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Herbal Medicine CHN Drug Study

Henson, Angelo S. BSN 3-10 Group 38

Atis
scientific name: Anona squamosa L. other names: Sugar apple and Sweet sop. It is a small tree used as a medicinal herb. The leaves, fruit and seeds are used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and fainting. English name: Sugar apple and Sweet sop. Botany Small tree. 3 to 5 meters high. Leaves are hairy when young, oblong, 8 to 15 cm long, with a petiole 1 to 1.5 cm long. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves, about 2.5 cm long, pendulous, three-angled, light green to yellow. Fruit is large, slightly heart-shaped, 6 to 9 cm long, the outside with knobby polygonal tubercles. When ripe, the fruit is light yellowish-green, with a white, sweet soft, delicious and juicy flesh. Toxic Properties of the Atis Fruit All parts of the atis tree have medicinal value. The seeds however are poisonous. The seeds are pounded and made into paste. This can be applied to the scalp of the head to kill hair lice. Care should be taken when applying

atis seed paste on the scalp as this is extremely irritating to the eyes and can even cause blindness. The paste when applied into the uterus can cause abortion.

Atis Use as Herbal Medicine A decoction (boiling in water) of the leaves induces or hastens menstrual flow and used to treat dysentery, colds and fever. The decoction is also used for bathing to alleviate rheumatic pain. Crushed leaves are inhaled for dizziness and fainting. The bark of the atis tree is used as a decoction for diarrhoea. The root is a strong purgative and used to treat dysentery. Infected insect bites can be cured by applying the juice from an unripe atis fruit.

GENERIC NAME: ETHAMBUTOL BRAND NAME: MYAMBUTOL USES: Ethambutol is used to treat tuberculosis, often in combination with other medications. Tuberculosis is a very serious infection and requires a combination of antibiotics to cure the infection. Indication: Initial Treatment- In patients who have not received previous antituberculous therapy, administer ethambutol hydrochloride 15 mg per kilogram (7 mg per pound) of body weight, as a single oral dose once every 24

hours. In the more recent studies, isoniazid has been administered concurrently in a single, daily, oral dose. Retreatment: In patients who have received previous antituberculous therapy, administer ethambutol hydrochloride 25 mg per kilogram (11 mg per pound) of body weight, as a single oral dose once every 24 hours. Concurrently administer at least one other antituberculous drug to which the organisms have been demonstrated to be susceptible by appropriate in vitro tests. Suitable drugs usually consist of those not previously used in the treatment of the patient. After 60 days of ethambutol hydrochloride administration, decrease the dose to 15 mg per kilogram (7 mg per pound) of body weight, and administer as a single oral dose once every 24 hours. During the period when a patient is on a daily dose of 25 mg/kg, monthly eye examinations are advised. SIDE EFFECTS: May cause stomach upset, dizziness, fatigue, or headache. These effects should disappear as your body adjusts to the medication. If they persist or worsen, notify your doctor promptly. Notify your doctor immediately if you develop: skin rash, numbness or tingling of the hands or feet. Infrequently, eye problems can occur (optic neuritis). Tell your doctor immediately if you have any vision changes, sudden color blindness, or blurred vision. Very rarely, permanent blindness has occurred. Rare (possibly fatal) liver disease may occur. Tell your doctor immediately if you have persistent, severe nausea, vomiting, dark urine, stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Adverse effects:

Optic neuritis[2]. Hence contraindicated in children below 6 yrs of age.

Red-green color blindness Peripheral neuropathy Arthralgia vertical nystagmus

Nursing Responsibilities: PRECAUTIONS: Tell your doctor your medical history, especially of: gout, kidney disease, vision problems such as cataracts. This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. There have been reports of eye problems in infants born to mothers using ethambutol. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Ethambutol passes into breast milk. Though, to date, no problems have been noted in nursing infants, consult your doctor before you breast-feed.