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146 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

CHAPTER 10 (d) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point.

Exercise 10A (p.233) 0 + 12 ⋅ 3 3 + 12 ⋅ 0


x= = 1, y = =2
1+ 1
2
1+ 1
2
1. (a) d = ( 4 − 2)2 + (7 − 1)2 = 40 = 2 10
∴ The point is (1, 2) .
(b) d = [ −5 − ( −2)] + [3 − ( −1)] = 5
2 2

−1 + 7 4 + 0
(c) d = (2 p − p)2 + ( − q − q )2 = p2 + 4q 2 6. M = ( , ) = (3, 2)
2 2
3+3 2+6
(d) d = ( − a − a)2 + [ − a − ( −2 a)]2 = 5a N =( , ) = (3, 4)
2 2

2. ( p + 5)2 + (8 − 3)2 = 13 7. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point.


2 When r = 2 ,
( p + 5) + 25 = 169
( p + 5) = 144
2
−4 + 2(5)
p + 5 = ±12 x= =2
1+ 2
p = 7 or −17 −1 + 2(11)
y= =7
1+ 2
3. Let (2a, a) be the coordinates of P. 1
When r = ,
2
(2 a − 3)2 + ( a − 1)2 = (2 a − 5)2 + ( a − 3)2
−4 + 12 (5)
5a 2 − 14 a + 10 = 5a 2 − 26 a + 34 x= = −1
12 a = 24 1+ 1
2
a=2 −1 + 12 (11)
∴ The point P is ( 4, 2) . y= =3
1 + 12

4. Let (0, y) be the coordinates of C. ∴ The points are (2, 7) and (−1, 3).
AB = BC
8. Let AP : PB = r : 1 and (0, y) be the coordinates
[ −3 − ( −2)]2 + (2 − 4)2 = [0 − ( −2)]2 + ( y − 4)2
of P.
12 + 2 2 = 2 2 + ( y − 4)2 −3 + 2 r
=0
( y − 4)2 = 1 1+ r
y = 4 ±1 3
r=
= 3 or 5 2
∴ C is (0, 3) or (0, 5). 3
∴ AP : PB = : 1 = 3 : 2
2
5. (a) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point.
2 + 3(3) 11
−1 + 4 ⋅ 4 15 −3 + 4 ⋅ 2 5 y= =
x= = = 3, y = = =1 3+2 5
1+ 4 5 1+ 4 5
∴ The point is (3, 1) . 11
∴ The point P is (0, ).
5
(b) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point.
−1 − 14 ⋅ 2 1 − 14 ⋅ 1 9. Let AP : PB = r : 1
x= = −2 , y = =1
1− 1 1− 1
4 4 −1 + 3r
∴ The point is ( −2, 1) . =2
r +1
(c) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point. r=3
3− 2⋅5 1− 2⋅3 ∴ AP : PB = 3 : 1
x= = 7, y = =5
1− 2 1− 2 2 + 6(3)
k=
∴ The point is (7, 5) . 3 +1
=5
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 147

10. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the other end of


0 2
this diameter.
−1 0
3+ x 1
=4 14. Area = 4 0 square units
2 2 3 3
x=5
0 2
−4 + y
=5 1
2 = (12 + 6 + 2) square units
y = 14 2
∴ The other end is (5, 14) . = 10 square units

15. (2t + 2)2 + t 2 = t 2 + (3t − 3)2


m +1+1 2 −1
11. (a) Mid-point of AC = ( , ) (2t + 2)2 − (3t − 3)2 = 0
2 2 (2t + 2 + 3t − 3)(2t + 2 − 3t + 3) = 0
m+2 1
=( , ) (5t − 1)( −t + 5) = 0
2 2
5t − 1 = 0 or −t + 5 = 0
−2 + 3 −2 + n + 3 1
t = or t = 5
Mid-pint of BD = ( , )
2 2 5
1 n +1
=( , )
2 2
16. (a) AB = (5 − 1)2 + (9 − 2)2 = 65
m+2 1
(b) = AC = (5 − 4)2 + (9 − 1)2 = 65
2 2
m = −1 ∴ AB = AC
n +1 1 (b) Q BP = CP
=
2 2 ∴ (1 − h)2 + (2 − k )2 = ( 4 − h)2 + (1 − k )2
n=0
1 − 2h + h 2 + 4 − 4k + k 2
3( 4) + 2 a = 16 − 8h + h 2 + 1 − 2 k + k 2
12. =2 6h − 2 k − 12 = 0
3+2
a = −1 3h − k − 6 = 0
2( 4) + 3( −1)
=b 17. (a) BC = (5 + 1)2 + ( −4 + 1)2 = 6 2 + 32 = 3 5
3+2
b =1
(b) Area of ∆ABC
3 2
5 5 1 −1 −1
1 −6 7 = square units
13. (a) Area = square units 2 5−4
2 −7−2 3 2
5 5
1
1 = ( −3 + 4 + 10 + 2 + 5 + 12) square units
= (35 + 12 − 35 + 30 + 49 + 10) square 2
2 = 15 square units
units
= 50.5 square units 2 ⋅ 15
(c) Length = =2 5
3 5
3 0
1 4 3
(b) Area = square units
2 −2 −1 2 −1
3 0 1 a +1 a − 3
18. Area = square units
1
= (9 − 4 + 6 + 3) square units 2 a+2 a
2 2 −1
= 7 square units 1
= a − square units
2
148 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

1 Exercise 10B (p.240)


When a = , area = 0
2 1. Let m be the slope and α be the inclination. Then
∴ They are collinear.
6−0 3
(a) m = tan α = =
4−0 2
19. Let (a, 0) be the coordinates of C. α = 56.3° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
a 0 3
∴ Slope =
1 5 −1 2
∴ Area of ∆ABC = square units
2 −2 2 Inclination = 56.3°
a 0
1 − ( −4)
∴ 8 − 3a = 20 (b) m = tan α = =1
6 −1
8 − 3a = 20 or8 − 3a = −20 α = 45° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
28 ∴ Slope = 1
a = −4 or a=
3 Inclination = 45°
28
∴ C is ( −4, 0) or ( , 0) .
3 2. Let C(0, b) and D(a, 0) be the intersections of AB
with the coordinate axes. Then
2r 2 Slope of AC = slope of AB
20. (a) P( , 2) , Q(2, )
1+ r 1+ r −4 − b −4 − 3
=
(b) Area of ∆OPQ −1 − 0 −1 − 6
4+b =1
2 1+2 r b = −3
2r
1 1+ r 2 ∴ The y-intercept is −3 .
= square units
2 0 0
Slope of AD = slope of AB
2 1+2 r
−4 − 0 −4 − 3
=
1 4r −1 − a −1 − 6
= 4− square units 4 = 1+ a
2 (1 + r )2
a=3
1 4(r 2 + r + 1)
= square units ∴ The x-intercept is 3 .
2 (1 + r )2
r2 + r + 1 2 −1 1
As r > 0 , > 0. 3. Slope of AB = =
(1 + r )2 1 − ( −3) 4
∴ Area of ∆OPQ 4−2 1
Slope of BC = =
2(r 2 + r + 1) 9 −1 4
= square units
(1 + r )2 ∴ AB // BC
r2 + r + 1 They are parallel and have a common point B.
(c) Let y = Therefore A, B and C are collinear.
(1 + r )2
∴ y(1 + 2 r + r 2 ) = r 2 + r + 1 2 − ( −4) −7 − 2
4. =
(1 − y)r 2 + (1 − 2 y)r + (1 − y) = 0 −7 − 1 x − ( −7)
6 −9
As r is real, =
∴ (1 − 2 y)2 − 4(1 − y)2 ≥ 0 −8 x + 7
x=5
3
y≥
4 5. Let the acute angle be α.
3 3
∴ Area of ∆OPQ = 2 y ≥ 2( ) = 6 −1 5
4 2 (a) tan α = =
∴ Minimum area of ∆OPQ 1 + (6)(1) 7
3 α = 35.5° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
= square units
2
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 149

