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Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition.

Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 1 Wittgenstein s Nachlass The Bergen Electronic Edition Introduction 2000 Oxford University Press University of Bergen The Wittgenstein Trustees This Introduction provides you with background information about Wittgenstein s Nachlass and also with important information about the Bergen Electronic Edition. In particular it provides details of the various editorial decisions made by the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen; these editorial decisions impact on the transcription of Wittgenstein s text, and the display and searching of the text. If you would like information on how to start using the disc then please refer to the User Guide. If you would like to go straight to the transcriptions, or to the Facsimile and Item List, select the place where you wish to go from the Main Menu. The Wittgenstein Nachlass On his death in 1951, Ludwig Wittgenstein left behind a philosophical Nachlass of some 20,000 pages. Apart from the Tractatus, these papers were at that point unpublished and largely unknown. The extent of the material came as a surprise even to Wittgenstein s friends. The Trustees whom he had appointed to manage his estate - G.E.M. Anscombe, Rush Rhees, and G.H. von Wright - were repeatedly obliged to reassess the scale of their task as more and more material came to light. Their amazement was even greater on learning that Wittgenstein had had further papers destroyed. Wittgenstein s hope was that his Trustees might at last achieve

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 2 what he himself had never managed, namely to settle on a form for the publication of his works. In his will of 29 January 1951 he wrote, I intend and desire that Mr Rhees, Miss Anscombe, and Professor von Wright shall publish as many of my unpublished writings as they think fit (...) Publication history In 1953 G.E.M. Anscombe and Rush Rhees published Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen). Since then many more texts have been released in print. The publication of the Nachlass is still an ongoing concern. The story of the Nachlass and the initial phase of its publication is told in von Wright s book Wittgenstein (von Wright 1982). Of particular interest is the chapter The Wittgenstein Papers (first published 1969), which contains what has meanwhile become the standard classification of the Nachlass. The text of the book publications has been available in electronic form for several years but differs from the current edition in that 1. it was not prepared especially for this medium, and 2. it includes only the book titles edited and published posthumously, and not the entire Nachlass. The Nachlass catalogue In talking of Wittgenstein s Nachlass one usually means the texts listed in von Wright s catalogue - in other words, the philosophical papers. Von Wright divides the approximately 20,000 pages into three numbered groups: numbers 101-182 refer to manuscripts (texts in Wittgenstein s hand, primarily notebooks and bound volumes); numbers 201-245 refer to typescripts (usually dictated by Wittgenstein directly from his manuscripts); numbers 301-311 refer to dictations (to friends and students, e.g. in

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 3 connection with lectures and seminars). For each Nachlass item the catalogue gives a date, a brief description, and the number of pages. Some of the items are discussed in greater detail in a supplement to the main catalogue. In the field of Nachlass research, von Wright s catalogue has established itself as the standard system of reference. The original manuscripts and typescripts are preserved at various libraries and archives: MSS 105-107, 112-113, and TS 203 are kept at the Austrian National Library, Vienna; MS 104 and TS 202 at the Bodleian Library, Oxford; TSS 201a at the Bertrand Russell Archive, Hamilton, Ontario. Two items now considered lost are: TS 209 (Philosophische Bemerkungen) and TS 234 (typescript of the second part of Philosophische Untersuchungen). There exist copies of the former. All other items in von Wright s catalogue, meaning by far the greater part of the Nachlass, are held at Trinity College Library, Cambridge. After the compilation of the catalogue a number of items went missing but have recently been recovered: MSS 126, 127, 139b, 142, and TSS 204, 236 and 238. Of these, MSS 126 and 127 were traced in 1993 and returned to Trinity College Library. TSS 236 and 238 were identified in the Rush Rhees collection at Trinity. Then, in 1993, Johannes Koder published the fact (Koder 1993) that MSS 139b, 142, and TS 204 were among the posthumous estate of Rudolph and Elisabeth Koder, Vienna. Koder s publication also brought a number of hitherto unknown items to light: a notebook with entries from different periods (1930-32 and 1936-37; now catalogued as MS 183) and two manuscript-sheets from the 1920s (Koder 1993, p.53ff). The latter are single page items: a page torn from a diary and an annotated newspaper cutting. Nachlass structure and editing In assigning numbers to the Nachlass items, it was not so much

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 4 chronological order that von Wright took into account, but physical criteria, such as notebook size, and Wittgenstein s own grouping of certain items into various series. The first such series consists of 18 volumes which Wittgenstein numbered with Latin numerals. In von Wright s catalogue these are MSS 105-122. A second series consists of 16 volumes from what was once probably a complete sequence classified by Wittgenstein alphabetically from A to S. These are catalogued by von Wright as MSS 123-138. Collectively these items are referred to as Bnde (Volumes). In their degree of apparent revision these are distinguished from the so-called notebooks which constitute most of the remaining handwritten part of the Nachlass. Not surprisingly for a corpus of unfinished work, the distinction between manuscript and typescript is often hard to uphold. Some manuscripts contain typescript cuttings (e.g. MSS 114 and 115), while the majority of typescripts contain handwritten additions, corrections, and commentaries (cf. TSS 208 and 213), or even complete sections of manuscript (TS 233). Von Wright s numbers refer to the separate physical parts of the Nachlass, not to thematically ordered units of text. In the case of the manuscripts this generally means that the handwritten material is classified according to the separate manuscript books (notebooks, ledgers, etc.) irrespective of how the text is arranged within them. The consequences of this approach can sometimes be surprising, as in the case of the first two Volumes , MSS 105 and 106. Roughly speaking, the text runs first through the recto pages of MS 105, continuing through the recto pages of MS 106, followed by the verso pages of MS 106, and finally on to the verso pages of MS 105. Thus, although the physical unit which Wittgenstein called Band I is referred to by a single catalogue number (MS 105), it in fact consists of two independent text sequences, the one running through the recto, the other through the verso pages.

