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Chapter 12 Circles 179

CHAPTER 12 2. (a) By comparing the equation with the general


form, we have
Exercise 12A (p.295) D = −6 , E = −8 and F = 18
1. (a) The equation of the circle is D E −6 −8
The centre is ( − , − ) = ( − ,− )
2 2 2 2
( x − 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = ( 5 )2 = (3, 4)
x − 4 x + 4 + y2 − 2 y + 1 = 5
2

x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 2 y = 0 1
Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
2
Substitute x = 0 into the equation, 1
= ( −6)2 + ( −8)2 − 4(18)
( 0 ) 2 + y 2 − 4( 0 ) − 2 y = 0 2
y( y − 2 ) = 0 = 7
y = 0 or y = 2
(b) By comparing the equation with the general
∴ The points of intersections are (0, 0) and form, we have
(0, 2) . D = 6 , E = −2 and F = −15
(b) The equation of the circle is D E 6 −2
The centre is ( − , − ) = (− , − )
( x + 2) + ( y + 3) = 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= ( −3, 1)
x 2 + 4 x + 4 + y2 + 6y + 9 = 4
x 2 + y2 + 4 x + 6 y + 9 = 0 1
Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
2
Substitute x = 0 into the equation, 1 2
= 6 + ( −2)2 − 4( −15)
( 0 ) 2 + y 2 + 4( 0 ) + 6 y + 9 = 0 2
( y + 3)2 = 0 =5
y = −3
(c) 2 x 2 + 2 y 2 − 4 x + 16 y − 94 = 0
∴ The point of intersection is (0, − 3) .
x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 8 y − 47 = 0
(c) The equation of the circle is
By comparing the equation with the general
( x + 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 32 form, we have
x 2 + 6 x + 9 + y2 − 4 y + 4 = 9 D = −2 , E = 8 and F = −47
x + y + 6x − 4y + 4 = 0
2 2
D E −2 −8
The centre is ( − , − ) = (− , )
2 2 2 2
Substitute x = 0 into the equation, = (1, − 4)
(0)2 + y 2 + 6(0) − 4 y + 4 = 0
1
( y − 2)2 = 0 Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
y=2 2
1
∴ The point of intersection is (0, 2) . = ( −2)2 + 82 − 4( −47)
2
(d) The equation of the circle is =8

( x − 2)2 + ( y + 2)2 = ( 8 )2 (d) By comparing the equation with the general


form, we have
x 2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 4 y + 4 = 8
D = 0 , E = 10 and F = 16
x 2 + y2 − 4 x + 4 y = 0 D E 10
The centre is ( − , − ) = (0, − )
Substitute x = 0 into the equation, 2 2 2
= (0, − 5)
( 0 ) 2 + y 2 − 4( 0 ) + 4 y = 0
y( y + 4 ) = 0 Radius =
1
D2 + E 2 − 4 F
y = 0 or y = −4 2
1 2
∴ The points of intersection are (0, 0) and = 0 + 10 2 − 4(16)
2
(0, − 4) . =3
180 Chapter 12 Circles

3. Let P(x, y) be a point on the circle, ( x 1, x 2 ) be The equation of the circle is


1 13
the centre and r be the radius. ( x − )2 + ( y + 3)2 =
As the centre is the mid-point of a diameter, 2 4
7 −1 3 −1 4 x + 4 y − 4 x + 24 y + 24 = 0
2 2
∴ x1 = = 3 , y1 = =1 x 2 + y2 − x + 6 y + 6 = 0
2 2
r 2 = (7 − 3)2 + (3 − 1)2
7. The radius is equal to the distance from the centre
= 42 + 22 to the given line
= 20
−1 − 2(3) + 2
∴ The equation of the circle is r= = 5
12 + 2 2
( x − 3)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 20 The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 2 y − 10 = 0 ( x + 1)2 + ( y − 3)2 = ( 5 )2
x 2 + y2 + 2 x − 6y + 5 = 0
4. Let P(x, y) be a point on the circle, ( x 1, x 2 ) be
the centre and r be the radius. 8. D = −4 , E = −6
1
As the centre is the mid-point of a diameter, Radius = ( −4)2 + ( −6)2 − 4 F
2a b+b 2
∴ x1 = = a , y1 = =b 16 + 36 − 4 F > 0
2 2
F < 13
r 2 = ( a − 0)2 + (b − b)2
= a2 9. Let the equation be
∴ The equation of the circle is x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ...........................(1)
( x − a)2 + ( y − b)2 = a 2 Substitute (0, 1), (2, −3) and (−4, −1) into (1),
x + y − 2 ax − 2 by + b = 0
2 2 2
(0)2 + 12 + D(0) + E(1) + F = 0
E + F + 1 = 0 .....................(2)
(2)2 + ( −3)2 + (2) D + ( −3) E + F = 0
5. Let r be the radius of the circle.
2 D − 3E + F + 13 = 0 ..............(3)
r 2 = ( 4 − 3)2 + (2 − 1)2 ( −4)2 + ( −1)2 + ( −4) D + ( −1) E + F = 0
= 1 +1
2 2
−4 D − E + F + 17 = 0 ..........(4)
=2 By solving (2), (3) and (4), we have
The equation of the circle is D = 2 , E = 4 and F = −5
( x − 3)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 2 ∴ The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 2 y + 8 = 0 x 2 + y2 + 2 x + 4 y − 5 = 0 .

10. Let the equation be


6. D = −1, E = 6 , F = −12
x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ...........................(1)
D E
Centre = ( − , − ) Substitute (1, 3), (1, 5) and (−2, 6) into (1),
2 2
−1 6 12 + 32 + D + 3E + F = 0
= (− , − )
2 2 D + 3E + F + 10 = 0 ...............................(2)
1
= ( , − 3) 12 + 52 + D + 5 E + F = 0
2 D + 5 E + F + 26 = 0 ..............................(3)
Let r be the radius of the circle
( −2)2 + 6 2 + ( −2) D + 6 E + F = 0
1 −2 D + 6 E + F + 40 = 0 ..................(4)
r 2 = (2 − )2 + ( −4 + 3)2
2 By solving (2), (3) and (4), we have
3 2
= ( ) +1 D = 2 , E = −8 and F = 12
2
13 ∴ The equation of the circle is
=
4 x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 8 y + 12 = 0 .
Chapter 12 Circles 181

11. Let the equation be 15. Let (h, k) be the centre and r be the radius,
x + y + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ...........................(1)
2 2
then r = 2 , h = 2 or −2
Suppose (2, 2), (1, 1), (4, −2) and (5, 1) satisfy h + 2k − 4 = 0
(1), when h = 2 , k = 1
2 D + 2 E + F + 8 = 0 .....................................(2) when h = −2 , k = 3
D + E + F + 2 = 0 ........................................(3) The equation of the circle is
4 D − 2 E + F + 20 = 0 ...................................(4)
( x − 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 2 2
5 D + E + F + 26 = 0 .....................................(5)
or ( x + 2)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 2 2
By solving (2), (3), (4) and (5), we have
D = −6 , E = 0 and F = 4 , it has a solution. x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 2 y + 1 = 0
∴ (2, 2), (1, 1), (4, −2), and (5, 1) are concyclic. or x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 6 y + 9 = 0

12. Let (h, k) be the centre, then


16. (a) D = −2 , E = −2 , F = −7
3h + k = 0 .............................................(1)
D E −2 −2
(h + 3)2 + ( k − 4)2 = (h − 5)2 + k 2 The centre is ( − , − ) = ( − ,− )
2 2 2 2
16h − 8k = 0 = (1, 1)
k = 2 h ..........................(2)
1
Solve (1), (2), h = 0 , k = 0 Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
2
The circle is 1 2
( x − 0 ) 2 + ( y − 0 ) 2 = (5 − 0 ) 2 + ( 0 − 0 ) 2 = 2 + 2 2 − 4( −7)
2
x 2 + y 2 − 25 = 0 =3
The distance between P and centre
13. Let r be the radius. Since the circle touches both
axes, the circle with centre (r, r). = (3 − 1)2 + (0 − 1)2

( x − r )2 + ( y − r )2 = r 2 = 5
<3
Substitute x = 8, y = 1 into the above equation,
∴ P(3, 0) lies inside the circle.
(8 − r )2 + (1 − r )2 = r 2
(b) Centre of C = (1, 1)
r 2 − 18r + 65 = 0
The equation of the circle is
(r − 5)(r − 13) = 0
r = 5 or r = 13 ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 1)2 = ( 5 )2
The equation of circle is
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 2 y − 3 = 0
x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 10 y + 25 = 0
or x 2 + y 2 − 26 x − 26 y + 169 = 0
17. (a) Let (x, y) be the intersection between the
perpendicular bisector and AC.
14. Let the centre be (5, k), then
( x − 3)2 + ( y − 1)2 = ( x + 1)2 + ( y + 1)2
( x − 5)2 + ( y − k )2 = 52
−8 x − 4 y + 8 = 0
Substitute (1, −4) into the above equation, 2x + y − 2 = 0
(1 − 5)2 + ( −4 − k )2 = 52 (b) Mid-point of AC :
( k + 4)2 = 9 3 −1 1−1
k = −7 or −1 ( , ) = (1, 0)
The equation of the circle is 2 2
Radius :
( x − 5)2 + ( y + 7)2 = 52
r 2 = (3 − 1)2 + (1 − 0)2 = 5
or ( x − 5)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 52
The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y 2 − 10 x + 14 y + 49 = 0
( x − 1)2 + y 2 = 5
or x + y − 10 x + 2 y + 1 = 0
2 2
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 4 = 0
182 Chapter 12 Circles

2 x + y − 2 = 0 ...................(1) (h − 1)2 + ( k − 2)2 = (h + 1)2 + ( k + 2)2


(c)  2
−4h − 8k = 0
 x + y − 2 x − 4 = 0 ..........(2)
2

From (1), y = 2 − 2 x ...........(3) h + 2 k = 0 ................(2)


Substitute (3) into (2), Solving (1) and (2), h = −2 , k = 1
x 2 + (2 − 2 x ) 2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 ∴ r 2 = ( −2 − 1)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 10
5 x ( x − 2) = 0 The equation of the circle is
x = 0 or x = 2
∴ y = 2 or y = −2 ( x + 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 10
∴ B is (0, 2) , D is (2, − 2) . x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 2 y − 5 = 0

22. Let (h, k) be the centre and r be the radius,


18. Let (h, k) be the centre, then
then,
(h + 1)2 + ( k − 1)2 = 32 ...........................(1) k = − r ......................................(1)

(h − 2) + ( k − 4) = 3 .........................(2)
2 2 2
(h + 2)2 + ( k + 1)2 = (h − 4)2 + ( k + 1)2
Solving (1) and (2), h = −1 , k = 4 or h = 2 , k = 1 12 h = 12
The equation of the circle is h = 1 ................(2)

( x + 1)2 + ( y − 4)2 = 32 r 2 = (h + 2)2 + ( k + 1)2


Substitute (1) and (2) into the above equation,
or ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 32
k 2 = (1 + 2)2 + ( k + 1)2
x 2 + y2 + 2 x − 8y + 8 = 0
2 k + 10 = 0
or x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 k = −5, ∴ r = 5
The equation of the circle is
19. Let r be the radius, ( x − 1)2 + ( y + 5)2 = 5 2
then the centre is (1 − r, 1 − r ) . x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 10 y + 1 = 0
( x − 1 + r) + ( y − 1 + r) = r
2 2 2

