04

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections
In all cases it is the joint area that requires the work. In many cases pre assembled joint locations can be made and added to the overall column - hence minimising the need to handle the total column length.

Fabricated L shape brackets, join together the I beam to the RHS column

Single forked pin joint, joining the warren brace truss to the column

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SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 05

SHS Jointing
Beam to Column Connections
Beams can be joined to SHS columns via end plates or angle cleats in conjunction with proprietary mechanical methods such as Hollo-bolt or bolted systems such as Flowdrill (See Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt Jointing). Where joints are located at the end of the section hand access for installation and tightening can be obtained and a single side fixing made. For joints at other locations a joint box technique using a heavier wall insert and hand access hole can be adopted. Where 4 way beams connect the final face will require captive nuts, threaded column wall or a one sided mechanical fixing to be used.

SHS with fabricated access slot to allow internal access, for bolt application

Use of SHS with fabricated access slots in construction.

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SHS Jointing: Beam to Column Connections 06

SHS Jointing
Slab to Column Connections

SHS columns can be used in conjunction with insitu concrete floors or either a beam and slab or flat slab construction. Plates or cleats can be added to provide shear resistance at junctions as an alternative to using the column flange connection. Reinforcing bars can be continued around the column, welded to the face or passed through the section to give moment continuity. Where a column head is required to be extended so as to reduce the shear in the slab, this can be achieved by addition of steel sections welded to the column.

Extended column heads, welded to the column reinforcing plates.

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SHS Jointing: Slab to Column Connections 01

SHS Jointing
Cast Joints

Castings can be effectively used in tubular jointing, they can be designed to locate the hollow section ready for welding. They allow graceful joints to be made economically, only a few castings are required for economy over a fabricated option. Advice and guidance on castings can be found in SCI publication: SCI-P-172: Castings in Construction

Cast joint, pinned to single forked column head, supporting CHS roof structure

Cast joint pinned to column head, supporting CHS roof structure

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SHS Jointing: Cast Joints 01

SHS Jointing
Mechanical Joints

A range of mechanical fixings are available from specialist suppliers. Such mechanical fixings may be used with CHS (e.g. using a profiled washer) but the flat surfaces of RHS are better suited to their use. Generally fixings can be put into two categories, those that require special tools and those that can be used in normal clearance holes without special tools. As an alternative to single side fixings, through bolting can be used. The section is drilled and spacer tubes welded in position. This method prevents distortion of the RHS and seals against water ingress.

Welded Spacer Tubes

Lindapter - Lindibolt The Lindibolt is a self heading bolt suitable for making connections to cavity steel structures in similar applications to the Hollo-Bolt but where the specific nature of the application precludes the Hollo-Bolts use.

Lindapter

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SHS Jointing: Mechanical Joints 01

SHS Jointing
Mechanical Joints

Huck BOM Fasteners High strength blind fasteners for structural applications, offering excellent pull together and high clamping force. Installation is a quiet and fast process that requires minimum skill levels.

Huck

Clufix Blind Rivet Nuts A range of fasteners with different properties, dependant on their application. Such as the body and screw diameter; head form (flush, cylindrical, countersunk); type of the body (open / closed); options choice (brake of screw); thickness and material.

Clufix

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SHS Jointing: Mechanical Joints 02

SHS Jointing
Mechanical Joints
Lindapter Hollo-Bolt Hollo-Bolt is a pre-assembled three or five part fitting consisting of body, cone and bolt (the collar and the body being seperated by a collapse mechanism in the five part fitting). The pre-assembled unit is inserted through normal tolerance holes in both the attachment plate and the RHS. As the bolt is tightened the cone is drawn into the body, spreading the legs, and forming a secure fixing. Once installed only the Hollo-Bolt head and collar are visible.

Lindapter Flowdrill Flowdrilling is a thermal drilling process which makes a hole through the wall of a structural hollow section without the removal of metal normally associated with a drilling process. The formed hole is then threaded by the use of a roll thread forming tool, leaving a threaded hole which will accept a standard fully threaded bolt.