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 5 (See below.) In the next volume (MS 107), the text is initially continuous as far as page 229. It then continues in MS 108 as far as page 64. Thereupon Wittgenstein went back to MS 107 and continued there to the end of that volume, before returning yet again to MS 108. Similar discontinuities can be found throughout the Nachlass. This may be a consequence of Wittgenstein s working on different manuscripts in different places, e.g. Vienna and Cambridge. In addition to the difficulty of establishing the true unit of a Wittgensteinian text, the editor of Wittgenstein s writings must contend with problems on a much more detailed level. As in many other manuscript sources, Wittgenstein s writings contain deletions, overwritings, interlinear insertions, marginal remarks and annotations, substitutions, counterpositions, and shorthand abbreviations, as well as orthographic errors and slips of the pen. A particular problem is posed by his habit of combining insertions and deletions to form substitutions between alternative expressions. When revising his work he did in some cases clearly decide in favour of a specific alternative. In others he left the matter open. Another aspect of his revision work consisted in copying or dictating passages from one manuscript to another. Therefore the Nachlass is, in a certain sense, repetitious; it contains several layers of basically similar text. These intertextual links are complicated and by no means fully mapped out, yet they are of distinctive interest to scholars studying the development of Wittgenstein s thought. In light of these problems, it might seem that the only way to do Wittgenstein s Nachlass justice would be to publish it in facsimile. This was done in 1967, when Cornell University commissioned a microfilm of the entire Nachlass, such as it was known at the time (The Wittgenstein Papers, Cornell University Libraries, Ithaca, N.Y., 1968). Xerox copies of this microfilm

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 6 were subsequently purchased by many other research institutions. Unfortunately, however, the Cornell edition is incomplete and of inconsistent quality. Moreover, a facsimile has obvious shortcomings as a means of conveying Wittgenstein s thought to a broad public. For someone unfamiliar with Wittgenstein s handwriting or editorial conventions, for instance, a transcribed and edited text will clearly be of more use. Although we can safely say that the most important themes and arguments of Wittgenstein s thought are now known from what has been published, there are always aspects of his work which traditional means of publication fail to capture. With the aim of honouring Wittgenstein s intentions, his editors have sometimes put together selections from a range of different manuscripts. Unfortunately, Wittgenstein s intentions can rarely be established with any certainty. The instructions he wrote into his works are numerous and often contradictory. Those selections that have been made have secured for Wittgenstein a place among the first rank of Western thinkers. Regrettable, however, is that his editors do not always document their decisions, thus obscuring the relationship between the published material and its sources. The posthumous publications differ considerably in their editorial approaches. Some of them involve much editorial intervention, others less. But in general they contain no critical apparatus. Against this background the advantages of an electronic edition are numerous. Machine-readable transcriptions have an inherent flexibility which paper editions cannot match. A suitably encoded computerized text can be filtered for presentation in many different ways, it can contain links for automatic cross referencing, and it can be rapidly searched for key words and categorized terms. In particular it allows for the efficient tracing of similarly worded text passages in different

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 7 manuscripts. The Bergen Electronic Edition The Bergen Electronic Edition is the result of a long-term scholarly work that serves the most exacting academic research purposes as well as general interest for Wittgenstein s writings. As such it offers far more than a mere visual representation of the original material. The core of the publication consists of the facsimile pictures and two Infobases containing transcriptions of the originals in Diplomatic and Normalized formats. The Bergen Electronic Edition has been carried out in co-operation between the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, the the HIT Centre at the University of Bergen (formerly the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities) and Oxford University Press. The Wittgenstein Archives has designed the editorial principles, developed software tools, and prepared the transcriptions. The HIT Centre has developed the delivery system and prepared the electronic facsimile. Oxford University Press has provided digitized photographs of the entire Nachlass and managed the publication process. The transcriptions under preparation at the Wittgenstein Archives are coded in a primary format using a syntax called MECS (Multi Element Code System). MECS defines the syntax for the Wittgenstein Archives registration standard, MECS-WIT, while MECS software allows for varying presentation formats, code extraction, variant control, and compilation of word lists and other statistical data. With the appropriate software tools, MECS-conformant transcriptions may be presented according to a variety of filtering profiles (style sheets). The basic minimal requirement of a MECS-WIT transcription is that it should provide for both a diplomatic and a normalized and simplified reading version of the text. Both of these versions