0.6 − 0.25 7 −1 − 0
(b) tan α = = tan C = =1
1 + (0.6)(0.25) 23 1
α = 16.9° (corr. to 1 d.p.) C = 45°
A = 180° − B − C
4 − ( − 23 ) 14 = 180° − 53.1° − 45°
(c) tan α = =
1 + 4( − 23 ) 5 = 81.9° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
α = 70.3° (corr. to 1 d.p.) 7−4
9. Slope of AB = =3
−1 − ( − 43 ) 1 2 −1
(d) tan α = =
1 + ( −1)( − 3 )
4 7 7−6 1
Slope of BC = =
α = 8.1° (corr. to 1 d.p.) 2+5 7
4−6 1
1 Slope of CA = =−
(e) m1 = m2 = − 1+ 5 3
2
∴ α = 0° ∴ (Slope of AB)(Slope of CA) = −1
1 ∴ AB ⊥ AC
(f) m1m2 = ( −2)( ) = −1
2 1
∴ α = 90° Area = ( AB)( AC )
2
1
= (7 − 4)2 + (2 − 1)2
5 −1 1 2
6. Slope of AB = =
6+2 2 (1 + 5)2 + ( 4 − 6)2 square units
0+2 1 =
1
Slope of CD = = ( 10 )(2 10 ) square units
4−0 2 2
∴ AB // CD = 10 square units

5 +1 3 10. Let A = (−2, −1), B = (0, 2), C = (3, 0), D = (1, −3)
7. Slope of PQ = =−
−2 − 2 2 AB = BC = CD = DA = 2 2 + 32 = 13
1+1 2 3
Slope of QR = = Slope of AB = Slope of CD =
5−2 3 2
∴ (Slope of QR) ⋅ (Slope of PQ) = −1 2
Slope of BC = Slope of DA = −
∴ PQ ⊥ QR 3
(Slope of AB)(Slope of BC) = −1
(Slope of CD)(Slope of DA) = −1
8. y
∴ A, B, C, D form a square area
A
Area = ( 13 )2 square units
= 13 square units

B C 11. Let (a, 0) be the coordinates of C.


x
−4 −1 0 3 −3 + 2 1
Slope of AB = =
4−0 4 −1 − 2 3
Slope of AB = = −3 − 0 3
−1 + 4 3 Slope of BC = =
−1 − a 1 + a
Slope of BC = 0 Q AB ⊥ BC
4−0 ∴ (Slope of AB)(Slope of BC) = −1
Slope of AC = = −1
−1 − 3 1 3
4 −0 ( )( ) = −1
4 3 1+ a
tan B = 3 = 1 = −1 − a
1 3
a = −2
B = 53.1° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
∴ The point C is ( −2, 0) .
150 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

0−2 k−2 (b) BD : DA = OB : OA = 2 : 4 = 1 : 2


12. Slope = =
h −1 0 −1 Let (x, y) be the coordinates of D.
(h − 1)( k − 2) = 2 1(2) + 4(1) 6
2 ∴ x= = =2
h −1 = 1+ 2 3
k−2 3 (2) + 0(1) 2 3
k y= =
h= 1+ 2 3
k−2 2 3
∴ The coordinates of D is (2, ).
3
1 2
13. Let A be (1, 0) , B be (t 2 , 2t ) , C be ( , − ). 2 3
t 2 t −0 3
(c) (i) Slope of OD = 3 =
2t − 0 2t 2−0 3
Slope of AB = 2 =
t − 1 t2 − 1 3
2 Slope of OB = = 3
2t 1
Slope of CA = t =
1 − 12 t 2 − 1
3
∠DOA = tan −1 (
t
∴ AB // CA (ii) ) = 30°
3
−1
They are parallel and have a common point A. ∠BOA = tan ( 3 ) = 60°
Therefore A, B, C are collinear.
∴ ∠BOD = 60° − 30° = 30°
= ∠DOA
14. (a) BC = 2 a ∴ OD is the angle bisector of ∠AOB .
∴ The coordinates of C
= (2 a cos θ + a, 2 a sin θ)
Exercise 10C (p.246)
DA = BC = 2 a
1. (a) y − 2 = 3( x − 1)
∴ The coordinates of D
y − 2 = 3x − 3
= (2 a cos θ, 2 a sin θ)
3x − y − 1 = 0
(b) Coordinates of F = (2 a, 0) 1
(b) y − 3 = − ( x − 2)
Coordinates of E = ( − a, 0) 2
2 a sin θ 2y − 6 = −x + 2
Slope of DF = x + 2y − 8 = 0
2 a cos θ − 2 a
sin θ (c) y − 0 = −4( x + 1)
=
cos θ − 1 y = −4 x − 4
2 a sin θ 4x + y + 4 = 0
Slope of CE =
2 a cos θ + 2 a (d) y − 1 = 0( x − 2)
sin θ
= y −1 = 0
cos θ + 1
(Slope of DF)(Slope of CE)
4 −1
sin θ sin θ 2. (a) y − 1 = ( x − 3)
=( )( ) 2−3
cos θ − 1 cos θ + 1 y − 1 = −3 x + 9
sin 2 θ 3 x + y − 10 = 0
=
cos 2 θ − 1
−2 − 0
sin 2 θ (b) y − 0 = ( x − 5)
= −1 − 5
− sin 2 θ 3y = x − 5
= −1 x − 3y − 5 = 0
∴ DF ⊥ CE
−4 − 3 −7
(c) Q The slope = = and the
15. (a) OA = 4 1−1 0
x-coordinates of the points are 1.
OB = 12 + ( 3 )2 = 2
∴ x −1 = 0
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 151

4a − 2a y-intercept is −2 .
(d) y − 2 a = ( x − a)
3a − a There is no x-intercept.
y − 2a = x − a y
x−y+a=0
x
−2 −1 O 1 2
3. (a) x + 3 y − 9 = 0 −1
3y = − x + 9
−2
1
y = − x+3 y+2=0
3
1 (d) 2 x + 5 = 0
∴ The slope is − .
3 5
x=−
y-intercept is 3 . 2
Substitute y = 0 into the equation. ∴ The slope is undefined.
There is no y-intercept.
∴ x−9=0
x=9 5
x-intercept is − .
∴ x-intercept is 9 . 2
y y

2x + 5 = 0
3 5 1

2
2 x + 3y − 9 = 0 x
−4 −3 −2 −1 O
1 −1

x
O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

x + 3 y − 11 = 0
(b) 2 x − 5 y + 10 = 0 4. (a) 
5 y = 2 x + 10  x − y −1 = 0
2
2 7 y − 21 = 0
y= x+2
5 y=3
∴ The slope is .
2 x=2
5 The intersection is (2, 3) .
y-intercept is 2 .
4 x − 5 y − 12 = 0
Substitute y = 0 into the equation. (b) 
x − 2 y − 6 = 0
∴ 2 x + 10 = 0 3 y + 12 = 0
x = −5 y = −4
∴ x-intercept is −5 . x = −2
y The intersection is ( −2, − 4) .