Flowdrill
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SHS Jointing
Mechanical Joints

Molabolt Peg Anchor Bolt The innovation behind the Molabolt is its ability to expand to provide a firm bite that does not rely on a good thread or being tightly fitted. Installation is a fast process that requires minimum skill levels, and it does not require a clearance hole. It can be used for all blind applications into hollow steel sections.

Molabolt

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SHS Jointing: Mechanical Joints 04

SHS Jointing
Mechanical Joints

As an alternative to mechanical fixings the walls of thicker sections may be drilled and tapped (Fig 1), or, if the section thickness is insufficient, threaded pads or nuts can be welded on (Fig 2).

Studs can be welded onto the section face. Some methods leave a collar at the root. Holes must be recessed to clear the collar or clearance washers fitted (Fig 3).

Fig. 1

Fig. 3

Fig. 2

Cladding may be fixed direct to hollow sections by using self drilling self tapping fasteners (Fig 4). It is important that these use twin seal washers to avoid water penetration and should be fastened at 90 degrees or perpendicular otherwise the screw may skid off center and or the drill point break.
Fig. 4

A wide range of other fixings including J (Fig 5) and U (Fig 6) bolts are available.

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Buildex Super Teks Series 500

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SHS Jointing: Mechanical Joints 05

SHS Jointing
Flowdrill & Hollo-Bolt Jointing (for Hollow Sections)

Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt gives a choice of two methods to produce bolted joints in Hollow Sections. Both systems offer the following benefits: They produce bolted joints of structural capacity in Hot Finished Structural Hollow Sections (HFRHS). They minimise the change in the fabrication process by using connection details which are standard in the construction industry. They reduce fabrication by removing the need to weld plates or other fittings onto the outside surface of the RHS. They simplify erection by using fully threaded bolts - an increasing practice in the construction industry. They maintain aesthetics by producing a flush face on the RHS after fabrication. They only require access from one side.

Design Guidance
The design guidance for Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt systems with grade 8.8 bolts in conjunction with Corus Tubes hot finished structural hollow sections is given in BCSA/SCI Joints in Steel Construction (Ref 1). The design guidance, for joints in simple construction, result from Corus Tubes initial research work undertaken in connections with CIDECT. The guidance has been consolidated into the information published by the BCSA/SCI Joints in Steel Construction (Ref 1). Further test work is being undertaken to establish design guidance for moment resisting joints. Procedural checks are given for bearing, shear and local bolt pull out of the RHS wall and for the combined effect of the column axial load and the structural integrity tensile load of BS 5950 : Part 1. The combined check for the column axial load and the structural integrity tensile load recognises that the flexibility of the RHS face caused by the tensile load can, in the presence of the column axial load, reduce the overall joint capacity.

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SHS Jointing Flowdrill & Hollo-Bolt 01

SHS Jointing
Flowdrill & Hollo-Bolt Jointing (for Hollow Sections)

Fabrication and Construction


General detailing recommendations for beams to SHS columns, are given in the BCSA/SCI publication: Joints in Steel Construction (Ref 1). Both Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt use fully threaded bolts which allows standardisation of bolt lengths throughout the construction. Where beams are connected to adjacent faces of an RHS column a check must be made with the chosen bolt length to ensure that assembly is possible (see Fig 3: Flowdrill and Fig 6: Hollo-bolt). Both Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt are suitable for use with the two standard grades of Corus Tubes Celsius SHS, EN10210 S275J2H and S355J2H. At present, application of the Flowdrill process is limited to RHS thicknesses up to and including 12.5mm. For thicknesses of 16mm and over, conventional drill and tap methods are recommended, although due to the RHS material strength being lower than that of the grade 8.8 bolts, pull out strengths may be below the bolt tension capacity.