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 8 are included on this CD-ROM edition, where they are linked page for page with each other and with the digital facsimile, thus allowing efficient inspection of the text on varying levels of detail. Texts included in this edition The list below gives an overview of all manuscripts, typescripts and dictations included in this edition. The list first gives the von Wright catalogue number of each item, indicates on which disc the facsimile of the item is to be found, and quotes the title of the item. The title is either the original's title or (mostly in cases where the original carries no title) the title given by von Wright. ItemDisc Title no.(vol) 101 102 103 104 105 Ser. 106 Ser. 107 Ser. 108 109 110 111 112 Ser. 4b 4b 4b 4b 2 otizbuch N otizbuch N otizbuch N otizbuch. Der sog. Prototractatus N and B I Philosophische Bemerkungen (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. n. 22.018) 2 B II and (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. n. 22.019) 2 B III Philosophische Betrachtungen and (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. n. 22.020) 2 B IV Philosophische Bemerkungen and 2 B V Bemerkungen and 2 B VI Philosophische Bemerkungen and 2 B VII Bemerkungen zur Philosophie and 2 B VIII Bemerkungen zur philosophischen Grammatik and (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. n.22.021)

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 9 113 2 and B IX Philosophische Grammatik (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. Ser. n. 22.022) 114 1 B X. "Philosophische Grammatik" and 115 1 B XI. "Philosophische Bemerkungen". "Philosophische and Untersuchungen" 116 1 B XII. "Philosophische Bemerkungen" and 117 1 B XIII. "Philosophische Bemerkungen" and 118 1 B XIV. "Philosophische Bemerkungen" and 119 1 B XV. and 120 1 B XVI. and 121 1 B XVII. "Philosophische Bemerkungen." and 122 1 B XVIII. "Philosophische Bemerkungen" and 123 4a N otizbuch Philosophische Bemerkungen 124 3 B and 125 4a T aschennotizbuch 126 4a T aschennotizbuch 127 4a T aschennotizbuch F. Mathematik und Logik 128 3 B and 129 3 B and 130 3 B and 131 3 B and 132 3 B and 133 3 B and 134 3 B and 135 3 B and 136 3 B Q and 137 3 B R and 138 3 B S and 139a4b Vortrag ber Ethik 139b4b Vortrag ber Ethik (Koder Nachlass) 140 4b " Grosses Format" 141 4b A nfang einer frhen deutschen Fassung des Braunen Buchs 142 3 B Philosophische Untersuchungen and 143 4b B emerkungen zu Frazers "The Golden Bough" 144 3 B Reinschrift des II. Teils der Untersuchungen and 145 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C1 146 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C2 147 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C3

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 10 148 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C4 149 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C5 150 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C6 151 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C7 152 4b G rosses Notizbuch. Sog C8 153a4b Taschennotizbuch. "Anmerkungen". 153b4b Taschennotizbuch 154 4b T aschennotizbuch 155 4b T aschennotizbuch 156a4b Taschennotizbuch 156b4b Taschennotizbuch 157a4a Taschennotizbuch 157b4a Taschennotizbuch 158 4a T aschennotizbuch 159 4a T aschennotizbuch 160 4a T aschennotizbuch 161 4a T aschennotizbuch 162a4a Taschennotizbuch 162b4a Pocket notebook 163 4a T aschennotizbuch 164 4a T aschennotizbuch 165 4a T aschennotizbuch 166 4a T aschennotizbuch. 'Notes for the "Philosophical Lecture"' 167 4a T aschennotizbuch 168 4a N otizbuch 169 4a T aschennotizbuch 170 4a T aschennotizbuch 171 4a T aschennotizbuch 172 4a M anuskript auf losen Blttern 173 4a N otizbuch 174 4a N otizbuch 175 4a T aschennotizbuch 176 4a N otizbuch 177 4a N otizbuch 178a4a Fragment Man knnte die (ganze) Sache 178b4a Fragment Ich verstehe es 178c4a Fragment Das Bild der Cantorschen berlegung 178d4a Fragment Unter Logik versteht man

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 11 178e4a Fragment darfst Du Dich nicht 178f4a Fragment Ich mchte sagen 178g4a Fragment Diese Sicherheit ist eine empirische 178h4a Fragment folgt? ist das Verstehen? 179 4a N otizbuch 180a4a Notizbuch 180b4a Notizbuch 181 4a L Bltter Privacy of Sense Data ose 182 3 L iste der Bemerkungen aus Ts. 228, die in die Endfassung des I. Teils der Untersuchungen aufgenommen wurden 183 4a T agebuch aus dem Koder Nachlass 201a12 Notes on Logic 201a22 Notes on Logic 202 4b L ogisch-Philosophische Abhandlung. (Sog. "Engelmann Ts." des "Tractatus") 203 4b L ogisch-Philosophische Abhandlung (Sog. Wiener Ts. des "Tractatus") (=Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. Ser. n. 22.023) 204 4b L ogisch-Philosophische Abhandlung (Sog. "Gmunden Ts." des "Tractatus") 205 2 G eleitwort zum Wrterbuch fr Volksschulen 206 2 Identitt ber 207 2 V ortrag ber Ethik 208 2 T yposkript basierend auf 105, 106, 107 und der ersten Hlfte von 108 209 2 P hilosophische Bemerkungen 210 2 T yposkript basierend auf der zweiten Hlfte von 108 211 2 T yposkript basierend auf 109, 110, 111, 112, 113 und dem Anfang von 114 212 1 T ypescript based on 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, and the beginning of 114 213 1 S "Big Typescript" og. 214a 1 A ufsatz "Komplex und Tatsache" 214b 1 A ufsatz "Begriff und Gegenstand" 214c 1 A ufsatz "Gegenstand" 215a 1 A ufsatz "Unendlich lang" 215b 1 A ufsatz "Unendliche Mglichkeit"

