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SAP Solution in Detail SAP Active Global Support

STANDARDS FOR APPLICATION LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT


ESTABLISHING A SINGLE SOURCE OF TRUTH IN YOUR ENTERPRISE

Accelerating innovation while reducing risk and total cost of ownership requires a holistic application management life cycle. You need a structured, comprehensive, and reliable collection of information about the state of your productive SAP applications, which, in turn, provides the basis for informed and fact-based decisions and actions. Learn more about a business configuration and business continuity standard that defines how to proceed from the conception of a business process to its consumption within the framework provided by SAP Enterprise Support services and the functionality offered by SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition.

CONTENT

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Preface
Objective and Structure of This Document Organizational Aspects and Underlying Standards SAP Standards for Solution Operations Customer Center of Expertise Next Steps After Reading This Document

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Essential Concepts
Application Management Life Cycle Projects in SAP Solution Manager Solutions in SAP Solution Manager Processes for Application Life-Cycle Management Quality Gates in SAP Solution Manager

Operate Phase Technical Operations Business Process Operations Incident and Problem Management IT Reporting Continuous Quality Checks for the Operations Phase Optimize Phase Support Package Updates Software Upgrades SAP Enhancement Packages Continuous Quality Checks for Upgrade

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Custom Code Management


Motivation Key Aspects for Custom Code Management

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Benefits of Standardization Ensure Continuous Business Solution Availability


Operate More Systems with Fewer Resources Reduce License and Project Costs to Run SAP Solutions Use Less Expensive Resources Reduce Infrastructure Requirements Increase Business Value of IT

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Foundation for Implementing Standards


Planning Run SAP Methodology Road Map SAP Solution Manager Master Guide Installation and Configuration of SAP Solution Manager Training Expert-Guided Implementation Continuous Quality Checks for SAP Solution Manager

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Appendix: SAP Product Standards


SAP Product Standard: Business Configuration What Does the Standard Define? What Are the Basic Principles of the Standard? Benefits and Advantages for Customers SAP Product Standard: IT Service and Application Management What Does the Standard Define? What Are the Basic Principles of the Standard? Content of the ITSAM Standard

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Business Configuration
Requirements Phase Design Phase Quality Gate Design to Build Build and Test Phase Solution Configuration Synchronized Transports Across Technology Platform Test Management Integration Validation Deploy Phase Continuous Quality Checks for Implementation

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Benefits and Advantages for Customers Find Out More

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Business Continuity
The Basis of Business Continuity

PREFACE
THE STEPS TO HOLISTIC APPLICATION LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT

Accelerating innovation while reducing risk and total cost of ownership (TCO) requires a holistic application management life cycle. Effectively managing an SAP solution presupposes a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge about the solution itself. Take the example of an SAP customer that wants to benefit from continuousinnovation offerings by adopting an SAP enhancement package. This customer needs to: Identify which business requirements have priority to be fulfilled Map these business requirements to SAP functionality and processes Check if an SAP solution fulfills the technical requirements for the installation of the enhancement package Blueprint, configure, and test the processes to be implemented or improved Define the automation of these processes, if possible Define business and technical key performance indicators (KPIs) and set up appropriate monitoring of these KPIs SAP calls this knowledge the single source of truth a structured, comprehensive, unified, and reliable collection of information about all projects in progress and the state of the productive SAP solution, which, in turn, provides the basis for informed and factbased customer decisions and actions during the complete application life cycle.

up-to-date over time. In short, it defines the standard for achieving the single source of truth for a solution centered on SAP software throughout the entire life cycle. Its objective is to describe the vital principles and the big picture of application life-cycle management and to explain how you can benefit from SAPs experience in order to: Reduce risk and cost Ensure business continuity1 Accelerate improvements and innovation Supporting an SAP solution for the complete life cycle based on sound and up-to-date knowledge is the starting point for optimal usage of SAP Enterprise Support services. You can realize the full benefits of these services only when your single source of truth is established. Take the example of complex problem analysis: The SAP Services organization can guarantee servicelevel agreements (SLAs) for priority-1 problems within SAP Enterprise Support only if the SAP Services organization knows the customers missioncritical business processes, the applications that support them, the recent changes that were made, the issues and incidents that were logged and solved in the past, and much more. Establishing a single source of truth is not only imperative for effective management of an SAP solution by in-house experts, but also for leveraging the SAP expert network and the collective knowledge and experience these experts have gathered during more than 35 years of SAP software support for our customers.