Flowdrill

Hollo-Bolt

Reference
1. BCSA/SCI publication: P212 Joints in Steel Construction: Simple Connections Published jointly by: The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot SL5 7QN Telephone: 01344 623345 Fax: 01344 622944 The British Construction Steelwork Association Limited 4 Whitehall Court London SW1A 2ES Telephone: 020 7839 8566 Fax: 020 7976 1634
Flowdrill

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SHS Jointing Flowdrill & Hollo-Bolt 02

SHS Jointing
Flowdrill

Flowdrilling is a thermal drilling process which makes a hole through the wall of a structural hollow section without the removal of metal normally associated with a drilling process. The formed hole is then threaded by the use of a roll thread forming tool, leaving a threaded hole which will accept a standard fully threaded bolt.

The Tools
The initial hole is made by a flowdrill tool consisting of a tungsten carbide bit held in a Flowdrill Morsetaper collet adaptor (fig. 1). The tool can be used in a conventional drilling machine or CNC machine as found in fabricators works, provided it has adequate horsepower and spindle speed.
Fig 1

1st Stage
The tungsten carbide bit is brought into contact with the RHS wall where it generates sufficient heat to soften the steel. The bit is then advanced through the wall and in so doing the metal is redistributed (or flows) to form an internal bush. As well as drilling the initial hole, the tool is fitted with the means of removing any surplus material which may arise on the outside of the RHS section. The cycle time for Flowdrilling is similar to that for conventional drilling. However, if done on CNC machines the feed rate can be slow at the beginning, rapidly increasing as the material softens to improve efficiency.

2nd Stage
The 2nd and final stage is to tap the Flowdrill bush. This is done by roll threading the bush with a Coldform Flowtap. The complete cycle is shown in figure 2.

Fig 2

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SHS Jointing Flowdrill 01

SHS Jointing
Flowdrill

Drilling machine parameters :


Table 1 gives a guide to required machine parameters for producing Flowdrill holes for M12 to M24 bolts: Note: The Flowdrill process is not suitable for hand held or magnetic clamp type drilling equipment when used in the sizes shown.

Drill length: The recommended length of Flowdrill bits varies with the thread size and thickness of material as given in Table 2. Drill care: Flowdrills are made from tungsten carbide. They are extremely hard but cannot withstand shock loads. After drilling each hole, FD KS paste should be applied to the Flowdrill whilst it is still hot, so minimising oxidation and preventing build up on the surface. Flat surface: the raised rim on the outer surface of the RHS material caused during Flowdrilling should be removed using Flowdrills with cutting edges provided on the collar. One rotation of the cutter is all this is required to remove the rim.

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SHS Jointing Flowdrill 02

SHS Jointing
Flowdrill

Flowdrill detailing requirements.


See Fig. 3 and Table 3 Note: Flowdrilled joints used at locations exposed to the weather should not be considered as water tight. Flowdrilling is not suitable for us with pre-galvanised materials.

Flowdrill data : Further information on thermal drilling, including drilling machine parameters and tool sizes can be obtained from the companies given below: Flowdrill (U.K.) Limited Unit 7, Hopewell Business Centre 105 Hopewell Drive Chatham Kent ME5 7NP Tel: 01634 309422 www.flowdrill.com Formdrill Robert Speck Ltd, Little Ridge, Whittlebury Road, Silverstone, Northants NN12 8UD, Tel: 01327 857307, Contact: Mr Mike Carpenter.

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SHS Jointing Flowdrill 03

SHS Jointing
Hollo-Bolt
HOLLO-BOLT is a pre-assembled three or five part fitting consisting of body, cone and bolt (the collar and the body being seperated by a collapse mechanism in the five part fitting).
The pre-assembled unit (fig. 4) is inserted through normal tolerance holes in both the attachment plate and the RHS. As the bolt is tightened the cone is drawn into the body, spreading the legs, and forming a secure fixing. Once installed only the Hollo-Bolt head and collar are visible (fig. 5).