2
2x − 5y + 10 = 0 5. Perpendicular bisector of BC:
1
1+ ( −3)
x y− 2 ][ 1 − ( −3) ] =
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 O
[ 7 + ( −1) 7 − ( −1)
−1
x− 2
(c) y + 2 = 0 y +1
= −2
y = −2 x−3
y + 1 = −2 x + 6
∴ The slope is 0 . 2x + y − 5 = 0
152 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

Perpendicular bisector of AC: 8. (a) 3 x − 4 y − 1 = 0


y − 62+1 6 − 1 4 y = 3x − 1
( )( ) = −1
x − 7 +2 2 2 − 7 3
y= x−
1
7 9 4 4
y− = x− 3
2 2 Slope is .
x − y −1 = 0 4
∴ The required equation:
2 x + y − 5 = 0 3
x − y − 1 = 0 y − 2 = ( x − 5)
 4
3x − 6 = 0 3 x − 15 = 4 y − 8
x=2 3x − 4 y − 7 = 0
y =1
(b) Slope of required equation
∴ The circumcentre is (2, 1) .
−1 4
= =−
6. (a) x − 3 y + 4 = 0 3
4
3
3y = x + 4 ∴ The required equation:
1 4
y= x+ 4
3 3 y−2= − ( x − 5)
1 3
∴ Slope is . −3 y + 6 = 4 x − 20
3 4 x + 3 y − 26 = 0
2x − y − 5 = 0
y = 2x − 5
∴ Slope is 2. 9. 4 x + 6 y − 3 = 0
Let α be the acute angle. 6 y = −4 x + 3
2 − 13 y=− x+
2 1
tan α = =1 3 2
1 + 2( 13 )
2
α = 45° Slope is − .
3
(b) 2 x + 5 y + 4 = 0
3 x + ky − 7 = 0
5 y = −2 x − 4 ky = −3 x + 7
2 4
y=− x− y=− x+
3 7
5 5 k k
2
∴ Slope is − . Slope is − .
3
5 k
x − 3y = 0
3y = x Q Two lines are perpendicular to each other.
1 2 3
y= x ∴ ( − )( − ) = −1
3 3 k
1 2
∴ Slope is . = −1
3 k
Let α be the acute angle. k = −2

− 25 − 13 11
tan α = =
1 + (− 2 )( 1 )
5x − y − 7 = 0
10. 
5 3
13
α = 40.2° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) 18 x − 7 y + 2 = 0
17 x − 51 = 0
7. Let A and B be (a, 0) and (0, b) respectively. x=3
If OA = OB , then a = b or a = − b . Substitute x = 3 into L1 ,
i.e. m = 1 or m = −1 5(3) − y − 7 = 0
y −1 = x − 4 or y − 1 = −( x − 4 ) y=8
The intersection is (3, 8).
x − y − 3 = 0 or x+y−5=0
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 153

By using the two-point form, the equation of the Substitute y = −2 into AD,
line is 2x − 2 − 6 = 0
8−2
y−2= ( x − 1) x=4
3 −1 ∴ The coordinates of D are ( 4, − 2) .
2y − 4 = 6x − 6
6x − 2y − 2 = 0
3x − y − 1 = 0 13. x-intercept of 2 x − y + 4 = 0 is −2.
x-intercept of 4 x + y − 4 = 0 is 1.
2 2 x − y + 4 = 0
11. Slope of CD = 4 x + y − 4 = 0
5 
−1
5 6x = 0
Slope of AD = 2 = − x=0
2
5 y=4
By using point-slope form, the equation of AD is
5 The intersection is (0, 4).
y − 5 = − ( x − 2)
2 0 4
−2 y + 10 = 5 x − 10 1 −2 0
Area = square units
5 x + 2 y − 20 = 0 2 1 0
0 4
2
Slope of AB = slope of CD = 1
5 = ( 4 + 8) square units
By using point-slope form, the equation of AB is 2
= 6 square units
2
y − 5 = ( x − 2)
5
2 x − 4 = 5 y − 25 14. Let ( s, 1 − s) be the coordinates of the required
2 x − 5 y + 21 = 0 point.

( s − 2)2 + (1 − s − 2)2 = ( s − 3)2 + (1 − s + 1)2


12. (a) A is the intersection of AB and CA.
s 2 − 4s + 4 + s 2 + 2 s + 1 = s 2 − 6s + 9 + s 2 − 4s + 4
3 x − y − 4 = 0 8s = 8
3 x + 4 y − 14 = 0
 s =1
5 y − 10 = 0 ∴ The required point is (1, 0) .
y=2
Substitute y = 2 into AB,
15. Slope of 4 x − y − 5 = 0 is 4.
3x − 2 − 4 = 0
x=2 a
Slope of ax − 15 y + 7 = 0 is .
∴ The coordinates of A are (2, 2) . 15
1 a −4
(b) Slope of BC =
2 tan 45° = 15
1 + ( 4)( 15
a)
−1
Slope of AD = 1
= −2 a − 60
2 1=
15 + 4 a
By using point-slope form, the equation of
AD is a − 60 a − 60
y − 2 = − 2( x − 2 ) = 1 or = −1
15 + 4 a 15 + 4 a
y − 2 = −2 x + 4
2x + y − 6 = 0 3a = −75 or 5a = 45
a = −25 or a = 9
D is the intersection of AD and BC.
2 x + y − 6 = 0
x − 2 y − 8 = 0 16. (a) By using point-slope form, the equation of L is

y−4
5 y + 10 = 0 =m
y = −2 x−2
y − 4 = m( x − 2 )
154 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

4 1 3
(b) x-intercept of L = − +2 The coordinates of M are ( , ) .
m 2 2
y-intercept of L = −2 m + 4 Slope of AB = −1
−1
1 −4 ∴ Slope of the required line = =1
Area = ( + 2)( −2 m + 4) square units −1
2 m ∴ The equation of the line is
1 −4 y − 23
2= ( + 2)( −2 m + 4)
2 m =1
x − 12
16
4 = 16 − − 4m x − y +1 = 0
m
16 16
16 − − 4m or 16 − − 4m
m m Exercise 10D (p.258)
=4 = −4
y
16 m − 16 − 4 m 2 or 16 m − 16 − 4 m 2 1. (a)
= 4m = −4 m
4 m 2 − 12 m + 16 or 4 m 2 − 20 m + 16 = 0
=0 ( m − 1)( m − 4) = 0
no solution or m = 1 or m = 4 2
135°
∴ m = 1 or 4 L1
x
O
17. Slope of L = 2
Let m be the slope of L1 or L 2 . In the figure, the equation of L 1 is
Then x cos 135° + y sin 135° − 2 = 0
1 m−2 x y
tan θ = = − + −2=0
3 1 + 2m 2 2
m−2 1 m−2 1 x−y+2 2 =0
= or =−
1 + 2m 3 1 + 2m 3
m = 7 or m =1 y
(b)
By using point-slope form,
L1 : 7 x − y + 9 = 0 , L 2 : x − y + 3 = 0