With SAP Enterprise Support, SAP provides a management application that allows customers to store, retrieve, manage, and analyze all information that makes up each customers single source of truth. SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition, provides the knowledge repository to persist the single source of truth as well as the functionality to maintain, update, and use this data in all operations during the application life cycle. This document provides an outline and an overview of the standard procedures that customers ought to carry out during the complete application life cycle. The main focus is on activities that are required to configure and operate business-driven changes; that is, the implementation or improvement of business processes supported by an SAP solution. The purpose of this document is to establish a business configuration and operations standard that defines how to best proceed from the conception of a business process to its consumption (including its improvement) within the framework and the scope provided by SAP Enterprise Support services and the functionality offered by SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition. This standard explicitly includes IT-related aspects like the automation of processes and the documentation, testing, and technical monitoring of interfaces for mission-critical business processes. First we introduce the essential concepts of application life-cycle management the definition of the life cycle itself and explanation of basic models of SAP Solution Manager2 that help

Objective and Structure of This Document


This solution in detail defines what you need to do in order to establish this knowledge base and how to keep it

1 The term business continuity is often used for disaster recovery. In that context, business continuity describes the continued operation in outsourced computing centers after a complete destruction of the primary computing center due to natural disasters, attacks, and so on. We use the term in a slightly different manner, based on SAPs experience that system downtime results more frequently from defective transports, data inconsistencies, or system administration errors than from natural disasters. It is the task of the quality manager for business continuity to assess and avoid these risks and to ensure continued business operations. 2 The functions and processes of SAP Solution Manager described in this document always refer to SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition. 4

you realize holistic and standardized application life-cycle management. In addition, we describe the integrated quality management process that covers the entire life cycle. How to create the prerequisites for application life-cycle management is described next. We outline the methodologies available and shed light on how to install and configure SAP Solution Manager. We also provide information on available training offerings. Then we address the first half of the application management life cycle. This section covers the topic of business configuration through several phases requirements, design, build, and test and details which functions and features are available in SAP Solution Manager to manage projects effectively and efficiently in an SAP softwarecentric solution landscape.
Business Global business process champion Regional business process champion

After a successful handover of the project to operations in the going-live phase, business continuity can be safeguarded by using SAP standards for solution operations. The next section illustrates how you benefit from SAPs internal standards, called IT service and application management (ITSAM). This section covers the second half of the application management life cycle, which includes deployment, operations, and optimization phases. We provide guidance for two aspects that are connected closely with and vital for the management of business processes but which are not part of customer activities performed on a regular and recurring basis: management of custom code and validation of the technical integration of the individual solution components.

The appendix focuses on the two relevant SAP-internal standards. The solution configuration standard and the ITSAM standard are key tasks for the Customer Center of Expertise (Customer COE) organization SAPs new model for the organization and scope of a customers support organization. Whereas a classical SAP Customer Competence Center (SAP CCC) location focused mainly on reactive support tasks and was deeply embedded in a customers IT organization, a Customer COE is actively driving accelerated innovation for the customers business units; that is, the Customer COE focuses on upgrades, implementation of new software, and use of SAP enhancement packages. This presupposes that a single source of the truth is established in the customers SAP Solution Manager.