Substitute (0, −1) into the above equation, 23. (a) D = −4 k , E = 2 k , F = 3k 2 − k


(r − 1)2 + (r − 2)2 = r 2 Let r be the radius.
r 2 − 6r + 5 = 0 r=
1
D2 + E 2 − 4 F < 1
(r − 1)(r − 5) = 0 2
r = 1 or r = 5 D2 + E 2 − 4 F < 2
The equation of the circle is Condition 1 :
x 2 + y2 = 1 or ( x + 4)2 + ( y + 4)2 = 52
16k 2 + 4 k 2 − 4(3k 2 − k ) < 2
x + y − 1 = 0 or x + y + 8 x + 8 y + 7 = 0
2 2 2 2
16k 2 + 4 k 2 − 12 k 2 + 4 k < 4
8k 2 + 4 k − 4 < 0
20. Let (h, 0) be the centre, then
0 −1 2k 2 + k − 1 < 0
( )(2) = −1 ( k + 1)(2 k − 1) < 0
h −1
h=3 1
−1 < k <
2
∴ r 2 = (3 − 1)2 + (0 − 1)2 = 5 Condition 2 :
The equation of the circle is D2 + E 2 − 4 F > 0
( x − 3)2 + y 2 = 5 16k 2 + 4 k 2 − 4(3k 2 − k ) > 0
x 2 + y2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 2k 2 + k > 0
k (2 k + 1) > 0
1
21. Let (h, k) be the centre, then k<− or k > 0
k+2 1 2
( )( ) = −1 Combining the results,
h +1 3 1 1
3(h + 1) + ( k + 2) = 0 −1 < k < − or 0 < k <
3h + k + 5 = 0...................(1) 2 2
Chapter 12 Circles 183

D E Case 2:
(b) The centre = ( − ,− ) Centre = ( − r, r )
2 2
−4 k 2k −3r + 4r − 12
= (− ,− ) =r
2 2 5
= (2 k , − k ) r − 12 = ±5r
y r = 2 or r = −3 (rejected)
The equation of the circle is
1 ( x + 2)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 2 2
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 4 y + 4 = 0
Case 3:
x
−1 O 1
Centre = (r, − r )
3r − 4r − 12
=r
5
−1 − r − 12 = ±5r
r = 3 or r = −2 (rejected)
The equation of the circle is
x − 2y − 3 x − 2 y − 13 ( x − 3)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 32
24. (a) =−
5 5 x 2 + y2 − 6 x + 6 y + 9 = 0
x − 2y − 8 = 0
2
x − 2y − 8 = 0 ( −2) + 2(1) − 5
(b) Solve  26. r 2 = + (1)2 = 5 + 1 = 6
3 x − y − 14 = 0 5
The intersection is ( 4, − 2) .
P
(c) The centre is (4, −2) r
1
1 10 (−2, 1)
r= = 5
2 5
The equation of the circle is Q
( x − 4)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 5 The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y 2 − 8 x + 4 y + 15 = 0
( x + 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 6
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 2 y − 1 = 0
25. The circle may be in quadrant I, II or IV.
Let r be the radius, then the centre is (r, r), (−r, r)
and (r, −r) respectively.
Exercise 12B (p.308)
Case 1:
Centre = (r, r )  x + y − 2 = 0...................................(1)
1. (a)  2
 x + y − 4 x + 6 y + 8 = 0 ................(2)
2
3r + 4r − 12
=r From (1), y = 2 − x ..........................(3)
5
7r − 12 = ±5r Substitute (3) into (2),
r = 1 or r = 6 x 2 + (2 − x )2 − 4 x + 6(2 − x ) + 8 = 0
The equation of the circle is
2 x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0
( x − 1) + ( y − 1) = 1
2 2
x 2 − 7 x + 12 = 0
or ( x − 6) + ( y − 6) = 6
2 2 2
( x − 3)( x − 4) = 0
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 2 y + 1 = 0 x = 3 or x=4
y = −1 or y = −2
or x 2 + y 2 − 12 x − 12 y + 36 = 0
∴ The intersections are (3, − 1) and ( 4, − 2) .
184 Chapter 12 Circles

3 x − y − 3 = 0 .................................(1)  x 2 + y 2 = 100.................................(1)
(b)  2 5. (a) 
 x + y + 2 x − 8 y + 7 = 0 ................(2)  x + 2 y = 10 ....................................(2)
2

From (1), y = 3 x − 3.........................(3) From (1), x = 10 − 2 y ......................(3)


Substitute (3) into (2), Substitute (3) into (1),
x 2 + (3 x − 3)2 + 2 x − 8(3 x − 3) + 7 = 0 (10 − 2 y)2 + y 2 = 100
10 x 2 − 40 x + 40 = 0 5 y 2 − 40 y = 0
x2 − 4x + 4 = 0 y( y − 8) = 0
y=0 or y = 8
( x − 2)2 = 0
x = 10
or x = −6
x=2
y=3 ∴ L intersects C at two points.
∴ The intersection is (2, 3) . (b) (i) E is the mid-point of AB
10 − 6 0 + 8
x − 2 y + 4 = 0.................................(1) ) = (2, 4)
(c)  2
( ,
2 2
 x + y − 4 x + 3 = 0 .......................(2)
2
(ii) (Slope of L)(Slope of DF) = −1
From (1), x = 2 y − 4 ........................(3)
1
Substitute (3) into (2), ( − ) (Slope of DF) = −1
2
( 2 y − 4 ) 2 + y 2 − 4( 2 y − 4 ) + 3 = 0 Slope of DF = 2
5 y 2 − 24 y + 35 = 0 Equation of DF is
D = ( −24)2 − 4 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 35 = −124 < 0 y − 4 = 2( x − 2 )
2x − y = 0
∴ There is no intersection point.
2 x − y = 0 ...............................(4)
2. D = −4 , E = 6  2
 x + y = 100 .........................(5)
2
D E −4 6 From (4), y = 2 x ......................(6)
Centre = ( − , − ) = ( − , − ) = (2, − 3)
2 2 2 2 Substitute (6) into (5),
2 + 3( −3) − 3 −10
Radius = = = 10 x 2 + (2 x )2 = 100
10 10
5 x 2 = 100
 x − 3 y = 0.............................................(1) x = 2 5 or x = −2 5
3.  2
 x + y − 6 x − 2 y + k = 0.......................(2)
2
y = 4 5 or y = −4 5
From (1), x = 3 y ....................................(3) ∴ D is (2 5 , 4 5 ) ,
Substitute (3) into (2),
F is ( −2 5 , − 4 5 ) .
(3 y)2 + y 2 − 6(3 y) − 2 y + k = 0
Q A is (−6, 8), B is (10, 0).
10 y 2 − 20 y + k = 0
AB2 = (10 + 6)2 + (0 − 8)2
Q They have two intersections. = 320
∴ Discriminant > 0
4 DE ⋅ EF = 4 (2 5 − 2)2 + ( 4 5 − 4)2
( −20)2 − 4(10)( k ) > 0
k < 10 (2 + 2 5 ) 2 + ( 4 + 4 5 ) 2
= 4 ⋅ 2 5 ( 5 − 1) ⋅ 2 5 (1 + 5 )
 x + 3 y − 2 = 0 .......................................(1) = 320
4.  2
 x + y − 8 x − 12 y + 12 = 0 ...................(2)
2
∴ AB2 = 4 DE ⋅ EF
From (1), x = 2 − 3 y ...............................(3)
6. (a) Let m be the slope of the tangent.
Substitute (3) into (2),
The equation of the tangent is
(2 − 3 y)2 + y 2 − 8(2 − 3 y) − 12 y + 12 = 0
y − 2 = m( x − 1)
10 y 2 = 0 y = m( x − 1) + 2 ..........................(1)
y=0
x=2 x 2 + y 2 − 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0..................(2)
∴ They intersect at one point.
Chapter 12 Circles 185

Substitute (1) into (2), 7. Let the equations of the lines be


x + [ m( x − 1) + 2] − 4 x
2 2
x + y + k = 0 ......................(1)
+ 2[ m( x − 1) + 2] − 5 = 0
x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 4 y + 5 = 0
x + m x − 2 m x + 4 mx + m − 4 m
2 2 2 2 2
( x − 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 8
+ 4 − 4 x + 2 mx − 2 m + 4 − 5 = 0
(1 + m 2 ) x 2 + ( −2 m 2 + 6 m − 4) x ∴ Centre = (3, 2) , radius = 8
+ m 2 − 6m + 3 = 0 3+2+ k
= 8
If (1) is a tangent, the discriminant of the 2
above equation is zero. k + 5 = ±4
( −2 m 2 + 6 m − 4)2 k = −1 or k = −9
− 4(1 + m 2 )( m 2 − 6 m + 3) = 0 x + y − 1 = 0 or x + y − 9 = 0
4 m 4 − 24 m 3 + 52 m 2 − 48m + 16
− 4 m 4 + 24 m 3 − 16 m 2 + 24 m − 12 = 0 8. Let the equations of the lines be
36 m − 24 m + 4 = 0
2
5 x + 12 y + k = 0 ................(1)
9m 2 − 6m + 1 = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 16 x − 8 y − 89 = 0
(3m − 1) = 0 2
( x + 8)2 + ( y − 4)2 = 169
1
m= ∴ Centre = ( −8, 4) , radius = 13
3
∴ The equation of the tangent is 5( −8) + 12( 4) + k
1 = 13
y = ( x − 1) + 2 13
3 k + 8 = ±169
x − 3y + 5 = 0
k = 161 or k = −177
(b) Let m be the slope of the tangent.
The equation of the tangent is 5 x + 12 y + 161 = 0 or 5 x + 12 y − 177 = 0
y + 5 = m( x + 3)
y = m( x + 3) − 5 ..........................(1) 9. Let m be the slope of the tangent.
x + y + 2 x + 8 y + 12 = 0 ................(2)
2 2 The equation of the tangent is
Substitute (1) into (2), y + 4 = m( x + 2 )
mx − y + (2 m − 4) = 0 ...........(1)
x + [ m( x + 3) − 5] + 2 x
2 2

+ 8[ m( x + 3) − 5] + 12 = 0 x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 2 y = 0
x 2 + m 2 x 2 + 6 m 2 x − 10 mx + 9m 2 ( x − 3)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 10
− 30 m + 25 + 2 x + 8mx + 24 m − 40 + 1 = 0 Centre = (3, 1) , radius = 10
(1 + m 2 ) x 2 + (6 m 2 − 2 m + 2) x If (1) is a tangent, the distance from the centre to
+ 9m 2 − 6m − 3 = 0 (1) is equal to the radius.
If (1) is a tangent, the discriminant of the
m(3) − 1 + (2 m − 4)
above equation is zero. = 10
(6 m 2 − 2 m + 2 ) 2 m2 + 1
− 4(1 + m 2 )(9m 2 − 6 m − 3) = 0 (5m − 5)2 = 10( m 2 + 1)
36 m 4 − 24 m 3 + 28m 2 − 8m + 4 25m 2 − 50 m + 25 = 10 m 2 + 10
− 36 m 4 + 24 m 3 − 24 m 2 + 24 m + 12 = 0 3m 2 − 10 m + 3 = 0
(3m − 1)( m − 3) = 0
4 m 2 + 16 m + 16 = 0
1
m2 + 4m + 4 = 0 m= or m = 3
3
( m + 2)2 = 0 The equation of the tangent is
m = −2
∴ The equation of the tangent is 1
y+4= ( x + 2) or y + 4 = 3( x + 2)
y = −2( x + 3) − 5 3
2 x + y + 11 = 0 x − 3 y − 10 = 0 or 3x − y + 2 = 0
186 Chapter 12 Circles