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 12 215c4a Aufsatz "Einen Satz im Ernst oder Spa meinen, etc." 216 1 A ufsatz "Gleichungen und Ungleichungen sind Festsetzungen oder die Folgen von Festsetzungen" 217 1 A ufsatz "Allgemeinheit einer Demonstration" 218 1 A ufsatz "Wie kann uns ein allgemeiner Beweis den besonderen Beweis schenken?" 219 1 T yposkript mit den Anfangsworten "Muss sich denn nicht..." 220 1 T yposkript von etwa der ersten Hlfte der Vorkriegsfassung der Untersuchungen 221 1 T yposkript der zweiten Hlfte der Vorkriegsfassung der Untersuchungen 222 1 T yposkript, zusammengestellt aus Zetteln aus 221 223 1 T yposkript mit den Anfangsworten "Man kann sich leicht eine Sprache denken...", zusammengestellt aus Zetteln aus 221 224 1 T yposkript mit den Anfangsworten "Das Ueberraschende in der Mathematik...", zusammengestellt aus Zetteln aus 221" 225 1 T yposkript des Vorworts zur Vorkriegsfassung der Untersuchungen 226 1 E nglische bersetzung von Rush Rhees des Anfangs der Vorkriegsfassung der Untersuchungen 227a 3 T yposkript (a) des ersten Teils der Endfassung der Untersuchungen 227b 3 T yposkript (b) des ersten Teils der Endfassung der Untersuchungen 228 3 B emerkungen I 229 3 T yposkript, Fortsetzung von 228 230 3 B emerkungen II 231 3 Z Listen der bereinstimmenden Bemerkungen in wei "Bemerkungen I" und "Bemerkungen II" 232 3 T yposkript, basierend auf den Ms Bnden 135 bis 137 233a4a Zettel I 233b4a Zettel II 235 4a T yposkript eines Inhaltsverzeichnisses eines unbekannten Werks 236 4a T yposkript aus 17 nicht aufeinanderfolgenden Seiten aus

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 13 210 und einer Seite aus 211 237 4a T yposkript aus Bruchstcken der Seiten 80 bis 92 von 220, mit Zustzen und nderungen 238 4a T yposkript der Bearbeitungen der Seiten 77 bis 93 von 220 239 4a T yposkript einer bearbeiteten Fassung von 220 240 4a T yposkript aus Bruchstcken von 221, mit nderungen 241a 3 T yposkript (a), basierend auf 129. 241b 3 T yposkript (b), basierend auf 129 242 3 T yposkript einiger Seiten zwischen S. 149 und 195 der sogenannten Zwischenfassung der Untersuchungen 243 3 T yposkript eines Vorworts zu den Untersuchungen 244 4a T yposkript eines doppelten Teils von 228 und 229 245 4a T yposkript, beginnt mitten in der Bemerkung 689 von 244, umfasst den Rest von 244 sowie das Ganze von 229 301 4b D iktataufzeichnungen von G E Moore, angefertigt in Norwegen, April 1914 302 4b S Diktat fr Schlick og 303 4b S chlick Diktat, Anfangsworte "Die normale Ausdrucksweise" 304 4b S chlick Diktat, Anfangsworte "Hat es Sinn zu sagen" 305 4b S chlick Diktat, Anfangsworte "Fragen wie diese" 306 4b S chlick Diktat, Anfangsworte "Was bedeutet es denn" 309 4b S Blaues Buch og 310 4b S Braunes Buch og Remarks on individual items Item 215c is not listed in von Wright's catalogue. It consists of two pages which earlier appeared between pp 23 and 24 of Item 213. The position of corresponding fragments in Item 212 has suggested that these two pages ought to be reckoned as an additional essay in Item 215. In von Wright's catalogue, Items 227a and 227b, 233a and 233b, and 241a and 241b, are listed as single items; i.e. 227, 233 and 241, respectively. However, the carbon copies of these items were sufficiently different for us to find it best to include them as

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 14 separate transcriptions. Item 234 appears in von Wright's catalogue, but not in this edition. The simple reason for this is that the typescript is lost, and no known copy exists. We have not been able to include Items 307 and 308. These were believed to be in Cambridge, but were not found there. We learned about this only too late for us to locate them and include them in this edition. Remarks on the facsimile The Bergen Electronic Edition includes full-colour facsimile images of each and every page or page fragment of the Wittgenstein Nachlass, comprising 21,444 images. The images are interlinked with the Normalized and Diplomatic transcriptions. A few pages which were missing in previous releases (Volumes 1 and 2) of the edition have now been added. These images are included in the folder p\rest\ on Image Disc 4b. The facsimile of Item 140 was originally included on Disc 1 of the edition. A new and improved facsimile, to which the transcriptions now refer, has been included on Disc 4b. In the copy of TS 209, such as it is preserved in Cambridge, a number of pages occur as duplicate or even triplicate Xerox copies. Facsimiles of the additional copies are not included here. Unfortunately we have not been in the position to obtain color facsimiles of Items 105, 106, 107, 112 and 113. These items are therefor included in black and white only. We also regret that due to uncertainties about copyright, we have not been able to include facismiles of Item 203 (57 pages).