Organizational Aspects and Underlying Standards


SAPs internal standards, the business configuration standard as well as the ITSAM standard, are perfectly aligned with the organizational model that forms the basis of the existing endto-end solution operations standards. Figure 1 indicates that the business configuration standard involves global as well as local business process champions and application management teams; the ITSAM standard is handled mainly by the application management team. Typically, multiple teams in the customers organization are involved in the fulfillment of business continuity. They belong to the key organizational areas of business unit and IT, as shown in Figure 1. While the names of the orga-

End user, Key user

Program management office

Application management Quality management

Custom development

Business process operations

Technical operations

IT infrastructure IT Business solution configuration IT service and application management


Figure 1: Organizational Model of SAP Standards for Solution Operations

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

nizations may differ from company to company, their functions are roughly the same. They run their activities in accordance with corporate strategy, corporate policies (for example, corporate governance, compliance, and security), and the goals of their organizations. The first step to efficient operations of end-to-end solutions is the specialization of organizations. Dedicated stakeholders are responsible for different objectives. On the business side, end users use the implemented functionality to run their daily business activities. Key users provide first-level support for their colleagues. Business process champions define how business processes are to be executed. A program management office communicates these requirements to the IT organization, decides on the financing of development and operations, and ensures that the requirements are implemented. On the technical side, the customer IT organization has to ensure that services provided by the SAP solution are available for the business units. The application management team is in direct contact with the business units. It is responsible for implementing the business requirements and providing support for end users. To do so, the application management team is supported by other organizations within IT. Business process operations cover the monitoring and support of the business applications, their integration, and the automation of jobs. Custom develop-

ment adjusts the solution to meet customer-specific requirements with special internal developments. Technical operations are responsible for the general administration of systems and detailed system diagnostics. And the IT infrastructure organization provides the underlying IT infrastructure (such as network and databases). Further specialization is possible within these organizations as well. For example, there may be individual experts for different applications within technical operations.

In order to meet customers need for consistent implementation and operation across their SAP solution landscape, all SAP products must adhere to internal SAP product standards. These standards are validated before each and every new product shipment and each new release of a product.
Efficient collaboration among these teams is required to optimize the operation of SAP softwarecentric solutions. This becomes even more important if customers engage service providers to execute some of the tasks or even complete processes. Customers have to closely integrate the providers of outtasking and outsourcing services into the operation of their solutions.

SAP Standards for Solution Operations Key prerequisite for efficient collaboration of the involved groups is the clear definition of processes, responsibilities, SLAs, and KPIs to measure the fulfillment of the service levels. SAP has defined process standards and best practices that can help customers set up and run end-to-end solution operations for their SAP softwarecentric solutions. These cover not only applications from SAP but also applications from independent software vendors (ISVs), OEMs, and custom-code applications integrated into the customers solution landscape. SAP has defined standards for solution operations; of these, the following are at the heart for managing business continuity: Incident management describes the process of incident resolution. Exception handling explains how to define a model and procedures to manage exceptions and error situations during daily business operations. Data integrity helps to avoid data inconsistencies in end-to-end solution landscapes. Root cause analysis defines how to perform end-to-end root cause analysis across different support levels and different technologies. Remote supportability contains five basic requirements that have to be met to optimize the supportability of customer solutions. Business process and interface monitoring defines the monitoring and supervision of mission-critical business processes.

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Data volume management describes how to manage data growth. Job scheduling management explains how to manage the planning, scheduling, and monitoring of background jobs. Transactional consistency safeguards data synchronization across applications in distributed system landscapes. System administration describes how to administer SAP technology in order to run a customer solution efficiently. System monitoring covers monitoring and reporting of the technical status of IT solutions. The different stakeholders of SAP solutions should adhere to SAP standards for solution operations. Each standard contains best-practice procedures on how to perform the individual tasks, descriptions of which tools to use, information regarding the assign-

ment of tasks to roles, available training offerings, and available services that support the adoption of the standard. The following sections provide brief descriptions of these standards. Although multiple roles may be involved in a standard process, one role acts as the owner of the standard. This document uses the following mapping of owner role to operations standards as a criterion for sequencing the standards. This assignment of owners may differ from customer to customer. Customer Center of Expertise To improve your IT maturity, migration from the traditional SAP CCC to the new Customer COE is required, along with the establishment of four quality managers that can drive improvement in the following areas: Safeguarding integration validation Business continuity Business process improvement Investment protection

Matrix of Owners Mapped to Key Standards Owner End user, key user Business process champion Application management Business process operations Technical operations Key Standards and Practices Incident management Exception handling, data integrity Root cause analysis, remote supportability Business process and interface monitoring, data volume management, job scheduling management, transactional consistency System administration, system monitoring

By introducing SAP NetWeaver and service-oriented architecture, SAP has significantly increased the agility of IT to deliver on business demands. However, our customers system landscapes have become significantly more sophisticated. On the customer side, keeping the IT solution available, stable, integrated in the software landscape, and performing optimally is the main challenge of IT service and application management.