10. x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 2 y − 20 = 0 Centre = ( −3, 0) , radius = 5


Tangent at P(1, 5), x 2 + y2 − 2 x + 4 y = 0
x + 5 y + 2( x + 1) − ( y + 5) − 20 = 0 ( x − 1)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 5
3 x + 4 y − 23 = 0 ........................(1) Centre = (1, − 2) , radius = 5
Tangent at Q(2, −2) Distance between centres
2 x − 2 y + 2( x + 2) − ( y − 2) − 20 = 0 = [1 − ( −3)]2 + ( −2 − 0)2
4 x − 3 y − 14 = 0 ........................(2)
= 20
Solving (1) and (2), the intersection is (5, 2) . =2 5
= sum of radii
11. Let m be the slope of tangent, then ∴ Two circles touch each other externally.
y + 1 = m( x + 3)
mx − y + (3m − 1) = 0 .................(1) 15. Let C1 and C 2 be the given circles
x + y − 4 x − 8 y + 15 = 0
2 2
C1 : x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 2 y − 16 = 0
( x − 2)2 + ( y − 4)2 = 5
( x − 1)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 18
Centre = (2, 4) , radius = 5
Centre is (1, −1), radius = 3 2
m(2) − ( 4) + (3m − 1)
= 5 C 2 : x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y + 32 = 0
m2 + 1
( x − 5)2 + ( x − 3)2 = 2
5m − 5
= 5 Centre is (5, 3), radius = 2
m2 + 1
Distance between two centres
5( m − 1)2 = m 2 + 1
4 m 2 − 10 m + 4 = 0 (5 − 1)2 + (3 + 1)2
2 m 2 − 5m + 2 = 0 =4 2
(2 m − 1)( m − 2) = 0 =3 2 + 2
1 = sum of radii
m = or m = 2
2 ∴ Two circles touch each other externally.
2 − 12 3 Substitute (4, 2) into C1 ,
tan θ = =
1 + 2 ⋅ 12 4 L.H.S. = 4 2 + 2 2 − 2( 4) + 2(2) − 16
θ = 36.9° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) =0
12. (a) The length of the tangent = R.H.S.
Substitute (4, 2) into C 2 ,
12 + 32 + 4(1) + 2(3) − 2 = 18 = 3 2
L.H.S. = 4 2 + 2 2 − 10( 4) − 6(2) + 32
(b) 3 x + 3 y + 2 x + 7 y − 6 = 0
2 2
=0
2 7 = R.H.S.
x 2 + y2 + x + y − 2 = 0
3 3
∴ The point (4, 2) lies on both C1 and C 2 .
The length of the tangent
∴ Two circles touch each other at ( 4, 2) .
2 7
( −2)2 + 1 + ( −2) + − 2 = 2
3 3 16. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x + 2 y − 3 = 0
( x − 2)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 8
13. ( −1) + 2 − 6( −1) − 2(2) + F = 3
2 2
Centre = (2, − 1) , radius = 8
7+ F = 9 Radius of the required circle
F=2
= (7 − 2)2 + ( 4 + 1)2 − 8
14. x + y + 6 x + 4 = 0
2 2
=5 2 −2 2
( x + 3)2 + y 2 = 5 =3 2
Chapter 12 Circles 187

∴ The equation of the required circle is


(b) AB = ( −1)2 + ( −4)2 − 8( −1) − 2( −4) + 12
( x − 7)2 + ( y − 4)2 = (3 2 )2
= 45
x 2 + y 2 − 14 x − 8 y + 47 = 0
=3 5
17. x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 2 y − 7 = 0 (c) y
( x − 1) + ( y + 1) = 9
2 2

∴ Centre is (1, −1), radius is 3.


C (1, 4)
The length between both centres of circles is D
1 − ( −1) = 2 B

∴ The radius of smaller circle = 3 − 2 = 1.


∴ The equation of the required circle is x

( x + 1) + ( y + 1) = 1
2 2 2

x + y2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1 = 0
2

18. 5 x − y − a = 0 .........................................(1) A (−1, −4)

3 x + 3 y − 2 x + 4 y + b = 0 .....................(2)
2 2
Area of ABCD
The tangent to (2) at (c, −1) is 1
= 2[ ( 5 )(3 5 )] = ( 5 )(3 5 ) = 15
3cx + 3( −1) y − ( x + c) + 2( y − 1) + b = 0 2
(3c − 1) x − y + (b − c − 2) = 0 ...................(3)
21. (a) Let f ( x, y) = x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 15
Compare (3) with (1),
3c − 1 = 5 f (0, − 2) = 0 2 + ( −2)2 + 2(0) − 15
∴ c=2 = −11
b − c − 2 = −a <0
Substitute c = 2 , a + b = 4 .....................(4) ∴ The point (0, −2) lies inside the circle.
Substitute (2, −1) into (1), (b) Equation of line L is
5(2) − ( −1) − a = 0 y + 2 = m( x − 0 )
a = 11 y = mx − 2
Substitute a = 11 into (4), b = −7
∴ a = 11 , b = −7 , c = 2  2
(c)  x + y + 2 x − 15 = 0
2 ......................(1)
 y = mx − 2 .....................................(2)
19. (a) Centres are (−3, 4) and (6, 1)
Substitute (2) into (1),
Let (0, b) be the point of contact, then it lies
on the line joining the centres. x 2 + ( mx − 2)2 + 2 x − 15 = 0
(1 + m 2 ) x 2 + (2 − 4 m) x − 11 = 0 ........(3)
1− b 1− 4
= Let A( x 1, y 1 ) and B( x 2 , y 2 ) be the intersections.
6 6+3
1 − b = −2 Then x 1 and x 2 are the roots of (3).
b=3 4m − 2
∴ x1 + x2 =
∴ The point of contact is (0, 3) . 1 + m2
(b) Substitute (0, 3) into the given circles, 1 2m − 1
( x1 + x2 ) =
0 2 + 32 + 6 ⋅ 0 − 8 ⋅ 3 + k1 = 0
2 1 + m2
k1 = 15 1 1
( y1 + y2 ) = ( mx1 − 2 + mx2 − 2)
2 2
0 2 + 32 − 12 ⋅ 0 − 2 ⋅ 3 + k2 = 0 1
k2 = −3 = [ m( x1 + x2 ) − 4]
2
1 4m − 2
20. (a) x 2 + y 2 − 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 = [ m( ) − 4]
2 1 + m2
( x − 4)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 5 −m − 2
=
C = ( 4, 1) , radius = 5 1 + m2
188 Chapter 12 Circles

2m − 1 −m − 2 14 8 E 2 25
The mid-point is ( , ). ∴ (+ ) − 4( )(25 + 8 E ) = 0
1 + m2 1 + m2 3 3 9
Let M(x, y) be the mid-point of AB. ∴ E = 12 or −3
∴ The required equation is
 x = 2 m − 1 ..............................(1)
 1 + m2 x 2 + y 2 − 6 x + 24 y + 9 = 0
∴  − m − 2 .............................(2) x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 6 y + 9 = 0
y = or
 1 + m2
y+2
(1) x 2 m − 1 2( x ) − 1 24. (a) (i) ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 1
, = =
(2 ) y − m − 2 −( y + 2 ) − 2 Centre of C is (0, 1) , radius = 1
x
(2 y + 4 − x ) y ( − y − 2 − 2 x ) x
= (ii) Radius of K is t.
x x
Distance between centres = sum of radii
2 y 2 + 4 y − xy = − xy − 2 x − 2 x 2
(0 − s)2 + (1 − t )2 = 1 + t
x 2 + y2 + x + 2 y = 0
∴ s 2 + 1 − 2t + t 2 = 1 + 2t + t 2
s 2 = 4t
22. (a) x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 6 y + 5 = 0 ..................(1) (b) Let C1 be the required circle.
( x + 1)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 5 p2
C = ( −1, − 3) Let ( p, ) be the centre of C1 .
4
y−2 y+3 p2
(b) ( )( ) = −1 ∴ radius =
x − 4 x +1 4
( x − 4)( x + 1) + ( y − 2)( y + 3) = 0 6 2 p2 2 2 p2
Also, ( p − ) + ( − ) = ( )2
5 4 5 4
x 2 + y 2 − 3 x + y − 10 = 0 ..................(2) p2 − 3 p + 2 = 0
p = 1 or 2
(c) P, Q are the intersection of (1) and (2).
∴ PQ is the common chord (1) and (2). For p = 2 , equation of K is
1 1
(1) − (2), 5 x + 5 y + 15 = 0 ( x − 1)2 + ( y − )2 = .
x+ y+3= 0 4 16
For p = 2 , equation of K is
23. (a) Since C touches x-axis at (3, 0), ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 1 .
Substitute y = 0 into C,
(c) Distance between centres
∴ x 2 + 2 Dx + F = 0 has the equal root 3.
1
∴ ( x − 3)2 ≡ x 2 + 2 Dx + F = (2 − 1)2 + (1 − )2
4
x 2 − 6 x + 9 ≡ x 2 + 2 Dx + F 9
6 = 1+
∴ D = − = −3 16
2 25
F=9 =
16
(b) Since C touches the line 5
L : 3 y − 4 x = 12 , =
4
4 1
substitute y = x + 4 into C, Sum of radii = 1 +
3 4
5
4 4 =
x 2 + ( x + 4)2 − 6 x + 2 E( x + 4) + 9 = 0 4
3 3
25 2 14 8 E ∴ The two circles obtained in (b) touch each
x +( + ) x + (25 + 8 E ) = 0 other externally. Since both circles pass
9 3 3 through B, therefore B is the point of
Since C touches L, contact.
∴ the above equation has equal roots.
Chapter 12 Circles 189

25. (a) C1 : x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 4 y + 4 = 0 12 x + 5 y − 35 = 0 .....................(1)