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 15 Other than that, 68 pages and page fragments have been missed during the photographing or scanning process. Fortunately, most of them are front or back covers, or other material with no or insignificant text on them. However, 24 pages and page fragments with text have also been missed. (They have all been transcribed, as we have had access to the originals or other copies.) Here is a full listing of facsimile images still missing (not including Item 203. FC=Front Cover, BC=Back Cover, *=text page): Item 101 102 103 104 105 Pag F C F C F C v F C 32 33 BC F C 153 154 BC F C BC F C 30v 31r BC F C 100 101 BC 1 F C e I tePmag e 1 42iv B C 1 431 * 1 45FC 1 46FC 1 47FC 1 48FC 1 49FC 1 50FC 1 51FC 1 52FC 1 53FaC 1 53FbC 1 54FC 1 55FC 1 56FaC 1 56FBC 1 5832r * 1 79iii 1 83ii i v 7 0 * 2 44 2 45 I tePmage 1 83246 v 2 01B26 2 02iv 2 04i * 2 9 2 11564 * 2 12766 * 8 56 * 8 63 * 2 13184b * 2 391 3 023 * B C 3 031 * 3 041 * 3 051 * 3 06FC 3 091 * 3 10FC *

* * * *

106

107 112

* * * v r *

113

140 141

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 16

Editorial methods The preparation of the two transcription formats - the so-called Diplomatic and Normalized texts - has required a number of significant editorial decisions. In brief the two formats are differentiated, not so much in terms of how much detail they convey, but rather in virtue of their textual perspectives. The Diplomatic version aims to record not just the words, but also as much detail as possible relating to the visual appearance of the text. It acknowledges that our understanding of the text derives in no small part from the spatial arrangement of material on the page. It reproduces features such as deleted words and letters, shorthand abbreviations, orthographic inconsistencies, rejected formulations, authorial instructions for the re-ordering of material, marginal comments, etc. Vertical and horizontal spacing has been reproduced as far as possible, with the exception that line breaks do not in the general case coincide with those of the original. One of the principal uses of the Diplomatic text will be as an aid to reading the facsimile. The Normalized version, on the other hand, presents the text in its thematic and semantic aspect. Deleted material is suppressed, unequivocal instructions for the reordering of material are carried out, shorthand abbreviations are extended and orthography corrected and standardized. In the representation of substitutions care has been taken to provide for a grammatically well-formed text wherever possible. The result is a version which is easy to read and suitable for searching for words and phrases.

Diplomatic and Normalized transcriptions The treatment of the most common textual features can be summarized as follows (for the presentation of these features in the Normalized and Diplomatic texts, see Key to editorial mark-up

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 17 symbols): Textual feature DiplomaticNormalized ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ deleted text included suppressed ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ insertedineetent ari(cbuved/ text included, no ttxti e rlx nalode , elo b w li ne)positiod catioated original inniindicn of ___p_s_t_o_ _r _a_k_n_____________________ _ _o_i_i_n_o__m_r_i_g ffi t doc tadking a rmainiinamer __________________________________________ _ n i margi n text included, position recorded ________________________________________________________________ _________________________ underlinsnright itga indicated indicated ________________________________________________________________ ________ pac s ed t ypei(dyceted indicated ntipacript equivalent of s traight underlining) s ________________________________________________________________ ________ avy w (us uallndicated not indicated iy ndicative of i oubt) d ________________________________________________________________ ________ rok b en ( typendicated not indicated icript equivalent of s avy w underlining) ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ non-standard ad literamnormalized

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 18 orthography ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ abbreviatsoasard itnn d retained retained ________________________________________________________________ ________ onn stan dard literamextended ad ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ substitutdocsed ieni d both/clo altertatiaes only ahlsen alnernvtive (see below) included included ________________________________________________________________ ________ nde u cide d both/blt /ateraatirna aolhalll nltevestives included included, last alternative in main text, all others hidden ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ editorial instructioincluded suppressed ns (by Wittgenstein) ________________________________________________________________ __________________________

Pages and Pagination Each physical page has been given a page-name , which is used to refer to it in the Item List and elsewhere. The page-name is the common-sense designation for the page in question. Where the page has been numbered by Wittgenstein, then the page-name is generally the same as Wittgenstein s page number. Where the original lacks pagination, the page-name is ascribed according to the standard librarian s pagination system, whereby the first page of text is 1 recto , the second 1 verso , the third 2

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 19 recto , and so on. In the Diplomatic version, original pagination is also shown. Pagination by librarians, although frequently visible on the facsimile, has generally not been transcribed. Note that a number of the smaller typescript items do not begin at page 1. These are TSS 214b, 214c, 215b, 221 and 246. The transcription of MSS 105 and 106 follows the text sequence rather than the physical sequence of pages, i.e. roughly speaking, first the recto pages, then the verso pages. (See above.) The handling of the handwritten verso pages in the typescripts requires special mention. The phenomenon is especially frequent in Items 202, 208, 213 and 233b, and also occurs in Items 220, 238, 239, 241b, 301 and 310. In the Diplomatic text, the handwritten verso pages appear as independent pages. In the Normalized version the additional material is assimilated into the main text according to the following method: where the target location for the additional material in the text body is clear beyond reasonable doubt, then that material has been included at that location; where the target location is not clear, then the material has, in the majority of cases, been inserted immediately after the first section close on the subsequent (parallel) recto page. Some deviation from this rule has been necessary where the handwritten text is continuous over more than one verso page, or where an interruption between the original recto sections would seriously impair comprehension.