18. 3 x 2 + y 2 = 6 ......................(1)
x + y = 2 ...........................(2)
From (2), y = 2 − x ...........(3)
Substitute (3) into (1),
3 x 2 + (2 − x ) 2 = 6
2x2 − 2x − 1 = 0 4 L2
Let A, B be ( x 1, y 1 ) and ( x 2 , y 2 ) respectively.
30°
2 x
∴ x1 + x2 = =1 O
2
x1 + x2 1
= In the figure, the equation of L 2 is
2 2
Q x1 + y1 =2 x cos 30° + y sin 30° − 4 = 0
x2 + y2 =2
3 1
x1 + x2 y + y2 x+ y−4=0
∴ + 1 =2 2 2
2 2
y1 + y2 1 3 3x + y − 8 = 0
∴ =2− =
2 2 2
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 155

2. (a) The normal form is


3(0) − 4(1) + 1 3
5 x + 12 y d1 = =
=0 3 +4
2 2 5
52 + 12 2
5 x + 12 y 4(0) + 3(1) − 6 3
=0 d2 = =
13 5
5 12 4 +3 2 2
x+ y=0 ∴ The point (0, 1) is equidistant from the lines.
13 13
(b) The normal form is
2 − ( −3) 5
2x − y − 5 6. (a) d = = = 5
=0
2 +1 2 2 5
2 2 + 12
2 1 (b) First rewrite equations as 18 x − 24 y − 21 = 0 ,
x− y− 5 =0 18 x − 24 y + 4 = 0 .
5 5
4 + 21 25 5
3. (a) The normal form is d= = =
18 + 24
2 2 30 6
x − 3y + 6
=0
− 12 + ( 3 )2 3( −1) − 4(5) − 12
7. r = =7
x 3
− + y−3= 0 32 + 4 2
2 2
∴ p=3 8. By considering the distance from (1, 2) to the line,
1 3 1 − 2( 2 ) + k
cos θ = − , sin θ = = 5
2 2 12 + 2 2
∴ θ = 120° k −3 = 5
(b) The normal form is k − 3 = 5 or k − 3 = −5
x − 10 k = 8 or k = −2
=0
1
x − 10 = 0 9. Let P(x, y) be a point on the perpendicular bisector,
then the distance from P to the two lines are equal.
∴ p = 10
x+ y−3 x − y +1
cos θ = 1 , sin θ = 0 (a) =
2 2
∴ θ = 0° x + y − 3 = ±( x − y + 1)
x + y − 3 = − ( x − y + 1) or x + y − 3 = x − y + 1
3(1) + 4( 4) − 9 x −1 = 0 or y−2=0
4. (a) d = =2
32 + 4 2 2x − y − 5 x + 2y − 2
(b) =
5 5
12( −2) − 5(7) + 7
(b) d = =4 2 x − y − 5 = ±( x + 2 y − 2)
12 2 + 52
2 x − y − 5 = x + 2 y − 2 or
5 − ( −2) − 3 2 x − y − 5 = −( x + 2 y − 2 )
(c) d = =2 2
1 +1
2 2
x − 3 y − 3 = 0 or 3 x + y − 7 = 0
2( −4) + 3 5 3x + 2 y + 7 2 x − 3y − 1
(d) d = = (c) =
0 +2
2 2 2 13 13
3 x + 2 y + 7 = ±(2 x − 3 y − 1)
5. Let d 1 be the distance from (0, 1) to the line 3x + 2 y + 7 or 3 x + 2 y + 7
= 2 x − 3y − 1 = −(2 x − 3 y − 1)
3 x − 4 y + 1 = 0 , d 2 be the distance from (0, 1) to
x + 5 y + 8 = 0 or 5 x − y + 6 = 0
the line 4 x + 3 y − 6 = 0 .
156 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

2 x − 3y + 1 = 0
(d)
7x − y + 4
=
2x + 2y − 5 13. 
5 2 2 2 x + 2 y − 3 = 0
14 x − 2 y + 8 = ±(10 x + 10 y − 25) 7y − 7 = 0
y =1
14 x − 2 y + 8 = 10 x + 10 y − 25
x =1
or 14 x − 2 y + 8 = −(10 x + 10 y − 25) Intersection of the given lines is (1, 1).
4 x − 12 y + 33 = 0 or 24 x + 8 y − 17 = 0 Slope = 3,
y − 1 = 3 ( x − 1)
3x − y − 2 = 0
k−6 Passing through (2, −1),
10. (a) =4
5 + 12
2 2 −1 − 1
y −1 = ( )( x − 1)
k − 6 = 52 2 −1
y − 1 = −2 x + 2
k − 6 = 52 or k − 6 = −52 2x + y − 3 = 0
k = 58 or k = −46
The slopes of these lines are 3 and −2.
(b) Let the equation of L be 5 x + 12 y + c = 0 .
3 − ( −2)
c−6 tan θ = =1
=5 1 + 3( −2)
13 θ = 45°
c − 6 = 65
c − 6 = 65 or c − 6 = −65 14. tan θ =
4
and θ is acute.
c = 71 or c = −59 3
∴ The equation of L is 4 3
∴ sin θ = , cos θ =
5 x + 12 y + 71 = 0 or 5 x + 12 y − 59 = 0 . 5 5
y
B
θ 1
11. (3 + k ) x + (2 k − 1) y = 5k + 1 A
(3 x − y − 1) + k ( x + 2 y − 5) = 0
3 x − y − 1 = 0 C
θ π
2
x + 2 y − 5 = 0 −θ
 θ 2 x
7x − 7 = 0 O
x =1 The equation of AB is
y=2 π π
x cos θ( − θ) + y sin( − θ) − 2 = 0
2 2
∴ The point P is (1, 2) . x sin θ + y cos θ − 2 = 0
4 3
x+ y−2=0
12. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point. 5 5
4 x + 3 y − 10 = 0
3x + y − 2
= 10 The equation of BC is
10
3 x + y − 2 = ±10 x cos( π − θ) + y sin( π − θ) − 1 = 0
− x cos θ + y sin θ − 1 = 0
3 x + y − 2 = 10 or 3 x + y − 2 = −10 3 4
− x + y −1 = 0
3 x + y − 12 = 0 or 3x + y + 8 = 0 5 5
∴ 3x − 4 y + 5 = 0
3 x + y − 12 = 0 or 3 x + y + 8 = 0
2 x − y − 3 = 0 2 x − y − 3 = 0
  4 x + 3 y − 10 = 0 .................(1)
5 x − 15 = 0 or 5 x + 5 = 0 3 x − 4 y + 5 = 0 ..................(2)

x=3 or x = −1 25 y − 50 = 0
y=3 or y = −5 y=2
∴ The point is (3, 3) or (−1, −5). Substitute y = 2 into (1), x = 1 .
∴ The coordinates of B are (1, 2) .
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 157