(ii)  2
Centre is (1, 2), radius = 1.  x + y − 4 x + 6 y + 9 = 0 .........(2)
2

y-axis is a tangent of C1 . 1
From (1), y = (35 − 12 x ) .........(3)
5
C 2 : x 2 + y2 − 4 x + 6 y + 9 = 0
Substitute (3) into (2),
Centre is (2, −3), radius = 2. 1
x 2 + [ (35 − 12 x )]2 − 4 x
y-axis is a tangent of C 2 . 5
1
∴ y-axis is a common tangent of C1 and + 6[ (35 − 12 x )] + 9 = 0
5
C2 .
169 x 2 − 1 300 x + 2 500 = 0
(b) An equation of the line is D = ( −1 300)2 − 4(169)(2 500)
−3 − 2 =0
y−2= ( x − 1)
2 −1 ∴ T intersects C2 .
− y + 2 = 5x − 5
5x + y − 7 = 0 x+y−4 x−y−2
26. (a) d1 = , d2 = ,
Substitute x = 0 . ∴ y = 7. 2 2
x+ y−6 x−y
∴ The required point is (0, 7) . d3 = , d4 =
2 2
(c) (i) y
Q d12 + d2 2 + d32 + d4 2 = 2 k
(0, 7)
∴ x+y−4 2 x−y−2 2
( ) +( )
2 2
θθ (1, 2) x+ y−6 2 x−y 2
π +( ) +( ) = 2k
+ 2θ 2 2
θ 2
x
O x 2 + y 2 + 2 xy − 8 x − 8 y + 16 + x 2
(2, −3) + y 2 − 2 xy − 4 x + 4 y + 4 + x 2 + y 2
+ 2 xy − 12 x − 12 y + 36 + x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 = 4 k
T
4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 24 x − 16 y + 56 = 4 k
2 −1 1 x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 4 y + 14 = k
tan θ = =
3+2 5
2 tan θ (b) x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 4 y + 14 − k = 0
tan 2θ =
1 − tan 2 θ D = −6 , E = −4 and F = 14 − k
2
∴ D2 + E 2 − 4 F > 0
= 5
1 − 25
1 36 + 16 − 4(14 − k ) > 0
2 25 −4 + 4 k > 0
= ⋅ k >1
5 24
5
=  x − y = 0 ........................................(1)
12 (c)  2
 x + y − 6 x − 4 y + 14 = k ..............(2)
2
π
Slope of T = tan( + 2θ) From (1), x = y ...............................(3)
2
= − cot 2θ Substitute (3) into (2),
=−
12 2 x 2 − 10 x + 14 − k = 0
5 Q L 4 touches the circle.
∴ Equation of T is
∴ D=0
12
y − 7 = − ( x − 0) 10 2 − 4(2)(14 − k ) = 0
5
5 y − 35 = −12 x 8k = 12
12 x + 5 y − 35 = 0 k = 1.5
190 Chapter 12 Circles

27. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


question because of the copyright reasons. 3. x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 6 y + F = 0 .......................(1)
( x + 1)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 10 − F

Exercise 12C (p.316) Centre = ( −1, − 3) , radius = 10 − F


(a) Substitute (0, −2) into (1),
1. The family of circle is x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y + F = 0 .
0 2 + ( −2)2 + 2(0) + 6( −2) + F = 0
(a) It passes through the origin, F = 0 F=8
∴ The equation of the circle is
(b) x + 2 y + 2 = 0
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 4 y = 0 x = −2 y − 2 .........................(2)
1 2 Substitute (2) into (1),
(b) Radius = 4 + 4 2 − 4 F = 10
2 ( −2 y − 2)2 + y 2 + 2( −2 y − 2) + 6 y + F = 0
32 − 4 F = 40 5 y 2 + 10 y + F = 0
F = −2
D=0
∴ The equation of the circle is
10 2 − 4(5)( F ) = 0
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 4 y − 2 = 0 F=5
(c) 32 + 12 + 4 ⋅ 3 − 4 ⋅ 1 + F = 5 (c) x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 2 y = 0
18 + F = 25 ( x − 1)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 2
F=7
Centre = (1, − 1) , radius = 2
∴ The equation of the circle is
Distance between centres = 2 2
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 4 y + 7 = 0
2 2 = 10 − F ± 2
10 − F = 2 or 10 − F = 3 2
2. (a) ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 7)2 = k 2 , ( k > 0) where k is the
10 − F = 2 or 10 − F = 18
radius.
F=8 or F = −8
∴ The equation of F is
x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 14 y + (50 − k 2 ) = 0 D
4. (a) Centre of C = ( −
E
,− )
2 2
4 6
(b) Centre of C = ( − , ) = ( −2, 3) , 2( m − 1) −4 m
2 2 = (− ,− )
2 2
1 2 ∴ Centre of C is (1 − m, 2 m) .
Radius of C = 4 + 6 2 − 4(12) = 1.
2 (b) From (a), locus of centre is
If the circle touches C externally, x = 1− m
Sum of radii = distance between centres y = 2m
∴ y = 2(1 − x )
1 + k = (1 + 2)2 + (7 − 3)2
= 25 ∴ L : 2 x + y − 2 = 0 is the locus of centre C
=5 for any real m.
∴ k=4
5. The required common chord is
∴ The equation of the circle is
( x 2 + y 2 − 4 y − 3) − ( x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 2 y − 5) = 0
x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 14 y + 34 = 0 . 4x − 2y + 2 = 0
If the circle touches C internally, 2x − y + 1 = 0
| different of radii | = distance between centres
| 1− k | = 5 6. ( x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 2 y − 15) + k (3 x − y + 7) = 0....(1)
k = −4 or 6 (a) Substitute (−3, 2) into (1),
Since k > 0 , ∴ k = 6 [( −3)2 + 2 2 − 6( −3) − 2(2) − 15]
∴ The equation of the circle is + k[3( −3) − 2 + 7] = 0
x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 14 y + 14 = 0 . 12 + k ( −4) = 0
k=3
Chapter 12 Circles 191

The required equation of the circle is Substitute x = 1 into (1),


( x + y − 6 x − 2 y − 15) + 3(3 x − y + 7) = 0
2 2
1 + y 2 + 4(1) − 8 y + 10 = 0
x + y + 3x − 5y + 6 = 0
2 2
y 2 − 8 y + 15 = 0
(b) From (1), ( y − 3)( y − 5) = 0
x 2 + y 2 + (3k − 6) x − ( k + 2) y + (7k − 15) = 0 y = 3 or y = 5
∴ The coordinates of A and B are (1, 3) , (1, 5) .
3k − 6 2 k+2 2
Radius = ( ) +( ) − (7k − 15)
2 2
= 5 10. ( x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 6 y + 8) + k ( x − 3 y + 2) = 0
(3k − 6)2 + ( k + 2)2 − 4(7k − 15) = 20 x + y 2 + ( k − 4) x − 3( k + 2) y + 2( k + 4) = 0
2

10 k 2 − 60 k + 80 = 0 k − 4 3( k + 2)
The centre is ( − , ).
k − 6k + 8 = 0
2 2 2
( k − 2)( k − 4) = 0 Substitute the centre into the line x − 3 y + 2 = 0 .
k = 2 or k = 4 k−4 3( k + 2)
− − 3[ ]+ 2 = 0
∴ The required equation of the circle is 2 2
x 2 + y2 − 4 y − 1 = 0 −( k − 4) − 9( k + 2) + 4 = 0
−10 k − 10 = 0
or x 2 + y 2 + 6 x − 6 y + 13 = 0 k = −1
The required equation of the circle is
7. The equation of the circle is
( x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 6 y + 8) − ( x − 3 y + 2) = 0
( x + y + 4 x − 2 y + 1) + k ( x − 2 y) = 0
2 2
x 2 + y 2 − 5 x − 3y + 6 = 0
x + y + ( 4 + k ) x − 2(1 + k ) y + 1 = 0
2 2

Since the centre lies on the x-axis, 11. ( x 2 + y 2 − 8 x + 2 y − 8)


∴ −2(1 + k ) = 0 + k ( x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 2 y) = 0 ...........................(1)
k = −1
( k + 1)( x 2 + y 2 ) + ( 4 k − 8) x + (2 − 2 k ) y − 8 = 0
∴ The circle is x 2 + y 2 + 3 x + 1 = 0 .
4( k − 2 ) 2(1 − k ) 8
x 2 + y2 + x+ y− = 0 ...(2)
k +1 k +1 k +1
8. ( x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y + 1) + k (2 x − y + 4) = 0
−2( k − 2) k − 1
x 2 + y 2 + (2 k + 2) x − ( k + 4) y + ( 4 k + 1) = 0 (a) Centre = ( , )
k +1 k +1
Since the circle touches y-axis, substitute x = 0 , Substitute the centre into x − y + 1 = 0 ,
then y 2 − ( k + 4) y + ( 4 k + 1) = 0 will give equal −2( k − 2) k − 1
roots, − +1 = 0
k +1 k +1
∴ D=0 −2( k − 2) − ( k − 1) + ( k + 1) = 0
( k + 4)2 − 4( 4 k + 1) = 0 −2 k + 6 = 0
k=3
k 2 − 8k + 12 = 0
( k − 2)( k − 6) = 0 Substitute k = 3 into (1),
k = 2 or k = 6 4 x 2 + 4 y2 + 4 x − 4 y − 8 = 0
∴ The required equation of the circle is x 2 + y2 + x − y − 2 = 0
x 2 + y2 + 6 x − 6y + 9 = 0 (b) Substitute (2, 3) into (1),
or x + y + 14 x − 10 y + 25 = 0
2 2
(2 2 + 32 − 8 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 − 8)
+ k (2 2 + 32 + 4 ⋅ 2 − 2 ⋅ 3) = 0
9. Rewrite the given equation as
( −5) + k (15) = 0
( x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 8 y + 10) + b( x − 1) = 0 1
k=
 x 2 + y 2 + 4 x − 8 y + 10 = 0 .................(1) 3

x − 1 = 0
192 Chapter 12 Circles

1 Radical axis is
Substitute k = into (1), ( D1 − D2 ) x + ( E1 − E2 ) y + ( F1 − F2 ) = 0
3
4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 20 x + 4 y − 24 = 0 D1 − D2
Slope =
x 2 + y2 − 5x + y − 6 = 0 E2 − E1
E1 − E2 D1 − D2
Product of slopes = ⋅ = −1
12. x + y + 2 x − 4 y + k ( x + y − 2 y) = 0
2 2 2 2 D1 − D2 E2 − E1
∴ The radical axis is perpendicular to the line
(1 + k ) x 2 + (1 + k ) y 2 + 2 x − 2(2 + k ) y = 0 .......(1)
joining the centres of the cicles.
Substitute y = x + 3 in (1),
15. (a) Let the equation of C be
(1 + k ) x 2 + (1 + k )( x + 3)2
+ 2 x − 2(2 + k )( x + 3) = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 3 x + y − 10 + k ( x 2 + y 2 − x − 5) = 0

2 x 2 + 2 kx 2 + 4 x + 4 kx − 3 + 3k = 0 (1 + k ) x 2 + (1 + k ) y 2 + (3 − k ) x + y − (5k + 10)
= 0 ........................(*)
(2 + 2 k ) x 2 + ( 4 + 4 k ) x − 3 + 3k = 0
1
D=0 Substitute (0, 3) into (*), k = −
2
( 4 + 4 k )2 − 4(2 + 2 k )( −3 + 3k ) = 0 ∴ The equation of C is
k 2 − 4k − 5 = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 7 x + 2 y − 15 = 0 .
( k − 5)( k + 1) = 0
(b) The equation of the tangent is
k = 5 or k = −1 (rejected)
∴ The required equation of the circle is 7 2
x (0) + y(3) + ( x + 0) + (3 + y) − 15 = 0
2 2
x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y + 5( x 2 + y 2 − 2 y) = 0 7 x + 8 y − 24 = 0
6 x 2 + 6 y 2 + 2 x − 14 y = 0
16. (a) x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 8 y + 16 = 0 ................(1)
3x 2 + 3y 2 + x − 7 y = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 2 y − 8 = 0 ..................(2)
(2) − (1), 6 x + 6 y − 24 = 0
13. x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 8 y + 8 = 0 ........................(1)
x + y − 4 = 0 ................(3)
x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 2 y + 6 = 0 ........................(2)
Substitute (3) into (1),
For (1), centre (−1, 4), radius = 3
For (2), centre (3, 1), radius = 2 x 2 + ( 4 − x )2 − 4 x − 8( 4 − x ) + 16 = 0
Distance between centres 2x2 − 4x = 0
2 x ( x − 2) = 0
= ( 4 − 1)2 + ( −1 − 3)2 = 5 = sum of radii
x = 0 or x = 2
∴ Two circles touch each other externally.
y = 4 or y = 2
(1) − (2), 8 x − 6 y + 2 = 0
They intersect at 2 points (0, 4) and (2, 2).
4 x − 3y + 1 = 0
The common chord is
x+y−4=0
14. Let the circles be
 x 2 + y 2 + D1 x + E1 y + F1 = 0 (b) The smallest circle is the one with the
 2 common chord as diameter.
 x + y 2 + D2 x + E2 y + F2 = 0 y−4 y−2
( )( ) = −1
D1 E D E x x−2
The centres are ( − , − 1 ) and ( − 2 , − 2 ) . x ( x − 2) + ( y − 4)( y − 2) = 0
2 2 2 2
Slope of line of centres x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 6 y + 8 = 0
E2 E1
(− ) − (− )
= 2 2 3(0) + 4(0) − 25
D2 D1 17. (a) Radius = =5
(− 2
) − (− 2
) 32 + 4 2
E − E2
= 1
D1 − D2 ∴ The equation of C is x 2 + y 2 = 25 .
Chapter 12 Circles 193