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Standard for application life-cycle management

Customer Center of Enterprise as single source of truth

Next Steps After Reading This Document


Application life-cycle management can lead to a radical reduction in TCO and risk for your IT organization. The key elements of life-cycle management are: ASAP methodology for implementation and Run SAP methodology for operations SAP Solution Manager Concept of a single source of truth implemented in SAP Solution Manager Organizational aspects of Customer COE and critical quality management roles By working through this document, you can get started with services for application life-cycle management from the SAP Services organization. You can explore the value and scope of establishing a single source of truth for SAP solutions within your company.

Process View (SAP standards for . . .) Solution documentation Solution documentation for custom development Data integrity and transactional consistency Data volume management Exception handling, business process, and interface monitoring Job scheduling management Remote supportability Readiness for service-oriented architecture System administration Incident management System monitoring

Organizational View (Quality manager for . . .) Safeguarding integration validation Business continuity Improvement of business processes Protection of investment

Root cause analysis Change management Upgrade Security Test management

Customer Center of Expertise certification

Figure 2: Process View and Organizational View of Documents About Customer COE

A document about the Customer COE model as well as detailed documents (see Figure 2) on the charter of the four quality managers are available at www.service.sap.com/coe (user name and password required).

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

The next step (see Figure 3) is to define a road map for a Run SAP methodology implementation. Within this step, you should identify your challenges in implementing and operating your solutions and map those challenges to procedures and tools suggested by the Run SAP methodology road map. This can help you improve your IT maturity. A clear business case with expectations for return on investment (ROI) should be developed so that you can measure the economic results of your IT maturity improvement. This assessment may, for example, uncover that

current change request management is already optimal in your organization, but using incident management in SAP Solution Manager could provide strong value. Such an assessment through the Run SAP methodology is provided by the SAP Consulting organization. The reporting provided by SAP Enterprise Support also has a section describing your adoption level of Run SAP methodology. Certain aspects of the Run SAP methodology road map are mandatory for collaboration with SAP Consulting and SAP partners. They are explained later in this section.

Moreover, SAP Solution Manager needs to be implemented. Each SAP Solution Manager implementation (see Figure 4) requires a technical foundation. To implement this foundation, you have to plan your SAP Solution Manager implementation, install or extend it, and perform the basic configuration of SAP Solution Manager, which comprises connecting your system landscape to SAP Solution Manager. Once this foundation is in place, you can benefit from end-to-end root cause analysis for efficient troubleshooting across technology stacks, maintenance optimization, the SAP EarlyWatch Alert service, as well as collaboration with SAP Services (such as incidents sent to SAP Services, service delivery and engagement, and remote supportability). Also, the technical prerequisites for continuous quality checks and mission-critical support with servicelevel agreements are available after the basic configuration. You can find an overview of the available quality checks in the relevant sections. Scenarios like system administration or system monitoring can be added to the foundation with minimal additional configuration.

Get started with application life-cycle management

Explore the value and scope of establishing a single source of truth for SAP solutions Define a road map for your Run SAP methodology implementation
Identify challenges in your IT operation and investigate ROI for improving IT maturity Optimize IT processes Implement SAP Solution Manager Empower IT organization

Assign quality managers to: Accelerate innovation Safeguard implementation and deployment Reduce total cost of optimization

SAP Solution Manager configuration wizards

Run SAP E2E040 Customer Center of Expertise E2E060 Implementing SAP Solution Manager SM100 End-to-end solution operations (E2E curriculum) E2E100 Root cause analysis E2E200 Change management E2E300 Business process operations E2E400 Upgrades

Figure 3: Next Steps After Reading This Document

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Additionally, you can document your business processes in SAP Solution Manager. Ideally this happens as part of an implementation project, but you can also document your existing processes with the help of the solution documentation assistant. Once you have documented your business processes in SAP Solution Manager, you can do your test management in SAP Solution Manager, for example, using the business-process change analyzer, which can calculate test recommendations based on planned transports to production. Finally, you can define your automated business process operations based on the business process documentation in SAP Solution Manager.