2x − y − 5 = 0 3
15.  When c = , the required equation is
 x − 3 y − 10 = 0 2
6 x + 8y − 3 = 0 .
5 y + 15 = 0
y = −3 3
When c = − , the required equation is
x =1 2
6 x + 8y + 3 = 0 .
Intersection of L 1 and L 2 is (1, −3).
(a) Slope = 3, 17. (a) An equation of L is
y + 3 = 3 (x − 1) y − 4 = k ( x − 1)
y + 3 = 3x − 3 y = k ( x − 1) + 4 ,
3x − y − 6 = 0
where k is real.
(b) Slope of L 1 = 2 (b) (i) Substitute (3, 7) into L,
1
Slope of required equation = − 7 = k (3 − 1) + 4
2 3
1 k=
y + 3 = − ( x − 1) 2
2
x − 1 = −2 y − 6 ∴ The equation is
x + 2y + 5 = 0 3
y= ( x − 1) + 4
−3 + 3 2
(c) y + 3 = ( x − 1) 2 y = 3x − 3 + 8
−1 − 1
y+3= 0 3x − 2 y + 5 = 0
x−2=0
(d)  (ii) The slope of line 3 x − 5 y + 8 = 0 is
3
.
 x+y−2=0
2 5
x = 2 , y = −2 3
∴ k ( ) = −1
−2 + 3 5
y+3= ( x − 1) 5
2 −1 k=−
x−y−4=0 3
The equation is
5
16. (a) An equation of L is 3 x + 4 y − c = 0 , where c y=− ( x − 1) + 4
3
is real. 3 y = − 5 x + 5 + 12
(b) (i) Substitute (−2, 1) into L, 5 x + 3 y − 17 = 0
3( −2) + 4(1) − c = 0 1
c = −2 (iii) Slope of x − 2 y + 1 = 0 is .
2
∴ The required equation is
π k−2 1
3x + 4 y + 2 = 0 . tan =
4 1 + k ( 12 )
(ii) Express L in intercept-form: 3 x + 4 y = c k 1
x y 1 + = ±( k − )
c
+ c =1 2 2
1
3 4 k = 3 or −
3
∴ The sum of intercepts is c + c = 21
3 4 4 When k = 3 , the equation is
c=9 y = 3( x − 1) + 4 .
The required equation is 3 x + 4 y − 9 = 0 .
∴ 3x − y + 1 = 0
(iii) The distance of L from origin is
1
When k = − , the equation is
c 3 3
=
10 1
32 + 4 2 y = − ( x − 1) + 4 .
3 3
∴ c=± ∴ x + 3 y − 13 = 0
2
158 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

18. (a) An equation of L is 1


y − 3 = m( x + 5) , where m is real. (b) Slope of PQ = −
2
(b) Rewrite L as ∴ Slope of L 3 = 2
mx − y + (5m + 3) = 0 Let the equation of L 3 be
mx y ( x − 2 y + 3) + k (5 x − 7 y + 6) = 0
+ =1
−5m + 3 5m + 3 (5k + 1) x − (7k + 2) y + (3 + 6k ) = 0
5m + 3 5k + 1
x-intercept = − Slope = =2
m 7k + 2
y-intercept = 5m + 3 5k + 1 = 14 k + 4
1 5m + 3 k=−
1
Area = (− )(5m + 3) = 2
2 m 3

25m 2 + 30 m + 9 = ±4 m ∴ The equation of L 3 is 2 x − y − 3 = 0 .

25m 2 + 34 m + 9 = 0 or 25m 2 + 26 m + 9 (c) Substitute the coordinates of T into L 3 ,


( m + 1)(25m + 9) = 0 or no solution 4r − 2 3
2( )−( )−3= 0
m = −1 or m = −
9 1+ r 1+ r
25 r=2
∴ The equation of L 1 : ∴ The ration = 2 : 1
x + y + 2 = 0 or 9 x + 25 y − 30 = 0
Revision Exercise 10 (P.262)
2x − y + 8 = 0
19. (a) Solving  , 1. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P.
 x − 4 y + 11 = 0 −2 + 4r 2 + 6r
7 y − 14 = 0 x= , y=
1+ r 1+ r
y=2
(Slope of OP)(Slope of AB) = −1
x = −3
2 + 6r 6−2
∴ The point A is ( −3, 2) . ⋅ = −1
−2 + 4r 4 − ( −2)
(b) 2 x − y + 8 + k ( x − 4 y + 11) = 0 4(6r + 2) = −6( 4r − 2)
(2 + k ) x − (1 + 4 k ) y + (8 + 11k ) = 0 r=
1
k+2 12
Slope of L =
4k + 1
−1 + 2 −2 + 4 1
(c) Slope of L 0 = 2 2. Mid-point = ( , ) = ( , 1)
2 2 2
m−2 Substitute into the line
=1
1 + 2m 1
1 a( ) + 3(1) − 5 = 0
m = −3 or 2
3 a=4
1
y − 2 = −3( x + 3) or y − 2 = ( x + 3) −3 −3
3 3. Slope of the lines are and .
y − 2 = −3 x − 9 or 3 y − 6 = x + 3 4 k
3x + y + 7 = 0 or x − 3 y + 9 = 0 k=4
8 − ( −2)
Distance = =2
20. (a) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of T. 32 + 4 2
PT : TQ = r : 1
4. Equation of PM is
4r − 2 3
x= , y= 3
1+ r 1+ r y + 2 = ( x − 1)
2
4r − 2 3 2 y + 4 = 3x − 3
∴ The point T is ( , ).
1+ r 1+ r 3x − 2 y − 7 = 0
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 159

Equation of PN is 7. Equation of AB is
y − 1 = −2( x + 4) 3
y + 2 = ( x + 1)
2x + y + 7 = 0 4
4 y + 8 = 3x + 3
3 x − 2 y − 7 = 0
2 x + y + 7 = 0 3x − 4 y − 5 = 0

7x + 7 = 0 3 x − 4 y − 5 = 0
x − 2 y − 1 = 0
x = −1 
y = −5 2y − 2 = 0
y =1
∴ The point P is ( −1, − 5) .
x=3
B = (3, 1)
5. Let the ratio be 1 : r , the intersection of
x − y + 1 = 0 and AB be P(a, b). AB = (3 + 1)2 + (1 + 2)2 = 5
3r − 1 r+3
∴ a= , b= 8. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P.
1+ r 1+ r
( x + 1)2 + ( y + 2) 2 = ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 4)2
Substitute (a, b) into x − y + 1 = 0 ,
4 x + 12 y − 12 = 0
3r − 1 r + 3
∴ − +1 = 0 4 x + 12 y − 12 = 0
1+ r 1+ r 4 x + 3 y − 12 = 0
r =1 
∴ The required ratio is 1 : 1 . 9y = 0
y=0
x=3
6. y ∴ The point P is (3, 0) .
L2: x − y + c = 0
9 − 10. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
B
questions because of the copyright reasons.