Punctuation Punctuation is generally authentic, in the Normalized as well as the Diplomatic text. The only cases where the Normalized text

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 20 adds or modifies punctuation are: 1. where a punctuation sign is lacking at the end of a sentence; 2. where one of an implied pair of signs is missing, for example , ( ). Spacing in conjunction with punctuation, which in the TSS varies conspicuously, has generally been standardized.

Substitutions Substitutions, consisting of one or more alternative (and mutually exclusive) readings for a word or phrase, have been classified as three different types: 1. decided substitutions in favour of the first alternative, 2. decided substitutions in favour of the last alternative, and 3. undecided substitutions. Decided substitutions are cases where all except one of various alternative formulations have been cancelled (usually by means of confirmation markings and deletions). Undecided substitutions are cases where more than one of the alternative formulations have been left uncanceled. In the Diplomatic text all alternative textual readings are included. Deleted alternatives are appropriately marked (see Key to editorial mark-up symbols) as is their place of insertion (above, below or in the line, or in the margin etc.). In the Normalized text decided and undecided substitutions are handled differently. In the case of decided substitutions, only the single, uncanceled alternative is displayed, and there is no indication of the underlying substitution. In the case of undecided substitutions all of the alternative formulations are available, but not necessarily displayed. In this edition, the Normalized text displays only the latest alternative when the view options are at their default settings. The earlier formulations are contained as hidden text. The fact that the default word or phrase is a substitution - and hence that other

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 21 readings are hidden behind it - is indicated by the use of black type in contrast to the standard blue.

Coded text ("Geheimschrift") Text written in Wittgenstein s so-called secret code (Geheimschrift) is transcribed ad literam in the Diplomatic text but appears decoded (i.e. as standard script) in the Normalized version.

Mathematical, logical and other notation Mathematical, logical and other special notation has been transcribed in two different ways. Where it was possible to represent the instance as a character string, then it has been transcribed as such. Where the instance involves an element of significant spatial ordering (such as a table, or two equations whose analogous components are linked by lines), then it has been represented as a bitmap. Whether they have been transcribed or included as bitmaps, all occurences of non-alphabetic notations have been marked and associated with special, searchable descriptors. These descriptors can be found in the following searchable fileds: Mathematical, Logical, Set-Theoretical, Musical and "Miscellaneous" Notation.

Graphics Illustrations, diagrams and other features of particular graphical interest have been digitally scanned and inserted as bitmaps. Deciding what qualifies as graphics and what does not

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 22 is often difficult. As with mathematical and logical notation, the decision to scan a particular feature has occasionally depended on whether or not it is possible to represent it as a character string. Certain symbols for which font characters are available have nevertheless been scanned, when it is clear from the context (and hence important for the philosophical discussion) that Wittgenstein wishes us to focus on this particular occurence of the symbol, and not just any token of that symbol type. Whether they have been transcribed or scanned and included as bitmaps, all occurences of graphics have been associated with special, searchable descriptors.

Additions and Amendments The Nachlass contains a large number of additions and amendments to the original text. Some of these changes have been made by Wittgenstein himself during the initial phase of writing. Others have probably been made by Wittgenstein, but at a much later stage. Yet other changes may have been made by others than Wittgenstein himself, with or without his authorization. Because of different coloring, writing utensils etc, it is mostly possible to decide which parts of a text have been added later. But it is often extremely difficult to decide who made the change and when. Therefore, we have limited ourselves in this edition to mark appropriately all parts of text which have been added by a different hand, without distinguishing between the various cases. Text added by a different hand is printed in italics in both the Normalized and the Diplomatic transcription. Marks and numbers in the margins are not printed in italics or otherwise marked, as they are in general always added by a later hand. Other amendments to the text, such as underlining added by a later

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 23 hand, have not been marked but rendered without special indication of their status. Concerning additions on handwritten verso pages in typescripts, see above. Legend

Normalized transcription Red Editorial comments and marks UnderlinedUnderlined with one or more straight solid lines or spaced type Italics Additions and amendments in different hand Bold Links, following Wittgenstein s instructions Black The last of undecided alternatives, all others available as hidden text ... Unreadable text Unreadable character [Ill.] Blank space left open, probably intended for illustration/graphics

Diplomatic transcription Red Underlined Grey line(s) Strikeout Bold [a A] Insertion Editorial marks Underlined with one or more straight solid lines Underlined with wavy, broken (dashed) or dotted Deleted Links, following Wittgenstein s instructions [Overwritten overwriting] Inserted text above or below line

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 24 InsertionMarked insertion above line InsertionMarked insertion below line <> Insertion in line Insertion in margin ... Unreadable text Unreadable character background Text crossed through by vertical or diagonal line [Ill.] Blank space left open, probably intended for illustration/graphics ;text: Text to be relocated, relocation indicated by arrow pointing lefu wrrds tpoa = Starting point of arrow pointing left or upwards ? End point of arrow pointing left or upwards 9text< Text to be relocated, relocation indicated by arrow pointing right or downwards @ Starting point of arrow pointing right or downwards > End point of arrow pointing right or downwards

Search features A significant feature of most electronic editions is that one can search in them rapidly and efficiently for vocabulary and categorized terms. Folio Views, which this edition uses for text presentation and retrieval, has powerful search capabilities. Not only does it allow you to search for words - both singly and in more or less complex combinations - it also permits searching in special predefined information categories. These categories are of two types, Fields and Groups. The range of Fields and Groups differs for the Diplomatic and Normalized texts. In the Diplomatic text, Fields include Coded Text, Cross