Change management supports projects defined in SAP Solution Manager. You can benefit from clearly documented quality gates with standard check content for each quality gate. Also, the deployment of updates in a synchronized way across transport tracks can be automated with change management. Basic incident and problem management for SAP software requires only the basic configuration. Incidents can be sent to SAP Services after the basic configuration has been done; the in-house use of incident management requires additional configuration to bring your service desk processes and organization into SAP Solution Manager.

In addition, your organization must be qualified to work with SAP Solution Manager. SAP offers end-to-end solution-operations curriculum to train IT staff in diagnostics, change management, business process operations, and upgrade management.

Establishing the foundation for application life-cycle management Plan


SAP Solution Manager guide

Basic configuration Administration work center in SAP Solution Manager Connect systems Administration work center in SAP Solution Manager
Systems

Install, upgrade, and extend


Installation guide Projects Solutions

Document business processes with the solution documentation assistant Tool Service

Business configuration Test management Change analysis Test planning Test execution

Modification justification check Custom-code maintainability check

Business process operations Business process monitoring Job management Data consistency cockpit Data volume management

Tool End-to-end root cause analysis Maintenance optimizer SAP EarlyWatch Alert Collaboration with SAP (incident sent to SAP, service delivery, remote support)

Service Continuous quality checks Mission-critical support with service-level agreement

Change management Quality gate management Change request management Synchronized deployment of updates

Technical operations System monitoring End-user experience monitoring System administration IT reporting

Figure 4: Overview of SAP Solution Manager Implementation

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS
SAP SOLUTION MANAGER IN APPLICATION LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT

Application Management Life Cycle


Application management can be described best as a repetitive life cycle. In this document we use the application management life cycle described in IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), version 3, as a commonly agreed model to guide you through the business configuration process. Application management features a comprehensive support approach within the application environment and spans the entire life cycle of IT solutions, from concept to phaseout. The life cycle has six phases (see Figure 5): Requirements Collection of requirements for new applications or for adapting existing applications Design Conversion of requirements into detailed specifications Build and test Application configuration and creation of an operating model in accordance with specifications

Deploy Transfer of any changes and the operating model into the existing live IT landscape Operate Provision of IT services required for ongoing operations Optimize Analysis of servicelevel fulfillment and possible start of activities to improve results This document describes the key tasks during this life cycle and how to accomplish them (see sections Business Configuration and Business Continuity).

tured according to a common project plan and road map. In SAP Solution Manager, projects follow the ASAP methodology, starting with project preparation and completing the project in the going-live phase. From the life-cycle perspective, a project covers the application management phases from requirements gathering through building and testing. All information you have accumulated during the project is cut over into a solution at the end of the deploy phase, including knowledge transfer to end users with e-learning, implementation of the support organization, and so on. Using SAP Solution Manager for projects can bring the following benefits: Structured, systematic procedure throughout the project Strict adherence to a process-centric approach, which is separate from individual applications and components and provides a more comprehensive view of process flows in heterogeneous system landscapes Centralized metadata repository for the appropriate solutions: documentation, test cases, and configuration information Less information loss between individual project phases, because, once created, content is reused throughout the life cycle of the software, thereby preventing integration gaps

Projects in SAP Solution Manager


A project in SAP Solution Manager describes the grouping and organization of business, technical, and organizational tasks during the implementation of SAP software in an enterprise. In an implementation project, the project team performs tasks that are struc-

Requirements

Optimize Application management Operate

Design

Build and test

Solutions in SAP Solution Manager


Deploy

Figure 5: IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Application Management Life Cycle

Once you have completed a project successfully, one of the challenges posed during operations is how to preserve the knowledge built up during the project and keep it up-to-date. In SAP

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

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Solution Manager, the solution concept helps you to do this. During the deployment into productive use, all the information accumulated in your project is transferred into a solution. (Note that a solution in SAP Solution Manager contains information about systems, software components, and business processes, also called scenarios.) This information is needed in the operation and continuous optimization of your applications. A solution in SAP Solution Manager gives you a means of ensuring that all information remains accessible and can be consolidated once a project is over. A solution covers a longer period of time than the project, providing all the information needed for the entire operations and preparation of optimization projects. Therefore, the integrity of your solution is the key to successful application life-cycle management.