C A −8 + 3
L3: y = 1 11. (a) Slope of the perpendicular = = −5
x 3−2
O 1
L1: x + y = 2 Slope of BC =
5
Solve for the coordinates of A, Equation of BC:
x + y = 2 1
 y =1 y + 8 = ( x − 3)
 5
∴ The coordinates of A are (1, 1). x − 3 = 5 y + 40
Solve for the coordinates of B, x − 5 y − 43 = 0
 x+y=2 (b) Substitute B(−2, −a) into equation of BC,
x − y + c = 0
 a = 9 , ∴ B is (−2, −9).
c c
∴ The coordinates of B are (1 − , 1 + ) . −3 − ( −9) 3
2 2 m AB = =
2 − ( −2) 2
Solve for the coordinates of C,
y =1 Equation of AC:

x − y + c = 0 2
 y + 3 = − ( x − 2)
3
∴ The coordinates of C are (1 − c, 1). 2 x + 3y + 5 = 0
1 c
Area of ∆ABC = (1 − 1 + c)( )  x − 5 y − 43 = 0
2 2 2 x + 3 y + 5 = 0

c2
= 13 y = −91
4 y = −7
=4
x=8
∴ c 2 = 16
∴ The point C is (8, − 7) .
c = ±4
160 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

3x + y − 2 = 0 (c) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the required


12. (a)  point. Using the mid-point formula,
5 x − 3 y − 8 = 0
14 x − 14 = 0 x−2 1
=
x =1 2 2
y = −1
x=3
y+3 1
∴ The point P is (1, − 1) . =
2 2
Let R be (x, y), then y = −2
x +1 y −1 ∴ The point is (3, − 2) .
=4, = −7
2 2
x=7, y = −13
22. (a) An equation of the family is 3 x − 4 y − c = 0 ,
∴ R is (7, − 13) .
where c is real.
(b) Let QR be 5 x − 3 y + k1 = 0 , (b) Substitute (2, 3) into 3 x − 4 y − c = 0 ,
RS be 3 x + y + k2 = 0 .
∴ 3(2) − 4(3) − c = 0
Substitute R(7, −13) into QR, k1 = −74 .
c = −6
∴ QR is 5 x − 3 y − 74 = 0 .
∴ The required equation is 3 x − 4 y + 6 = 0 .
Substitute R(7, −13) into RS, k2 = −8 .
∴ RS is 3 x + y − 8 = 0 . (c) The distance = 6 − ( −15)
32 + 4 2
13 − 16. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E. 21
questions because of the copyright reasons. =
5
21
17. Substitute (−1, 2) into the given equation, =
5
∴ (2 − a)( −1) + a(2) + a 2 − 2 a = 0
∴ ( a − 1)( a + 2) = 0
8+7
a = 1 or −2 23. (a) d = =3
Substitute a = 1 into the equation, 32 + 4 2
x + y +1− 2 = 0 (b) (i) Let θ be the acute angle,
x + y −1 = 0 3 1
∴ sin θ = =
Substitute a = −2 into the equation, 3 2 2
4x − 2y + 4 + 4 = 0 θ = 45°
2x − y + 4 = 0
L1

18 − 20. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


questions because of the copyright reasons. L2 P
3 2
21. (a) Slope of L 1 = 1 , slope of L 2 = −1
θ 3
y − 3 = −1( x + 2) Q
y − 3 = −x − 2
∴ The equation of L 2 is x + y − 1 = 0 .
3
(ii) Slope of L 2 is − . Let the slope of L
x−y=0
(b) 
4
x + y − 1 = 0 be m.
2y − 1 = 0 m + 43
∴ tan 45° =
y=
1 1 − 34m
2 3 3m
1 m + = ±(1 − )
x= 4 4
2
1
1 1
∴ The point of intersection is ( , ) . m= or m = −7
2 2 7
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 161

1 3. (a) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P.


(c) When m = , the equation of L is 5k − 2
7 x=
1 1+ k
y − 3 = ( x − 2)
7 5k + 3
x − 7 y + 19 = 0 y=
1+ k
When m = −7 , the equation of L is 5k − 2 5k + 3
∴ The point P = ( , )
y − 3 = − 7( x − 2) 1+ k 1+ k
7 x + y − 17 = 0 (b) Equation of AB is
5−3
24. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. y−3= ( x + 2)
question because of the copyright reasons. 5+2
2 x − 7 y + 25 = 0
2 x − 7 y + 25 = 0
x + y − 5 = 0
Enrichment 10 (p.266) 
1. (a) Equation of AB is
9 y − 35 = 0
−6 − 2
y−2= ( x + 4) y=
35
4+4 9
x+y+2=0 10
Substitute P(a, b) into the equation of AB, x=
9
a+b+ 2=0 10 35
b = −a − 2 The point H = ( , )
9 9
4 −6 5k − 2 10
By (a), =
1 a −a−2 1+ k 9
(b) = 12 4
2 5 5 k=
4 −6 5
4( − a − 2) + 5a − 30 + 6 a + 5( a + 2) − 20 = 24 ∴ AH : HB = 4 : 5
12 a − 48 = 24
2x − y = 0
12 a − 48 = 24 or 12 a − 48 = −24 4. (a) 
a = 6 or a = 2 3 x + y − 10 = 0
5 x − 10 = 0
2. y − 3 = m( x + 2) x=2
y = m( x + 2 ) + 3 y=4
Substitute into the curve, The point A is (2, 4).
1
m( x + 2 ) + 3 = ( x + 1)2 Q H is (2, −1).
2
2 mx + 4 m + 6 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 ∴ Equation of AD is x − 2 = 0 .
x 2 + 2(1 − m) x − 4 m − 5 = 0 (b) BE passes through H and perpendicular to
AC.
Let ( x1, y1 ) be the coordinates of P,
The equation of BE is
( x2 , y2 ) be the coordinates of Q.
1
x1 + x2 = 2( m − 1) y + 1 = ( x − 2)
3
Since C is the mid-point of PQ, 3y + 3 = x − 2
x1 + x2 x − 3y − 5 = 0
= −2
2
2( m − 1) = −4  x − 3y − 5 = 0
2 x − y = 0
2 m = −2 
m = −1 5x + 5 = 0
x = −1
The required equation is
y = −2
y − 3 = −( x + 2 )
x + y −1 = 0 The point B is ( −1, − 2) .
162 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

(c) CF passes through H and perpendicular to Area of ∆ABC


AB. 2 2
The equation of CF is 2 2m
1 1 2m − 1 2m − 1
y + 1 = − ( x − 2) =
2 2 2 2m
2y + 2 = −x + 2 2−m 2−m
x + 2y = 0 2 2
x + 2 y = 0 =
1 2m
)+(
2 2m
) + 2(
2
3 x + y − 10 = 0 2( )( )
 2 2m − 1 2m − 1 2 − m 2−m
5 x − 20 = 0 − 2(
2
)−(
2m
)(
2
) − 2(
2m
)
x=4 2m − 1 2m − 1 2 − m 2−m
y = −2 1 4m 4 4 4m
= + − −
The point C is ( 4, − 2) . 2 2m − 1 2 − m 2m − 1 2 − m
1 8m − 4 m 2 + 8m − 4 − 8 + 4 m − 8m 2 + 4 m
Equation of BC is =
2 (2 m − 1)(2 − m)
−2 + 2
y+2= ( x + 1) 1 −12( m 2 − 2 m + 1)
4 +1 =
y+2=0 2 (2 m − 1)(2 − m)
6( m − 1)2
=
( m − 2)(2 m − 1)
x − 2y + 2 = 0
5. (a) 
 x−y−2=0
2
3y − 6 = 0 Classwork 1 (p.225)
y=2
1. AB = ( −2 − 4)2 + ( −1 − 1)2 = 40 = 2 10
x=2
The point A is (2, 2) . AC = ( −2 − 2)2 + ( −1 + 5)2 = 4 2