Installed 3-part Hollo-Bolt (M8, M10 & M12)

Installed 5-part Hollo-Bolt (M16, M20)

Location Flats

Collapse mechanism

Body

Cone Knurling

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SHS Jointing: Hollo-Bolt 01

SHS Jointing
Hollo-Bolt
Drilling requirements: Hollo-Bolt uses a plain drilled hole which can be made on site or in the fabrication shop using all normal drilling equipment. The finished hole should have a tolerance of -0.2mm to +1.0mm from the nominal given in the data table (table 4).

Bolt size
(size1)

Bolt length (V) mm

Fixing thickness (W) Min Max mm

Bolt centres (X) Min mm

Internal min. edge distance (Y) mm

Edge distance (E1) mm

Bolt hole dia. (dh) mm

Across flats main body mm

Nominal bolt dia. mm

Tightening torque Nm

M8 M10 M12 M16 M20

50 55 60 75 90

3 3 3 8 8

22 22 25 29 34

35 40 50 55 70

13 15 18 20 25

50 tp 55 tp 60 tp 65 tp 90 tp

14 18 20 28 35

19 24 30 36 46

8 10 12 16 20

21 40 78 190 300

Table 4 (See Fig. 6 for nomenclature)

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SHS Jointing: Hollo-Bolt 02

SHS Jointing
Hollo-Bolt
Material Options
The standard product is manufactured from mild steel and is electro-zinc plated with the addition of JS500 1000 hour saltspray corrosion protection. The central fastener is a grade 8.8 bolt. For special applications, the Hollo-Bolt is available manufactured from 316 stainless steel, with a grade A4-80 central bolt. This will not be a stocked item, and would be manufactured to order.

Installation
The only tools required to fit Hollo-Bolt are two spanners - an open ended spanner to hold the collar and a torque wrench to tighten the central bolt. Alternatively a power operated electric hand bolt is in development. Should the steelwork need to be adjusted, the fixing can simply be removed and the hole reused with another Hollo-Bolt.

Step 1 Drill holes in required position (see table 4 for recommended hole size). Offer up the Hollo-Bolt and fixture to the steelwork. Insert product through both fixture and steelwork, cone end first.

Step 2 Grip the Hollo-Bolt collar with an open ended spanner. Using a torque wrench, tighten the central bolt to the recommended torque given in the table above.

Step 3 The Hollo-Bolt cone is drawn up into the body, spreading the product legs and providing a secure fixing.

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SHS Jointing: Hollo-Bolt 03

SHS Jointing
Hollo-Bolt

Sealing Options
In certain applications, it may be necessary to seal the Hollo-Bolt to prevent ingress of water or other corrosive agents. For details of sealing options available, please contact Lindapter.

Special Options
(manufactured to order) Stainless steel Button head setscrew Socket head capscrew Countersunk setscrew/body Special body lengths

Further information on Hollo-Bolt is available from: Lindapter International, A Division of Victaulic plc, Lindsay House, Brackenbeck Road, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, BD7 2NF Tel: +44 (0) 1274 521444 Fax: +44 (0) 1274 521130

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SHS Jointing: Hollo-Bolt 04

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Care has been taken to ensure that this information is accurate, but Corus Group plc, including its subsidiaries, does not accept responsibility or liability for errors or information which is found to be misleading.

Corus Tubes Structural & Conveyance Business Sales Enquiries contact: UK Sales office PO Box 6024, Weldon Road Corby, Northants NN17 5ZN United Kingdom T +44 (0)1536 402121 F +44 (0)1536 404127 www.corustubes.com corustubes.s-c@corusgroup.com Technical Helpline (UK Freephone) 0500 123 133 or +44 (0) 1724 405060

Corus Tubes Structural & Conveyance Business Sales Enquiries contact: Netherlands Sales office Postbus 39 4900 BB Oosterhout The Netherlands T +31 (0)162 482300 F +31 (0)162 466161 corustubes.s-c@corusgroup.com

CT46:PDF:UK/06/2006