4 25
(b) Substitute y = x− into C, 8 3(0) + 4(0) + 15 2
3 3 r 2 = ( )2 + ( ) = 4 2 + 32 = 25
2 3 +4
2 2
4 25
∴ x 2 + ( x − )2 = 25
3 3 The equation is x 2 + y 2 = 25 .
9 x 2 + 16 x 2 − 200 x + 625 = 225
25 x 2 − 200 x + 400 = 0 3. ( x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y − 4) + k ( x 2 + y 2 − 16) = 0
x 2 − 8 x + 16 = 0 ( k + 1)( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 x − 4 y − (16k + 4) = 0
2 4 16k + 4
D = 82 − 4(16) = 0 x 2 + y2 + x− y− =0
k +1 k +1 k +1
∴ C touches the line 4 x − 3 y = 25 .
1 2 2 2 16k + 4
(c) Since (3, −4) lies on C, r2 = ( ) +( ) +
k +1 k +1 k +1
∴ The equation is 3 x − 4 y = 25 . 5 + 4( 4 k + 1)( k + 1)
=
( k + 1)2
(d) By symmetry, the coordinates of Q are (−3, 4).
16k 2 + 20 k + 9
∴ The equation of PQ is =
( k + 1)2
4+4
y+4= ( x − 3)
−3 − 3 Area = πr 2 = 9π
4 ∴ r2 = 9
y+4=− x+4
3
16k 2 + 20 k + 9 = 9( k + 1)2
4 x + 3y = 0
7k 2 + 2 k = 0
∴ The equation of the family of circles is 2
k = 0 or k = −
( x 2 + y 2 − 25) + k ( 4 x + 3 y) = 0 ..........(1) 7
∴ The equation of the circle is
Substitute (0, 1) into (1),
x 2 + y2 + 2 x − 4 y − 4 = 0
∴ (0 + 1 − 25) + k (0 + 3) = 0
∴ k=8 or 7( x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y − 4) − 2( x 2 + y 2 − 16) = 0
∴ The required equation of the circle is 5 x 2 + 5 y 2 + 14 x − 28 y + 4 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 32 x + 24 y − 25 = 0 .
4. Let (h, k) be the centre and r be the radius.
2 h + k = 0 ..............................................(1)
Revision Exercise 12 (p.320) r 2 = (h − 2)2 + ( k + 1)2
2
1. Substitute y = 2 x − 5 into x 2 + y 2 = k . h + k −1
=
2
x 2 + (2 x − 5)2 = k
5 x − 20 x + 25 − k = 0
2 2(h − 2)2 + 2( k + 1)2 = (h + k − 1)2
For tangency, put D = 0. h 2 + k 2 − 2 hk − 6h + 6k + 9 = 0 ...............(2)
( −20)2 − 4(5)(25 − k ) = 0 From (1), k = −2 h ..................................(3)
20 k = 100 Substitute (3) into (2),
k=5 h 2 + ( −2 h)2 − 2 h( −2 h) − 6h + 6( −2 h) + 9 = 0
9h 2 − 18h + 9 = 0
2.
(h − 1)2 = 0
r
h = 1 , k = −2
(0, 0)
r 2 = (1 − 2)2 + ( −2 + 1)2 = 2
The equation of the circle is
( x − 1)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 2
Let r be the radius of the circle. x 2 + y2 − 2 x + 4 y + 3 = 0
194 Chapter 12 Circles

5. Let (h, k) be the centre, r be the radius. 7. Let (h, k) be the centre.
2
πr 2 = 5π 3h − k + 3
(h − 2)2 + ( k + 1)2 =
∴ r= 5 10
10(h − 2)2 + 10( k + 1)2 = (3h − k + 3)2
h − 2k + 3
= 5 h 2 + 6hk + 9k 2 − 58h + 26k + 41 = 0 ..............(1)
5
2
h − 3k − 7
h − 2 k + 3 = ±5 ................................(1) (h − 2)2 + ( k + 1)2 =
10
Similarly, 2 h − k + 1 = ±5 .......................(2)
10(h − 2)2 + 10( k + 1)2 = (h − 3k − 7)2
Solving (1) and (2) gives
14 10 16 20 9h 2 + 6hk + k 2 − 26h − 22 k + 1 = 0 ................(2)
(h, k ) = (2, 0) , ( − , − ) , ( , ) or
3 3 3 3 1 1
Solving (1) and (2), (h, k) = ( , − ) or (3, 2)
4 10 2 2
(− , ) .
3 3 1 1 5
r = ( − 2) + ( − + 1) =
2 2 2
∴ ( x − 2)2 + y 2 = 5 2 2 2
x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 1 = 0 or r = (3 − 2) + (2 + 1) = 10
2 2 2

1 1 5
14 2 10 ( x − )2 + ( y + )2 =
or (x + ) + ( y + )2 = 5 2 2 2
3 3 or ( x − 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 10
(3 x + 14)2 + (3 y + 10)2 = 45
9 x 2 + 9 y 2 + 84 x + 60 y + 251 = 0 x 2 + y2 − x + y − 2 = 0

4 10
or x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 4 y + 3 = 0
or ( x + )2 + ( y − )2 = 5
3 3
8 − 9. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
(3 x + 4)2 + (3 y − 10)2 = 45 questions because of the copyright reasons.
9 x 2 + 9 y 2 + 24 x − 60 y + 71 = 0
10. Let the required circle be of the form
16 2 20
or (x − ) + ( y − )2 = 5
3 3 x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 4 y − 4 + k ( x − 2 y + 1) = 0
(3 x − 16)2 + (3 y − 20)2 = 45 x 2 + y 2 + ( k − 2) x + ( 4 − 2 k ) y − 4 + k = 0
9 x + 9 y − 96 x − 120 y + 611 = 0
2 2
2 − k 2k − 4 k
Centre = ( , ) = (1 − , k − 2)
2 2 2
6. Let (h, k) be the centre. Let the coordinates of the centre be (x, y).
h − 2k + 3  x = 1 − k
= 5
5  2
h − 2 k + 3 = ±5  y = k − 2
h − 2 k + 8 = 0 .........................................(1) y+2
x =1−
h − 2 k − 2 = 0 .........................................(2) 2
y + 2 = 2 − 2x
Q The circle passes through (2, 1). 2x + y = 0
∴ (h − 2)2 + k 2 = 5 ..............................(3)
Solving (1) and (3), there is no solution. 11. (a) Let m be the slope of tangent.
Solving (2) and (3), (h, k) = (4, 1) or (0, −1) y = m( x + 4) ....................................(1)
∴ The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y 2 − 4 y = 0 ..............................(2)
( x − 4)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 5
Substitute (1) into (2),
or x 2 + ( y + 1)2 = 5
x 2 + m 2 ( x + 4 ) 2 − 4 m( x + 4 ) = 0
x + y − 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0
2 2
( m + 1) x + (8m 2 − 4 m) x + 16 m( m − 1) = 0
2 2

or x 2 + y2 + 2 y − 4 = 0 For tangency, put D = 0.


Chapter 12 Circles 195

(8m 2 − 4 m)2 − 4( m 2 + 1)[16 m( m − 1)] = 0  x 2 + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y − 20 = 0.....................(1)


13.  2
m 2 (2 m − 1)2 − 4 m( m 2 + 1)( m − 1) = 0 3 x + 3 y 2 + 13 x − y − 40 = 0..................(2)
m( −3m + 4) = 0
4 (a) (1) × 3 − (2), − x + 7 y − 20 = 0
m = 0 or m = The common chord is x − 7 y + 20 = 0 .
3
4
∴ L1 : y = ( x + 4 ) (b) Eliminate the constant term from (1) and (2),
3 (2) − (1) × 2,
4 x − 3 y + 16 = 0
the equation of the circle is
L2 : y = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 5x − 5y = 0
(b) By similar method of (a), it can be find that
5 5
the slopes are also 0 and .
4 (c) The centre of (b) is ( − , ) .
3 2 2
4 Substitute into (a),
∴ L 3 : y − 4 = ( x − 4) 5 5
3 L.H.S. = ( − ) − 7( ) + 20 = 0
3 y − 12 = 4 x − 16 2 2
4 x − 3y − 4 = 0 The centre lies on PQ
L4 : y − 4 = 0 ∴ PQ is a diameter of the circle OPQ.
y=4 ∴ OP ⊥ OQ .
(c) By solving equations, L1 and L 4 intersect at (d) The centre of C1 is (−2, −1).
R(−1, 4). Substitute into (b), it is satisfied.
L 2 and L 3 intersect at S(1, 0). ∴ It lies on the circle OPQ.
PR = PS = QR = QS = 5
∴ The angle subtended is 90° .
∴ They form a rhombus.
Area = 5 ⋅ 4 square units
14. (a) x 2 + y 2 − x − 3 y = 0 .........................(1)
= 20 square units
Substitute B(−1, 1), C(1, 0) into (1).
12. (a) Since (α, β) on L, They are satisfied.
∴ α + β −1 = 0 ∴ They lie on the circle.
α = −β + 1 (b) Let A be (x, y) then
∴ Equation of circle with (α, β) as centre, x y
r as radius is 1 −1 1 1
=2
( x − α ) 2 + ( y − β) 2 = r 2 2 1 0 2
x 2 + y 2 − 2(1 − β) x − 2βy x y
( x + 2 y − 1) = ±5
+ (α 2 + β 2 − r 2 ) = 0
x + 2 y = 6 .................................(2)
or x 2 + y 2 − 2(1 − β) x − 2βy = k ,
where k is a constant. or x + 2 y = −4 ...............................(3)
(b) Centre is (α, β) , radius = 2, touches x-axis, Solving (1) and (3), there is no solution.
Case 1: Solving (1) and (2), we have
β = 2 , α = −2 + 1 = −1 . A is (2, 2) or (0, 3) .
∴ Equation of the circle is 0 −1 1
(c) When A = (2, 2), m BC = =−
x + y − 2(1 − 2) x − 4 y + (1 + 2 − 4) = 0
2 2 2 2 1 − ( −1) 2
2−0
x 2 + y2 + 2 x − 4 y + 1 = 0 m AC = =2
2 −1
Case 2: m AC ⋅ m BC = −1
β = −2 , α = −( −2 + 1) = 3 .
∴ ∠C = 90°
∴ Equation of the circle is 3 −1
x 2 + y 2 − 2[1 − ( −2)]x When A = (0, 3), m AB = =2
0 − ( −1)
−2( −2) y + [32 + ( −2)2 − 4] = 0 m AB ⋅ m BC = −1
x 2 + y2 − 6 x + 4 y + 9 = 0 ∴ ∠B = 90°
196 Chapter 12 Circles