(b) Equation of BC is BC = ( 4 − 2)2 + (1 + 5)2 = 40 = 2 10


y−0
=m Q AB = BC = 2 10
x−0
y = mx ∴ ABC is an isosceles triangle.

x − 2y + 2 = 0
(c)  2. (a) AB = (0 − 2)2 + (2 − 2)2 = 2
 y = mx
x − 2 mx + 2 = 0 BC = (2 − 2)2 + (2 − 8)2 = 6
2
x= AC = (0 − 2)2 + (2 − 8)2 = 40 = 2 10
2m − 1
2m
y= (b) AB2 + BC 2 = 2 2 + 6 2 = AC 2
2m − 1
By the converse of Pyth. thm, ∆ABC is a
2 2m
The point B = ( , ). right-angled triangle.
2m − 1 2m − 1
2 x − y − 2 = 0
 y = mx 3. (10 − p)2 + ( − p − 7)2 = 13

100 − 20 p + p 2 + p 2 + 14 p + 49 = 169
2 x − mx − 2 = 0
2 2 p 2 − 6 p − 20 = 0
x=
2−m p 2 − 3 p − 10 = 0
y=
2m ( p − 5)( p + 2) = 0
2−m p = 5 or p = −2
2 2m
The point C = ( , ).
2−m 2−m
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 163

Classwork 2 (p.229) 1
= [ 46 − ( −26)] square units
3r 2
1. (a) (i) =2 = 36 square units
1+ r
r=2 (b) Area
2 + 5r −2 5
(ii) = −4 −6 −1
1+ r 1
2 = 4 −5 square units
r=− 2 2 2
3
(b) (i) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P. −2 5
1
−8 − 4(3) = {[( −2)( −1) + ( −6)( −5) + ( 4)(2) + (2)(5)]
x= = −5 2
1+ 3 − [( −6)(5) + ( 4)( −1) + (2)( −5) + ( −2)(2)]}
−4 + 8(3)
y= =5 square units
1+ 3 1
∴ The point P is ( −5, 5) . = [50 − ( −48)] square units
2
(ii) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P. = 49 square units
−1 + 8( 12 )
x= =2 2. (a) Area of ∆ABC
1 + 12
4 − 8( 12 ) −4 k
y= =0 1 2 3
1+ 1
= square units
2
2 5 6+k
∴ The point P is (2, 0) . −4 k
(iii) Let (x, y) be the coordinates of P. 1
= [( −4)(3) + (2)(6 + k ) + (5)( k )] − [(2)( k )
−5 + 1( −2) 2
x= =7
1− 2 + (3)(5) + (6 + k )( −4)] square units
1 + 5( −2)
y= =9 1
1− 2 = 7k + 9 + 2 k square units
2
∴ The point P is (7, 9) . 9
= k + 1 square units
2
2. (a) Let (0, y) be the coordinates of C and (b) If area of ∆ABC = 18 square units,
AC : CB = r : 1 . 9
k + 1 = 18
r−3 2
=0
r +1 k +1 = 4
r=3
k +1 = 4 or k + 1 = −4
∴ AC : CB = 3 : 1 k = 3 or k = −5
3( −6) + 2
(b) y = = −4
3 +1
∴ The point C is (0, − 4) . Classwork 4 (p.236)
3 − ( −5) 8
1. (a) m = tan α = =−
Classwork 3 (p.233) 1− 4 3
α = 111° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
1. (a) Area
5 −3 1− 2 1
(b) m = tan α = =−
1 −5 8 4 − ( −1) 5
= square units
2 −7 3 a = 169° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
5 −3
−2 − ( −2)
1 (c) m = tan α = =0
= {[(5)(8) + ( −5)(3) + ( −7)( −3)] 0 − ( −3)
2 α = 0°
− [( −5)( −3) + ( −7)(8) + (5)(3)]} square units
164 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

2. (a) Let θ be the required angle.


5 − ( −6)
(d) m = tan α = 2− 2
2−2 tan θ = 3 =
4
∴ m is undefined. 1 + 2( 23 ) 7
α = 90° θ = 29.7° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
(b) Let θ be the required angle.
5−k
2. (a) =1 4 − ( −1) 5
2−0 tan θ = =
k=3 1 + 4( −1) 3
0 − ( −2) θ = 59.0° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
(b) =3
k−5
2
k=5 Classwork 7 (p.243)
3
1. (a) y = − x + b
5 = −1 + b
Classwork 5 (p.239) b=6

−2 − ( −6) (b) y =
5
x+b
1. Slope of AB = = −2
−4 − ( −2) 3
5
6 − ( −2) 3 = (3) + b
Slope of BC = = −2 3
−8 − ( −4) b = −2
∴ AB // BC
2.
They are parallel and have a common point B. Equation of straight line
Therefore A, B, C are collinear.
Point Slope y-intercept Slope-
Point-slope intercept
7 − ( −6) 13 form form
2. Slope of AB = =
7 − ( −2) 9 (−2, 6) −1 4 (y − 6) = −(x + 2) y = −x + 4
−3 − 6 −9
Slope of CD = =
7 − ( −6) 13 (1, 4) 2 2 (y − 4) = 2(x − 1) y = 2x + 2
13 −9 5
Product of slopes = ( )( ) = −1 (−2, 0) − −5 y=−
5
(x + 2) y=−
5
x−5
9 13 2 2 2
∴ AB ⊥ CD −3
4 y = 4x − 3

−2 5 y = −2x + 5
Classwork 6 (p.240)
1. Let C(0, b) and D(a, 0) be the intersections of AB
with the coordinate axes.
Then Classwork 8 (p.246)
slope of AC = slope of AB 1. (a) By using the two-point form, the equation of
b − ( −3) 9 − ( −3) the line is
=
0 − ( −4) 4 − ( −4) 6−3
y−3=( )( x − 2)
8b + 24 = 48 −1 − 2
b=3 y − 3 = −( x − 2 )
∴ y-intercept is 3 . x+y−5=0
Slope of AD = Slope of AB (b) By using the two-point form, the equation of
the line is
0 − ( −3) 9 − ( −3)
= 1+ 2
a − ( −4) 4 − ( −4) y+2=( )( x + 3)
5+3
24 = 12 a + 48 3
a = −2 y + 2 = ( x + 3)
8
∴ x-intercept is −2 . 3x − 8y − 7 = 0
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 165