You manage SAP Solution Manager solutions in the solution directory. Features include the following: All assignments in the SAP Solution Manager project Transfer of scenario and business process structures to the solution Availability of configuration object assignments Use of test cases in the structure in order to test effectively when changes have been made Reuse of e-learning materials from projects in the solution Same system landscape concept for solution and the project, which means that you can reuse the structure when you upgrade Standard presentation of solution components such as servers, systems, business processes, and scenarios Enhanced display of graphics and diagrams Option of exporting graphics to Microsoft Office or HTML

Processes for Application Life-Cycle Management


In order to support both projects and solutions (business configuration and business continuity) throughout the life cycle, SAP offers 12 support processes (see Figure 6): Documentation of the solution, including custom code, is used to identify and document business processes for SAP solutions, including partner components, custom code, and interfaces. Innovation management covers the identification of business needs and the preparation of the realization via collaborative processes. The process helps to align new requirements with enhancements delivered by SAP and its partners. You can browse services offerings to build innovative applications for new business processes. Solution configuration is the process that guides you through the configuration of your project scope based on the ASAP methodology. During the solution configuration you adapt standard processes to your requirements and define unit test requirements. In the course of test management you define integration testing requirements and test scope based on a change impact analysis. Moreover, you develop automatic and manual test cases, manage the testers, and report on the test progress and test results. Deployment of solution updates handles the synchronized propagation of technical objects from the development to the production environment across the technology platform. Technical operations include system monitoring and all the routine tasks of system administration.

Documentation of solution including custom code

Maintenance of SAP solutions Improvements of solutions Upgrade


Optimize

Requirements Innovation management

Design Application management

Operate

Build and test Solution configuration Test management Deploy Deployment of solution updates

Technical operations Business process operations Incident and problem management IT reporting

Figure 6: Overview of Support Processes

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Four basic aspects have to considered and covered for sustainable business process operations: business process and interface monitoring, job scheduling management, data consistency management, and data volume management. Incident and problem management provides integrated cross-technology and solution-oriented incident and problem management, including root cause analysis, for customers, SAP, and partners via a global support backbone backed by robust SLAs. IT reporting proves the value of IT to the business; SLAs are aligned between business and IT. Maintenance of SAP solutions covers the life-cycle management of corrective software packages from discovery and retrieval to test scope optimization and optional automatic deployment into production environments. Improvements of solutions offer workflow-based management of business- and technology-driven changes with integrated project management and synchronized deployment functionality. The upgrade process provides comprehensive project support for release transitions.

Holistic application life-cycle management can help ensure that standards for system monitoring and business process monitoring are in place to proactively detect issues before end users are affected and that the root cause analysis standard is implemented. This enables you to systematically narrow down any problem to the root cause and helps SAP and partners continue problem investigation based on findings at the customer support level.
most changes and extensions are motivated by changes in the application layer. Custom developments and customizing changes are managed via projects and transported from development via test to production systems. These types of changes require a formal quality management process spanning all phases of the application management life cycle, depicted in Figure 5, up until the final transport into the production landscape. A quality gate, also known as a Q-gate, is a special milestone in the project management functionality of SAP Solution Manager. It controls the import of project data into subsequent systems:

data can be propagated into subsequent systems only if a Q-gate has the status passed. All activities described in the quality gate management process (Figure 7) are supported by the SAP enhancement package 1 for SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition, 7.0. In addition to the existing functionality, such as change request management, test management, and incident management, several new functions are available: Quality gate management Provides complete transparency regarding changes and enables formal transitions from one phase to another via quality gates Synchronized transport management Collects changes and transport requests from all development workbenches and for all SAP-supported development environments (ABAP programming language, Java, Microsoft .NET, and C/C++). Transports from various systems can be made in a synchronized fashion to guarantee availability of all dependent developments and changes in subsequent target system landscapes. Work center change management Lists views as well as calendar views for all quality gates, changes, and transports