(d) Let A1 = (2, 2), A 2 = (0, 3) . From (1), y = 2


x = 8 − 2( 2 ) = 4
Then A1 A 2 = A 2 B = BC = CA1 = 5
∴ L1 touches C at A( 4, 2) .
and ∠A 2 BC = 90° , ∠BCA1 = 90°
k
∴ A1 A 2 BC is a square. (b) From C, centre = ( 4 − , 2 − k)
2
15. (a) Substitute y = mx into k 5 k
radius = ( )2 + k 2 =
x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 2 2
x 2 + m 2 x 2 − 4 x − 2 mx − 4 = 0
2( 4 − 2k ) − (2 − k ) − 1 5
(1 + m 2 ) x 2 − 2(2 + m) x − 4 = 0 ..........(1) (c) = k
5 2
(b) As x1 and x2 are roots of (1),
 x + x = 2( 2 + m ) 5
5 = k
 1 2
1 + m2 2
∴  k =2
1 2+m
 ( x1 + x2 ) = k = ±2
 2 1 + m2
 y1 + y2 = mx1 + mx2 (d) Substitute k = ±2 into (b),
 = m( x1 + x2 ) centre = (3, 0) or (5, 4).
 2 m( 2 + m )
 = Q L1 and L 2 intersect at (2, 3).
 1 + m2
 1 ( y + y ) = m( 2 + m ) ∴ The angle bisector is
 2 1 2
1 + m2 3−0 4−3
y−0= ( x − 3) or y − 3 = ( x − 2)
∴ The coordinates of P are 2−3 5−2
m + 2 m( m + 2 ) 3x + y − 9 = 0 or x − 3 y + 7 = 0
( , )
1 + m2 1 + m2
(c) Let P be (x, y), then 21. (a) PA is x1 x + y1 y = r 2 .
m+2
x= Q P lies on PA
1 + m2
y ∴ x1 x 0 + y1 y0 = r 2
+2
= x 2 x 0 x1 + y0 y1 = r 2
y
1+ 2
x (b) Similarly, we have x 0 x2 + y0 y2 = r 2 .
x( y + 2 x )
= Consider an equation
x 2 + y2
x 0 x + y0 y = r 2......................(*)
x + y2 = y + 2 x
2
Substitute A( x 1, y 1 ) and B( x 2 , y 2 ) into (*).
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − y = 0
They are both satisfied.
16 − 19. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E. Further, (*) is linear in x, y,
questions because of the copyright reasons.
∴ It is a straight line.
∴ (*) is a straight line passing through A, B.
 L1 : x + 2 y − 8 = 0
 (c) Using (b),
20. (a)  L 2 : 2 x − y − 1 = 0 the equation of AB is

C :( x − 4) + ( y − 2) + k ( x + 2 y − 8) = 0
2 2
4x − y = 9
From L1 , x = 8 − 2 y , substitute into C, 4x − y − 9 = 0

(8 − 2 y − 4)2 + ( y − 2)2 + k (0) = 0


5( y − 2)2 = 0 Enrichment 12 (p.323)
y 2 − 4 y + 4 = 0 .............(1) 1. (a) The coordinates of A and B are given by
D = ( −4)2 − 4( 4)
=0  y = mx + c .....................................(1)
 2
 x + y = 1 ....................................(2)
2
∴ L1 intersects C at one point.
Chapter 12 Circles 197

Substitute (1) into (2), x 2 + ( mx + c)2 = 1 a b


Centre = ( − , − ) , radius =
1 2
a + b2
∴ (1 + m ) x + 2 mcx + c − 1 = 0
2 2 2 2 2 2
L e t A a n d B b e ( x1, y1 ) a n d ( x2 , y2 ) Radius of C0 = Diameter of C1
respectively. 1 2
c = 2⋅ a + b2
2 mc c2 − 1 2
x1 + x2 = − , x1 x2 =
1+ m 2
1 + m2 a2 + b2 = c2
Since A and B lies on y = mx + c , (b) Substitute P(1, 0) into C1 ,
∴ y1 = mx1 + c
12 + 0 2 + a(1) + b(0) = 0
y2 = mx2 + c
a = −1
∴ ( y1 − y2 ) = m( x1 − x2 )
a2 + b2 = c2
Length of AB = ( y1 − y2 )2 + ( x1 − x2 )2 b2 = c2 − a2
= m 2 ( x1 − x2 )2 + ( x1 − x2 )2 = 2 2 − ( −1)2
b = − 3 or 3 (rejected)
= 1 + m 2 ⋅ x1 − x2
a b 1 3
Q x1 − x2 = ( x1 + x2 )2 − 4 x1 x2 Centre of C1 = ( − , − ) = ( , )
2 2 2 2
Let A be (x, y).
−2 mc 2 c2 − 1
= ( ) − 4 ( ) 1 x
1 + m2 1 + m2 = , x =1
2 2
2 1 + m2 − c2
= 3 y
= , y= 3
1 + m2 2 2
1 + m2 − c2 ∴ A is (1, 3 ) .
∴ Length of AB = 2
1 + m2 a b 1 3
(c) Centre of C2 = ( − , ) = ( , − )
(b) (i) If touches C, length of AB = 0. 2 2 2 2
∴ The equation of C2 is
∴ 1 + m2 − c2 = 0
x 2 + y2 − x + 3y = 0 .
c 2 = 1 + m2
(ii) If L meets C at two points, AB > 0. (d) Let B be ( x1, y1 ) .
1 x
i.e. 1 + m 2 − c 2 > 0 (Q 1 + m 2 > 0 ) = , x =1
2 2
∴ c2 < 1 + m2 3 y
− = , y=− 3
(c) Let L1 , L 2 be the two tangents. 2 2
B is (1, − 3 ) .
Q OP ⊥ L1 , ∴ slope of OP = −1
Since A is (1, 3 ) , P is (1, 0) and B is
Q OQ ⊥ L 2 , ∴ slope of OQ = −1
(1, − 3 ) ,
∴ POQ is a straight line and POQ is a A, P and B are collinear.
diameter.
y−0
∴ Equation of PQ is = −1 3. (a) y
x−0
y = −x
x+y=0
x
(d) The equation is x 2 + y 2 − 1 + k ( x + y) = 0 (0, 0) (1, 0) B

where k is a constant.

2. (a) C0 : x 2 + y 2 = c 2 The centre of C is (1, 0).


1
Centre = (0, 0), radius = c Radius = ( −2)2 = 1
2
C1 : x 2 + y 2 + ax + by = 0 ∴ The coordinates of B are (2, 0) .
198 Chapter 12 Circles

(b) The equation of the tangent to C at Q is ∴ The equation of C 2 is


1
px + qy + ( −2)( x + p) = 0 x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 2 y − 2 − 4( y − 2 ) = 0
2
( p − 1) x + qy − p = 0 x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 2 y − 2 − 4 y + 8 = 0
1− p x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 6 y + 6 = 0
(c) Slope of tangent to C at Q =
q
q
Slope of PB = Classwork 1 (p.289)
p −1
q t 1. (a) The equation of the circle is
=
p −1 s − 2
qs − 2 q = tp − t x 2 + y 2 = 82
tp − 2 q = tp − t (Q qs = tp ) x 2 + y 2 = 64
t = 2q
(b) The equation of the circle is
qs = tp
= 2 qp ( x − 4)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 2 2
s = 2p ( x − 4)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 4

(d) Since Q is a point on C, (c) The equation of the circle is


p + q − 2p = 0
2 2
( x − 5)2 + ( y + 2)2 = ( 5 )2
s 2 t s ( x − 5)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 5
( ) + ( ) 2 − 2( ) = 0
2 2 2
s 2 + t 2 − 4s = 0 (d) The equation of the circle is
∴ The equation of the locus of P is ( x + 3)2 + ( y + 3)2 = ( 3 )2
x 2 + y2 − 4 x = 0 . ( x + 3)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 3

4. (a) Since L1 touches C1 at (3, 1),


2. (a) ( x + 1)2 + ( y − 4)2 = 72
L1 is the tangent of C1 at (3, 1). Centre : ( −1, 4)
∴ The equation of L1 is Radius : 7
1 1 (b) 4( x + 3)2 + 4( y + 7)2 − 25 = 0
3 x + y + ( −2)( x + 3) + ( −2)( y + 1) − 2 = 0
2 2 25
2x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)2 + ( y + 7)2 =
4
x−3= 0 5
(b) (i) The equation of F is ( x + 3) + ( y + 7) = ( )2
2 2
2
x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 2 y − 2 + k ( y − 2) = 0 Centre : ( −3, − 7)
(ii) Substitute x = 3 into F, 5
Radius :
3 + y − 2(3) − 2 y − 2 + k ( y − 2) = 0
2 2 2
y 2 − 2 y + 1 + ky − 2 k = 0 (c) ( x + 5)2 + y 2 = 16
y 2 + ( k − 2) y + 1 − 2 k = 0 ( x + 5)2 + ( y − 0)2 = 4 2
Q L1 touches C 2 . Centre : ( −5, 0)
Radius : 4
∴ D=0
( k − 2)2 − 4(1 − 2 k ) = 0 3. (a) The equation of the circle is
k 2 + 4k = 0 ( x − 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 52
k ( k + 4) = 0
( x − 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 25
k = −4 or k = 0 (rejected)
Chapter 12 Circles 199

(b) Substitute (6, 6) into the L.H.S. of the By comparing the equation with the equation
equation, in general form, we have
∴ L.H.S. = (6 − 3)2 + (6 − 2)2 D = 3, E = 5 and F = −
7
= 32 + 4 2 2
= 25 D E 3 5
The centre is ( − , − ) = (− , − )
= R.H.S. 2 2 2 2
Showing that (6, 6) is a point on the circle. 1
Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
(c) Substitute x = 0 into the equation, 2
∴ (0 − 3)2 + ( y − 2)2 = 25 1 2 7
= 3 + 5 2 − 4( − )
( y − 2)2 = 16 2 2
( y − 2)2 − 16 = 0 =2 3
( y − 2 − 4)( y − 2 + 4) = 0 (d) 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 20 x − 8 y − 115 = 0
( y − 6)( y + 2) = 0 115
y = 6 or y = −2 x 2 + y2 − 5x − 2 y − =0
4
∴ The point of intersection are (0, 6) and By comparing the equation with the equation
in general form, we have
(0, − 2) .
115
D = −5, E = −2 and F = −
4
D E −5 −2
Classwork 2 (p.291) The centre is ( − , − ) = ( − , − )
2 2 2 2
1. (a) By comparing the equation with the general 5
form, we have = ( , 1)
2
D = −2, E = 4 and F = −20 1
Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F
D E −2 4 2
The centre is ( − , − ) = (− ,− )
2 2 2 2 1 115
= ( −5)2 + ( −2)2 − 4( − )
= (1, − 2) 2 4
1
Radius =
1
D2 + E 2 − 4 F = 144
2 2
1 =6
= ( −2)2 + 4 2 − 4( −20)
2 2. D = −6, E = −2k, F = 9, radius = 5
1
= 100 1
2 D2 + E 2 − 4 F = 5
=5 2
(b) By comparing the equation with the equation 36 + 4 k 2 − 36 = 100
in general form, we have k 2 = 25
D = 6, E = −2 and F = 4 k = ±5
D E 6 −2
The centre is ( − , − ) = ( − , − )
2 2 2 2
= ( −3, 1) Classwork 3 (p.293)
1
Radius = D2 + E 2 − 4 F 1. (a) Let r be the radius of the circle.
2
1 2 r 2 = (3 + 2)2 + ( −2 − 10)2
= 6 + ( −2)2 − 4( 4) = 169
2
1 The equation of the circle is
= 24
2 ( x − 3)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 169
= 6 x 2 + y 2 − 6 x + 4 y − 156 = 0
(c) 2 x 2 + 2 y 2 + 6 x + 10 y − 7 = 0 (b) Let r be the radius of the circle.
7
x 2 + y 2 + 3x + 5y − = 0 πr 2 = 25π
2
r 2 = 25
200 Chapter 12 Circles