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 25 Reference, Editorial Emendation, Dating, Graphics, Personal Name (both ad literam and in normalized form), Tables; the languages English, French and Latin; and Musical, Mathematical, Logical, Set-Theoretical and other Notation. In the Normalized text the Fields include all the above, except for Dating, and in addition Earliest Estimated Date, Substituendum and Substituens . For both the Diplomatic and the Normalized texts, the searchable Groups consist of subgroups of Nachlass items. They include Bnde, Manuscripts, Typescripts and Dictations. In this publication searches can be made in two ways, either by using the standard Query option or by means of search templates specially tailored to Wittgenstein s Nachlass. These are to be found in the Search menu. For detailed information on the various Fields and Groups and on how to use the Folio Views search facilities see the User Guide. In Folio Views the basic search unit is called a record. In the Normalized format the records are defined according to the thematic units corresponding to Wittgenstein s sections (usually one or more paragraphs between blank lines). In the Diplomatic format records correspond to physical pages. In the search results, Records With Hits means the number of Folio records in which the relevant search string occurs one or more times (i.e. not the number of actual occurrences). Although the Table of Contents lists page numbers, for the Normalized version it contains only those pages on which records actually begin, and jumping from the Table of Contents to a selected item will take you, not to the top of the page, but to the top of the next section. (The reason for this is that records cannot cross the structural level from which the Table of Contents is compiled.)

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 26 On performing a search query the result is displayed in the Table of Contents as keyword-in-context quotes. Clicking on one of these quotes takes you to the relevant point in the full text. Certain search fields should be used with caution. The Notation and Graphics fields allow you to search only within descriptors with which each occurence of graphics and special notation has been labeled. Moreover, the search menu only operates with standard alpha-numeric characters. This means that it is not possible to search directly for e.g. Greek letters or mathematical and logical operators. Occurrences of mathematical and logical notation involving an element of significant spacial ordering have been prepared as bitmaps and are not accessible via the usual search facilities. It should also be noted that searching within date ranges can give misleading results, and should be used with caution. The Earliest Estimated Date field refers back either to the date at which it is estimated that Wittgenstein started work on the particular catalogue item, or to the last explicit dating within that item. Where only the year of composition is known for a particular item the earliest estimated date is taken to be 1 January of that year. In the Normalized version a search in the date field causes the requested date to be displayed at the end of each and every relevant section. The same search in the Diplomatic version causes the date to be displayed only at the point where explicitly written by Wittgenstein. Volumes, discs and versions Publication of this edition began in 1998, with the publication of the first part, known as Volume 1. The publication of Volume 2 followed in 1999. Each volume consisted of an installation disc containing transcriptions and other infobases; and an image disc, containing facsimiles. In other words, volumes partly supplement

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 27 and partly supersede each other. The installation disc of Volume 2 contained not only additional versions of transcriptions and other infobases, but also updated and corrected versions of texts already published with Volume 1. The publication was planned to continue in the same fashion for Volume 3, and finally for Volume 4, which was to contain two image discs. However, because of delays with Volume 3, we decided to publish volumes 3 and 4 together. This means that the last batch of this publication consists of one installation disc and three image discs. Thus, subscribers to the edition who have received the last installation disc (the fact that you are reading this text is indication that you have) and image discs 1 through 5, have received the entire publication. A number of changes have been made to the edition since the publication of volumes 1 and 2. The Normalized and Diplomatic transcriptions and the Item List have been updated. Additional texts have been added, and typos and other errors in volumes 1 and 2 the have been corrected. Layout and search facilites have been improved. This Introduction and the User Guide text have been updated accordingly. Acknowledgements The work at the Wittgenstein Archives is made possible through an understanding with the Trustees of the copyright in the Wittgenstein Papers, Prof. G.E.M. Anscombe (Cambridge), Nicholas Denyer (Cambridge), P.M.S. Hacker (Oxford), Sir Anthony Kenny (Oxford), Joachim Schulte (Bologna), the late Prof. Peter Winch (Urbana-Champaign, Illinois), and Prof. Georg Henrik von Wright (Helsinki). We thank the Trustees for their permission to publish

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 28 Wittgenstein s Nachlass here. We are deeply indebted to the following libraries and their personnel for copies from their holdings of Wittgenstein s Nachlass and for permission to publish from them: Dr David McKitterick of Trinity College Library, and the Master and Fellows of Trinity College Cambridge; Dr Eva Irblich of the Austrian National Library, Vienna; Carl Spadoni of the Bertrand Russell Archives at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario; Mary Clapinson of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. We are also deeply indepted to Dr. Johannes Koder (Vienna) for copies of the Wittgenstein's Nachlass papers which were recently found in the Nachlass of Rudolf and Elisabeth Koder, and to the Brenner Archives at the University of Innsbruck for their assistence in photographing the material. The Wittgenstein Archives inherited transcriptions and invaluable experience from its predecessor, the Norwegian Wittgenstein Project (Huitfeldt and Rossvr 1989). Our thanks go to the many people who worked on that project over the years. We are grateful to the University of Bergen for financial and technical support. Further generous funding was provided by the Meltzer Foundation, the Nansen Foundation and the Norwegian Research Council, to whom we express our gratitude. Oxford University Press and the Wittgenstein Archives would like to give particular thanks to the following for their help in the testing and development: Dr Michael Biggs, University of Hertfordshire; Dr Hans-Johann Glock, University of Reading, GB; Prof. Laurence Goldstein, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong; Dr P.M.S. Hacker, St Johns College, Oxford; Prof. Herbert Hrachovec and Enzo De Pellegrin, Universitt Wien; Prof. Masahiro Oku, Osaka University, Japan; Dr Mark Rooks, InteLex Corporation, USA; Dr David G. Stern, University of Iowa, USA. The project is grateful to the HIT Centre at the University of Bergen (formerly the Norwegian Computing Centre for the