(c) y = 2 2
∴ The slope is − .
(d) x = 3 3
(e) y = 0 y-intercept is 0 .
Substitute y = 0 into the equation,
(f) By using the intercept form, the equation of
the line is ∴ x=0
x y x-intercept is 0 .
+ =1
3 4 (e) 2 − x = 0
4 x + 3 y − 12 = 0 x=2
∴ The slope is undefined.
2. (a) x + 2 y − 3 = 0 There is no y-intercept. x-intercept is 2 .
2y = −x + 3
1 3 (f) y + 5 = 0
y=− x+ y = −5
2 2
1 ∴ The slope is 0 .
∴ The slope is − .
2 y-intercept is −5 .
3 There is no x-intercept.
y-intercept is .
2
Substitute y = 0 into the equation,
∴ x−3= 0 Classwork 9 (p.249)
x=3 (a) y
∴ x-intercept is 3 .
(b) 3 y − x + 1 = 0
3y = x − 1
1 1 L1
y= x−
3 3
1 1
∴ The slope is .
3 x
O π
1 6
y-intercept is − .
3 In the figure, the equation of L1 is
Substitute y = 0 into the equation, π π
x cos + y sin − 1 = 0
∴ −x + 1 = 0 6 6
x =1 3 1
∴ x-intercept is 1 . x + y −1 = 0
2 2
(c) 2 y = 1 − 4 x 3x + y − 2 = 0
1
y = −2 x + (b) y
2
∴ The slope is −2 .
1
y-intercept is . L2
2
3 2π
Substitute y = 0 into the equation, 3
∴ 0 = 1 − 4x O
x

1
x=
4 In the figure, the equation of L 2 is
1
∴ x-intercept is . 2π 2π
4 x cos + y sin −3= 0
3 3
(d) 3 y + 2 x = 0 1 3
3 y = −2 x − x+ y−3= 0
2 2
2
y=− x x − 3y + 6 = 0
3
166 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

y 2
(c) ∴ p=
L3 2
2 2
cos θ =, sin θ =
x 2 2
O
∴ θ = 45°
(c) The normal form is
3x − 2 y + 7
=0
In the figure, the equation of L 3 is − 32 + 2 2
π π 3 2 7
x cos + y sin = 0 − x+ y− =0
4 4 13 13 13
2 2
x( ) + y( )=0 7
2 2 ∴ p=
x+y=0 13
3 2
(d) y cos θ = − , sin θ =
L4 13 13
∴ θ = 146° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
(d) The normal form is
x − 3y
=0
− 12 + 32
1 3
− x+ y=0
10 10
x
O 4 ∴ p=0
1 3
In the figure, the equation of L 4 is cos θ = − , sin θ =
10 10
x cos 0 + y sin 0 − 4 = 0 ∴ θ = 108° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
x−4=0 (e) The normal form is
y+5
=0
Classwork 10 (p.251) − 12
−y − 5 = 0
(a) The normal form is
∴ p=5
3x + 4 y − 5
=0 cos θ = 0 , sin θ = −1
32 + 4 2 ∴ θ = 270°
3 4 (f) The normal form is
x + y −1 = 0
5 5 x−3
=0
∴ p =1 12
3 4 x−3= 0
cos θ = , sin θ = ∴ p=3
5 5
∴ θ = 53.1° (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) cos θ = 1 , sin θ = 0
∴ θ = 0°
(b) The normal form is
−x − y + 1
=0
− 12 + 12 Classwork 11 (p.252)
1 1 1 1. (a) By considering the distance from (4, −2) to
x+ y− =0
2 2 2 the line,
2 2 2
x+ y− =0 2( 4) − ( −2) + 7 17 5
2 2 2 d= = units
2 2 + ( −1)2 5
Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures 167

(b) By considering the distance from (−2, 3) to Classwork 13 (p.255)


the line,
(a) An equation of L is 3 x − y + k = 0 , where k is real.
−4( −2) + 3(3) − 1 16
d= = units (b) Mid-point of AB
( −4)2 + 32 5 −1 + 3 2 + 3 5
=( , ) = (1, )
2 2 2
2. Let (s, 0) be the coordinates of P. Substitute the point into L,
5
5s + 36 3(1) − + k = 0
=2 2
52 + ( −12)2 1
k=−
5s + 36 2
=2 ∴ An equation of L1 is 6 x − 2 y − 1 = 0 .
13
5s + 36 5s + 36 (c) Let the equation of L 2 be 3 x − y + k2 = 0 .
=2 or = −2
13 13 3( −1) − 2 + k2
5s = −10 or 5s = −62 = 2 10
62 32 + 12
s = −2 or s=− k2 − 5
5 = ±2 10
62 10
∴ The point P is ( −2, 0) or ( − , 0) .
5 k2 − 5 = 2(10) or k2 − 5 = −2(10)
k2 = 25 or k2 = −15
3. Let P(x, y) be a point on the perpendicular bisector,
then the distance from P to the two lines are equal. ∴ The equation of L is
3 x − y + 25 = 0 or 3 x − y − 15 = 0 .
2x − 4y + 1 2x + y − 3
=
22 + 42 2 2 + 12
2x − 4y + 1 2x + y − 3 Classwork 14 (p.256)
=
2 5 5 (a) An equation of L is
2 x − 4 y + 1 = ±( 4 x + 2 y − 6)
y − 3 = k[ x − ( −5)]
2x − 4y + 1 or 2x − 4y + 1 y = k ( x + 5) + 3 , where k is real
= 4x + 2y − 6 = −( 4 x + 2 y − 6)
2 x + 6 y − 7 = 0 or 6x − 2y − 5 = 0 (b) Since L1 passes through (2, 1),

1 = k (2 + 5) + 3
2
Classwork 12 (p.254) k=−
7
1. The distance between L1 and L 2 is ∴ The equation of L1 is 2 x + 7 y − 11 = 0 .
8 − ( −2) (c) From the equation of L
d= units
4 2 + 32 y = k ( x + 5) + 3
y − kx = 5k + 3
= 2 units − kx y
+ =1
5k + 3 5k + 3
2. Let the equation of L' be x + y − p = 0 .
x-intercept
−1 − ( − p) 5k + 3
= 2 =− = −1
12 + 12 k
−1 + p k = 5k + 3
=± 2 3
2 k =−
−1 + p = 2 or −1 + p = −2 4
∴ The equation of L 2 is
p = 3 or p = −1
3
∴ The equation of L' is y = − ( x + 5) + 3
4
x + y − 3 = 0 or x + y + 1 = 0 . 3x + 4 y + 3 = 0
168 Chapter 10 Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures

Classwork 15 (p.258)
(a) An equation of L is 3 x − 2 y − 1 + k ( x + y + 3) = 0 ,
where k is real.
(b) (i) Rearrange the equation as
(3 + k ) x + ( k − 2) y + (3k − 1) = 0
1
Since the slope is ,
4
3+ k 1
− =
k−2 4
k − 2 = −12 − 4 k
5k = −10
k = −2
Substitute k = −2 into (1),
(3 x − 2 y − 1) − 2( x + y + 3) = 0
x − 4y − 7 = 0
(ii) Since y-intercept is 2,
3k − 1
− =2
k−2
2 k − 4 = −3k + 1
5k = 5
k =1
Substitute k = 1 into (1),
3x − 2 y − 1 + x + y + 3 = 0
4x − y + 2 = 0