The equation of the circle is The equation of the circle is


( x − 3) + ( y + 2) = 25
2 2
( x − 5)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 49
x 2 + y 2 − 6 x + 4 y − 12 = 0 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 2 y − 23 = 0

2. Let P(x, y) be a point on the circle, ( x 1, y 1 ) be the 2. (a) Let (h, k) be the centre.
centre and r be the radius. The circle touches both axes, and lies in
quadrant II, so we have h = −r, k = r.
As the centre is mid-point of a diameter,
∴ Centre = ( − r, r )
1− a 5+a
∴ x1 = , y1 =
2 2 (b) The equation of the circle is
1− a 5+a ( x + r )2 + ( y − r )2 = r 2
r2 = ( + a)2 + ( − a)2
2 2 Since it passes through (−2, 1), we have
1+ a 2 5−a 2
=( ) +( ) ( −2 + r )2 + (1 − r )2 = r 2
2 2 (r − 1)(r − 5) = 0
a 2 − 4 a + 13 r = 1 or r = 5
=
2 ∴ The equation of the circle is
∴ The equation of the circle is
( x +1)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 1
1− a 2 5 + a 2 a 2 − 4 a + 13
(x − ) + (y − ) = x + y2 + 2 x − 2 y + 1 = 0
2
2 2 2
4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 4(1 − a) x − 4(5 + a) y + 16 a = 0 or ( x + 5)2 + ( y − 5)2 = 52
x 2 + y 2 − (1 − a) x − (5 + a) y + 4 a = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 10 x − 10 y + 25 = 0

3. Let the equation be


x 2 + y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ......................(1) Classwork 5 (p.298)
Substitute (2, 1), (3, 0) and (2, −1) into (1), 1. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x + 10 y + 56 = 0 ...................(1)
2 D + E + F + 5 = 0 ..................................(2) y = mx + 2 .............................................(2)
3D + F + 9 = 0 ..................................(3) Substitute (2) into (1),
2 D − E + F + 5 = 0..................................(4) x 2 + ( mx + 2)2 + 12 x + 10( mx + 2) + 56 = 0
By solving (2), (3) and (4), we have x + m 2 x 2 + 4 mx + 4 + 12 x + 10 mx + 20 + 56 = 0
2

D = −4, E = 0 and F = 3. x 2 (1 + m 2 ) + x (12 + 14 m) + 80 = 0


∴ The equation of the circle is Q They touch each other
x 2 + y2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 . ∴ Discriminant = 0
(12 + 14 m)2 − 4(1 + m 2 )(80) = 0
144 + 336 m + 196 m 2 − 320 − 320 m 2 = 0
Classwork 4 (p.294)
124 m 2 − 336 m + 176 = 0
1. Let (h, k) be the centre and r be the radius, 31m 2 − 84 m + 44 = 0
then 2 h − k − 9 = 0 .................................(1) ( m − 2)(31m − 22) = 0
r 2 = (h − 12)2 + ( k − 1)2.........(2) 22
m = 2 or m =
31
r 2 = (h − 5)2 + ( k + 6)2 .........(3)
Comparing (2) and (3), we have  x = 0 .............................................(1)
(h − 12)2 + ( k − 1)2 = (h − 5)2 + ( k + 6)2 2. (a)  2
 x + y − 2 y − 3 = 0 .......................(2)
2
14h + 14 k − 84 = 0
Substitute (1) into (2),
h + k − 6 = 0 ............................(4)
Solving (1) and (4), we have h = 5, k = 1 y2 − 2 y − 3 = 0
( y + 1)( y − 3) = 0
Substitute into (2),
y = −1 or y = 3
r 2 = (5 − 12)2 + (1 − 1)2 They intersect at two distinct points, they are
= 49 (0, − 1) and (0, 3) .
Chapter 12 Circles 201

∴ x1 + x2 = 6
 y = 0 .............................................(1)
(b)  2 1
 x + y − 8 x − 4 y + 16 = 0 ..............(2)
2
( x1 + x2 ) = 3
2
Substitute (1) into (2), 1 1
∴ ( y1 + y2 ) = ( x1 + 1 + x2 + 1)
x 2 − 8 x + 16 = 0 2 2
( x − 4)2 = 0 1
= (6 + 2 )
x=4 2
=4
They intersect at one point, it is ( 4, 0) . ∴ The mid-point of AB is (3, 4) .
 x − y = 0 ........................................(1) (ii) AB
(c)  2
 x + y − 4 x − 6 y = 0 .....................(2)
2
= ( x1 − x2 )2 + ( y1 − y2 )2
From (1), x = y ...............................(3)
Substitute (3) into (2), = ( x1 + x2 )2 − 4 x1 x2 + ( y1 + y2 )2 − 4 y1 y2
y2 + y2 − 4 y − 6y = 0 k−7
= 6 2 − 4( ) + 82 − 4( x1 + 1)( x2 + 1)
y(2 y − 10) = 0 2
y = 0 or y = 5 = 36 − 2( k − 7) + 64 − 4( x1 x2 + x1 + x2 + 1)
x = 0 or x = 5 k−7
∴ They intersect at two distinct points, they = 36 − 2 k + 14 + 64 − 4( + 6 + 1)
2
are (0, 0) and (5, 5) . = 100 − 4 k
2 x − y + 1 = 0 .................................(1) = 2 25 − k
(d)  2
 x + y − 5 x − 2 y − 9 = 0 ................(2)
2

From (1), y = 2 x + 1.........................(3) Classwork 7 (p.301)


Substitute (3) into (2),
(a) By using the formula, the equation of the tangent is
x 2 + (2 x + 1)2 − 5 x − 2(2 x + 1) − 9 = 0 1
(1) x + (1) y + (2)( y + 1) = 4
5 x 2 − 5 x − 10 = 0 2
x + y + y +1 = 4
x2 − x − 2 = 0 x + 2y − 3 = 0
( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0
x = −1 or x = 2 (b) By using the formula, the equation of the tangent is
y = −1 or y = 5 1 1
(2) x + (0) y + ( −4)( x + 2) + (6)( y + 0) + 4 = 0
∴ They intersect at two distinct points, they 2 2
are ( −1, − 1) and (2, 5) . 2 x − 2( x + 2 ) + 3 y + 4 = 0
3y = 0
y=0
Classwork 6 (p.300) (c) ( x − 4)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 4
(a) y = x + 1.................................................(1) x + y 2 − 8 x + 2 y + 13 = 0
2

By using the formula, the equation of the tangent is


x 2 + y 2 − 6 x − 8 y + k = 0 ........................(2) 1 1
Substitute (1) into (2), (2) x + ( −1) y + ( −8)( x + 2) + (2)( y − 1) + 13 = 0
2 2
x 2 + ( x + 1)2 − 6 x − 8( x + 1) + k = 0 2 x − y − 4( x + 2) + ( y − 1) + 13 = 0
−2 x + 4 = 0
2 x 2 − 12 x + k − 7 = 0 .........(3) x−2=0
Q They intersect at two distinct points.
(d) ( x − 1)2 + ( y + 2)2 = 5
∴ Discriminant > 0
x 2 + y2 − 2 x + 4 y = 0
( −12)2 − 4(2)( k − 7) > 0
By using the formula, the equation of the tangent is
k < 25
1 1
(b) (i) Let A( x 1, y 1 ) and B( x 2 , y 2 ) be the points of (0) x + (0) y + ( −2)( x + 0) + ( 4)( y + 0) = 0
2 2
intersection. Then x 1 and x 2 are the roots of −x + 2y = 0
(3). x − 2y = 0
202 Chapter 12 Circles

Classwork 8 (p.302) y − 4 = m( x − 7)
y = m( x − 7) + 4 ................................(1)
(a) Since the slope of the tangent is 3, let the equation
of tangent be x 2 + y 2 − 8 x − 6 y + 20 = 0 .......................(2)
y = 3 x + c .........................................(1) Substitute (1) into (2),
Substitute (1) into the equation of the circle, x 2 + [ m( x − 7) + 4]2
− 8 x − 6[ m( x − 7) + 4] + 20 = 0
( x + 3)2 + (3 x + c − 2)2 = 10
x 2 + m 2 x 2 − 14 m 2 x + 8mx + 49m 2
x + 6 x + 9 + 9 x + 6 xc − 12 x + c 2 − 4c + 4 = 10
2 2
− 56 m + 16 − 8 x − 6 mx + 42 m − 24 + 20 = 0
10 x 2 + (6c − 6) x + c 2 − 4c + 3 = 0
(1 + m 2 ) x 2 + ( −14 m 2 + 2 m − 8) x
If (1) is a tangent, the discriminant of the above + ( 49m 2 − 14 m + 12) = 0
equation is zero.
If (1) is a tangent, the discriminant of the above
(6c − 6)2 − 4(10)(c 2 − 4c + 3) = 0 equation is zero.
4c 2 − 88c + 84 = 0 ( −14 m 2 + 2 m − 8)2 − 4(1 + m 2 )
c 2 − 22c + 21 = 0 ( 49m 2 − 14 m + 12) = 0
(c − 21)(c − 1) = 0
196 m 4 − 28m 3 + 112 m 2 − 28m 3 + 4 m 2
c = 21 or c = 1
∴ The equations of the tangents are, − 16 m + 112 m 2 − 16 m + 64 − 196 m 2

for c = 21 , y = 3 x + 21 + 56 m − 48 − 196 m 4 + 56 m 3 − 48m 2 = 0


3 x − y + 21 = 0 −16 m 2 + 24 m + 16 = 0
for c = 1, y = 3 x + 1 2 m 2 − 3m − 2 = 0
3x − y + 1 = 0 (2 m + 1)( m − 2) = 0
−1
m= or 2
(b) Since the slope of the tangent is −2, let the equation 2
of tangent be ∴ The equations of the tangents are,
y = −2 x + c ....................................(1) −1 −1
for m = , y= ( x − 7) + 4
Substitute (1) into the equation of the circle, 2 2
x + 2 y − 15 = 0
x 2 + ( −2 x + c)2 − 2 x + 8( −2 x + c) + 12 = 0
x 2 + 4 x 2 − 4 xc + c 2 − 2 x − 16 x + 8c + 12 = 0 for m = 2 , y = 2( x − 7) + 4
2 x − y − 10 = 0
5 x 2 − ( 4c + 18) x + c 2 + 8c + 12 = 0
If (1) is a tangent , the discriminant of the above 2. Let m be the slope of the tangent. The equation of
equation is zero. the tangent is
[ −( 4c + 18)]2 − 4(5)(c 2 + 8c + 12) = 0 y − 5 = m( x + 7)
y = m( x + 7) + 5 ................................(1)
4c 2 + 16c − 84 = 0
c 2 + 4c − 21 = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 6 x − 2 y − 6 = 0 ........................(2)
(c + 7)(c − 3) = 0 Substitute (1) into (2),
c = −7 or c = 3 x 2 + [ m( x + 7) + 5]2 + 6 x − 2[ m( x + 7) + 5] − 6 = 0
∴ The equations of the tangents are, x 2 + m 2 x 2 + 14 m 2 x + 10 mx + 49m 2 + 70 m
for c = −7 , y = −2 x − 7 + 25 + 6 x − 2 mx − 14 m − 10 − 6 = 0
2x + y + 7 = 0 (1 + m 2 ) x 2 + (14 m 2 + 8m + 6)
for c = 3 , y = −2 x + 3 + 49m 2 + 56 m + 9 = 0
2x + y − 3 = 0 If (1) is a tangent, the discriminant of the above
equation is zero.
(14 m 2 + 8m + 6)2
Classwork 9 (p.304) − 4(1 + m 2 )( 49m 2 + 56 m + 9) = 0
1. Let m be the slope of the tangent. The equation of 196 m 4 + 224 m 3 + 232 m 2 + 96 m + 36
the tangent is − 196 m 4 − 224 m 3 − 232 m 2 − 224 m − 36 = 0
m =0
Chapter 12 Circles 203