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 29 Humanities) for administrative support and in particular to Espen S. Ore and ystein Reigem for vital technical assistance. The Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen would also like to thank its numerous guest researchers, who have, over the years, contributed invaluable suggestions. They too have shown faith in this endeavor by visiting Bergen from around the world in order to consult the product at every stage of its development. In particular, we would like to thank the following guest researchers: Michael Biggs, for help with the graphical parts of the Nachlass, Laurence Goldstein and William T. Boos, for help with mathematical and logical notation, and Josef G.F. Rothhaupt, for advice concerning the design of the registration standard. While the abovementioned persons and institutions have all generously shared with us of their experience and knowledge, without which this edition would no doubt have been a much poorer one, all remaining errors and shortcomings are entirely our responsibility. Finally, about ourselves -Oxford University Press: John Campbell, Sarah Ryan, Software Editors The Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen: Claus Huitfeldt, Project Director. Franz Hespe was Acting Director of the Wittgenstein Archives 1997-1998, Espen S. Ore in 1995, and Ole Letnes in 1992. A number of persons have worked at the Wittgenstein Archives over the years, as transcribers and proofreaders, and in other capacities necessary to the completion of this publication. Peter Cripps, Franz Hespe, Wilhelm Krger, Ole Letnes, Alois Pichler,

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 30 Angela Requate and Maria Sollohub all worked at the Archives for several years, and thus became quite central to the operations of the project. The following persons also worked for the project: Christiane Blume, William T. Boos, Astrid Castell, Rasa Davidaviciene, Sascha Djuric, Jrgen Gercken, Dinda L. Gorlee, ystein Hide, Kjetil Johnsen, Frank Meyer, Espen S. Ore, Peter Philipp, Yngve Simmenes, Ilse Somavilla, Romuald Smann, Karl-Emil Sdergren, Odin Thorbjrnsen, Kyrre Trohjell, Eirik Vassenden, Cato Wittusen, and Knut Olav ms. How to contact us If you need help using this CD-ROM, please telephone Customer Service at Oxford University Press on +44 (0) 1865 267979. Alternatively you may Fax on +44 (0) 1865 267990, or email at ep.help@oup.co.uk. For further information about the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, please write to: The HIT Centre, The University of Bergen, Allgaten 27, N-5007 Bergen, Norway or email: wab@hit.uib.no or look us up on the WorldWideWeb: http://www.hit.uib.no/wab/ Bibliography Biggs, Michael and Pichler, Alois (1993) Wittgenstein: Two Source Catalogues and a Bibliography. Catalogues of the Published Texts and of the Published Diagrams, each related to its Sources. Bergen: Working Papers from the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, 7.

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 31 Huitfeldt, Claus and Rossvr, Viggo (1989) The Norwegian Wittgenstein Project Report 1988. Bergen: The Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities. Huitfeldt, Claus (1994) Towards a Machine-Readable Version of Wittgenstein s Nachlass. Some Editorial Problems In: Philosophische Editionen. Erwartungen an sie - Wirkungen durch sie Pp.37-43 Hg. von Hans Gerhard Senger. Beihefte zu Editio 6. Hg. von Winfred Woesler. Huitfeldt, Claus (1994) Wittgenstein Archives at Johannessen, Rolf Larsen and Norway, Solum, Oslo, Computerizing Wittgenstein - The the University of Bergen In: Kjell S. and Knut Olav ms (eds.), Wittgenstein 1994, pp. 275-294.1

Kenny, Anthony (1976) From the Big Typescript to the Philosophical Investigations In: Acta Philosophica Fennica 28, pp. 41-53. (Also published in The Legacy of Wittgenstein, Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1984.) Koder, Johannes (1993) Verzeichnis der Schriften Ludwig Wittgensteins im Nachlass Rudolf und Elisabeth Koder In: Mitteilungen aus dem Brenner Archiv 12, S. 52-54 (Innsbruck). Krger, H.W. (1993) Die Entstehung des Big Typescript In: Proceedings of the 15th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Vienna. Monk, Ray (1990) Ludwig Wittgenstein. The Duty of Genius London: J. Cape Nedo, M. and Ranchetti, M. (1983) Ludwig Wittgenstein. Sein Leben in Bildern und Texten. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Pichler, Alois (1994) Untersuchungen zu Wittgensteins Nachla . Bergen: Working Papers from the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, 8. Stern, David G. (1996) The Availability of Wittgenstein s

Wittgenstein s Nachlass. The Bergen Electronic Edition. Introduction 2000: Oxford University Press, the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Trustees. All rights reserved. Page 32 Writings In: Sluga, Hans and Stern, David G. (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 442-476. von Wright, Georg Henrik (1982) Wittgenstein. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. von Wright, Georg Henrik (1986) Wittgenstein, bersetzt von . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. The Wittgenstein Papers, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Libraries (1968). The Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen: Project Report 1990-1993 and Critical Evaluation. (1995) Bergen: Working Papers from the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, 9.