∴ The equation of the tangent is (d) The equation of the circle is


y = (0)( x + 7) + 5 ( x + 2)2 + y 2 = 11
y=5
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 7 = 0
Q There must be two tangents. The length of the tangent
∴ The other tangent must be in the form x = k.
= (2)2 + (5)2 + 4(2) − 7
Q x = k passes through (5, −7).
= 30
∴ k = −7
∴ The equation of the tangent is x = −7 .
Classwork 11 (p.308)
Classwork 10 (p.305) 1. (a) ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 2
1. (a) Let f ( x, y) = x 2 + y 2 − 6 x + 2 y − 39 The centre is (2, 1), radius = 2
then f (5, 8) = (5)2 + (8)2 − 6(5) + 2(8) − 39 ( x − 4)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 2
= 36 The centre is (4, −1), radius = 2
>0 Distance between two centres
∴ The point (5, 8) lies outside the circle.
= ( 4 − 2)2 + ( −1 − 1)2
(b) Let f ( x, y) = x + y + 10 x − y + 9
2 2
=2 2
then f ( −1, 1) = ( −1)2 + (1)2 + 10( −1) − 1 + 9 = 2+ 2
=0 = Sum of radii
∴ The point (−1, 1) is on the circle. ∴ Two circles touch each other externally.

(c) Let f ( x, y) = ( x − 3)2 + ( y + 1)2 − 49 (b) ( x − 3 2 )2 + ( y + 4)2 = 1


then f ( −2, − 3) = ( −2 − 3)2 + ( −3 + 1)2 − 49 The centre is (3 2 , − 4) , radius = 1
= −20 ( x − 2 )2 + ( y + 3)2 = 4
<0
The centre is ( 2 , − 3) , radius = 2
∴ The point (−2, −3) lies inside the circle.
Distance between two centres

2. (a) The length of the tangent = (3 2 − 2 )2 + ( −4 + 3)2


=3
= ( −8)2 + (9)2 − 6( −8) − 7(9) − 9
= 2 +1
= 11
= Sum of radii
(b) 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 3 x − 4 y − 14 = 0 ∴ The circles touch each other externally.
3 14
x 2 + y2 − x − y − =0 2. (a) Let C1 and C 2 be the given circles.
4 4
The length of the tangent C1 : x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 2 y + 1 = 0
3 14 ( x − 1)2 + ( y + 1)2 = 1
= (6)2 + ( −3)2 − (6) − ( −3) −
4 4 The centre is (1, −1), radius = 1
= 2 10 C2 : x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 2 y − 7 = 0

(c) The equation of the circle is ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 9


The centre is (1, 1), radius = 3
( x − 1)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 5
Distance between two centres
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 6y + 5 = 0
The length of the tangent = (1 − 1)2 + ( −1 − 1)2
=2
= ( 4)2 + (7)2 − 2( 4) − 6(7) + 5 = 3 −1
=2 5 = Difference of radii
∴ The circles touch each other internally.
204 Chapter 12 Circles

Substitute (1, −2) into C1 , If the line is a tangent to C, the x-coordinates of


the intersecting points should be equal, which
L.H.S. = 12 + ( −2)2 − 2(1) + 2( −2) + 1 implies that (1) has equal roots.
=0
∴ Discriminant = 0
= R.H.S.
82 − 4(10)( −5 + K ) = 0
Substitute (1, −2) into C 2 , 33
K=
L.H.S. = 12 + ( −2)2 − 2(1) − 2( −2) − 7 5
=0
= R.H.S. 1
(c) Radius = ( −4)2 + (6)2 − 4 K
2
∴ The point (1, −2) lies on both C1 and C 2 . 1
= 52 − 4 K
∴ Two circles touch each other at A(1, −2). 2
(b) Let C1 and C 2 be the given circles = 13 − K

C1 : x 2 + y 2 = 2 Area = πr 2 = 9π
The centre is (0, 0), radius = 2 π(13 − K ) = 9π
K=4
C 2 : x 2 + y 2 + 6 x − 6 y − 14 = 0
(d) C : x 2 + y 2 − 4 x + 6 y + K = 0
( x + 3)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 32
( x − 2)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 13 − K
The centre is (−3, 3), radius = 4 2
Centre = (2, −3), Radius = 13 − K
Distance between two centres
x 2 + y 2 − 12 x + 35 = 0
= ( −3 − 0)2 + (3 − 0)2 ( x − 6) 2 + ( y − 0 ) 2 = 1
=3 2 Centre = (6, 0), Radius = 1
=4 2− 2 Case 1:
= Difference in radii Distance between centres = sum of radii
∴ The circles touch each other internally.
(6 − 2)2 + (0 + 3)2 = 13 − K + 1
Substitute (1, −1) into C1 , 5 = 13 − K + 1
L.H.S. = 12 + ( −1)2 K = −3
=2 Case 2:
= R.H.S. Distance between centres = difference of radii
Substitute (1, −1) into C 2 , 5 = 13 − K − 1
L.H.S. = 1 + ( −1) + 6(1) − 6( −1) − 14
2 2 K = −23
=0
= R.H.S.
Classwork 13 (p.314)
∴ The point (1, −1) lies on both C1 and C 2 .
∴ Two circles touch each other at A(1, −1). 1. (a) Let the required circle be of the form
x 2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 + k ( x − y − 1) = 0......(1)
Substitute the point (1, 1) into (1),
Classwork 12 (p.312)
12 + 12 − 1 + 2(1) + 1 + k (1 − 1 − 1) = 0
(a) Substitute (3, 5) into C, 4−k =0
32 + 52 − 4(3) + 6(5) + K = 0 k=4
K = −52 ∴ The required equation is

(b) Substitute y = 3 x − 1 into C to solve for x 2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 + 4( x − y − 1) = 0


intersection x 2 + y2 − x + 2 y + 1 + 4 x − 4 y − 4 = 0
∴ x 2 + (3 x − 1)2 − 4 x + 6(3 x − 1) + K = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 3 = 0
x 2 + 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 − 4 x + 18 x − 6 + K = 0 (b) Let the required equation be of the form
10 x + 8 x − 5 + K = 0 .......................(1)
2
x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y − 1 + k (2 x − y) = 0 ......(1)
Chapter 12 Circles 205

Substitute the point (4, −3) into (1), Classwork 14 (p.316)


4 + ( −3) + 2( 4) − 4( −3) − 1 + k (8 + 3) = 0
2 2
1. (a) The equation of the radical axis is
44 + 11k = 0
k = −4 x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 2 y + 4
∴ The required equation is − ( x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 8 y − 18) = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2 x − 4 y − 1 − 4( 2 x − y ) = 0 6 x − 10 y + 22 = 0
3 x − 5 y + 11 = 0
x 2 + y2 + 2 x − 4 y − 1 − 8x + 4 y = 0
x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 1 = 0 (b) The circle passing through the intersections
of the two given circles is of the form
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 2 y + 4
2. (a) Let the required circle be of the form
+ k ( x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 8 y − 18) = 0 ..............(1)
x 2 + ( y − 3)2 − 7 + k ( x − 1) = 0 .............(1)
Substitute (3, −5) into (1),
x 2 + y 2 + kx − 6 y + (2 − k ) = 0
32 + ( −5)2 + 4(3) − 2( −5) + 4
For radius = 6
+ k[(3)2 + ( −5)2 − 2(3) + 8( −5) − 18] = 0
1 2
k + 6 2 − 4( 2 − k ) = 6 60 − 30 k = 0
2
k=2
k 2 + 36 − 8 + 4 k = 24 The required equation of the circle is
k 2 + 4k + 4 = 0
x 2 + y2 + 4 x − 2 y + 4
( k + 2)2 = 0
+ 2( x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 8 y − 18) = 0
k = −2
3 x 2 + 3 y 2 + 14 y − 32 = 0
Substitute k = −2 into (1),
The required equation is
x 2 + ( y − 3)2 − 7 − 2( x − 1) = 0 2. (a) The required common chord is
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 6 y + 4 = 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y − 18)
− ( x 2 + y 2 − 12 x − 12 y + 38) = 0
(b) Let the required circle be of the form
14 x + 14 y − 56 = 0
x 2 + y 2 − 4 x + 4 y + k (2 x − 4 y − 3) = 0 ....(1)
x+y−4=0
x 2 + y 2 + (2 k − 4) x + ( 4 − 4 k ) y − 3k = 0
For radius = 2 (b) Substitute y = 4 − x into C1 .
1 x 2 + ( 4 − x )2 + 2 x + 2( 4 − x ) − 18 = 0
(2 k − 4)2 + ( 4 − 4 k )2 − 4( −3k ) = 2
2 2 x 2 − 8x + 6 = 0
4 k 2 − 16k + 16 + 16 − 32 k + 16k 2 + 12 k = 16 x2 − 4x + 3 = 0
20 k 2 − 36k + 16 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) = 0
5k 2 − 9 k + 4 = 0 x = 1 or x = 3
( k − 1)(5k − 4) = 0 y = 3 or y = 1
4 The two intersections are (1, 3) and (3, 1).
k = 1 or k = The smallest circle is the one with the
5
common chord as diameter.
Substitute k = 1 into (1),
∴ The equation of the circle is
x 2 + y2 − 4 x + 4 y + 2 x − 4 y − 3 = 0 y −3 y− 1
( )( ) = −1
x 2 + y2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 x − 1 x −3
( y − 3)( y − 1) + ( x − 1)( x − 3) = 0
4
Substitute k = into (1), x 2 + y2 − 4 x − 4 y + 6 = 0
5
4
x 2 + y 2 − 4 x + 4 y + (2 x − 4 y − 3) = 0
5
5 x 2 + 5 y 2 − 12 x + 4 y − 12 = 0
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