Quality Gates in SAP Solution Manager


Highly integrated solution landscapes require a controlled and qualityapproved change management process to enable solution operations to be reliable and highly available. When you look at the application life cycle of SAP solutions, it becomes obvious that

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

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Test managementrelated new functions, such as business process change analyzer, are described in the SAP standard for test management. At all major quality gates (typically at the transition point from one life-cycle phase to another or to sign off critical

custom developments or custom configurations), the SAP Active Global Support organization empowers and supports you with feedback and formal sign-off procedures. Thus, SAP Active Global Support helps ensure that solutions work properly.

Optimize Requirements Quality gate Design to build

Build
Extend solution

Test Quality gate Build to test Execution of functional and user acceptance tests Data consistency checks Performance tests Incident and problem management, root cause analysis Incident and problem management, root cause analysis Quality gate Test to deploy

Deploy

Design
Requirements from business departments Functional and technical blueprint Functional and technical feasibility

Updates Custom development Partner solutions


Prepare unit tests

Prepare solution operations

Solution documentation Enablement of standards for solution operations


Prepare tests Test scope identification Test requirements Test system setup Test planning

Transport in cycles

Final transport

Handover to production

Collaboration and project controlling

Figure 7: Quality Gate Management Process

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

FOUNDATION FOR IMPLEMENTING STANDARDS


TRAINING, GUIDANCE, AND SUPPORT FOR SAP SOLUTION MANAGER

Planning
Business configuration and business continuity support planning, setup, implementation, training, and operations to help ensure smooth implementation and operations. Run SAP Methodology Road Map The Run SAP methodology provides a road map that you can access as reference material via functionality of SAP Solution Manager (see Figure 8). You can read how certain comprehensive standards are being implemented, and you can access best-practices information provided via accelerators in the road map. The road map in the Run SAP methodology provides specific content for SAP industry solutions, mainly with a focus on business process operations. In the road map you can use filters and subject selections to restrict the road

map content to a specific topic. The Run SAP methodology road map can be used together with project management functionality to define and manage a Run SAP methodology project to implement or optimize operations processes. SAP Solution Manager Master Guide The SAP Solution Manager master guide supports you in all relevant planning steps for an SAP Solution Manager implementation, such as SAP Solution Manager architecture, sizing, and agent deployment strategy to the managed systems.

You can use the basic configuration wizard (transaction SOLMAN_SETUP, see Figure 9) to prepare SAP Solution Manager and connect managed systems on the development, quality assurance, and production layers (see Figure 10). Once the basic configuration is completed and managed systems are connected to SAP Solution Manager, you can create projects and solutions within SAP Solution Manager solutions. For all connected systems you can: Perform end-to-end root cause analysis Process SAP EarlyWatch Alert weekly (automatically scheduled) Collaborate with the SAP Services organization Plan service delivery and engagement Receive continuous quality checks Create incident or issue reports and send them to SAP Services Open a connection for remote support by SAP Services or SAP partners

Installation and Configuration of SAP Solution Manager


SAP Solution Manager is installed according to the standard procedure and mainly as troubleshooting information the SAP Solution Manager installation guide for the relevant operating system and database combination.

Figure 9: Guided Procedure for Basic Configuration of SAP Solution Manager

Figure 10: Guided Procedure for Connecting Managed Systems to SAP Solution Manager

Figure 8: Run SAP Methodology Road Map in SAP Solution Manager

SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

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Custom developments can be supported and maintained efficiently and the risk to missioncritical operations can be minimized only if the deliverables of the development project (source code, data dictionary definitions, customizing, other types of repository objects, and documentation) are well structured, well documented, and, as far as possible, compatible with the standard SAP solution.
Download SAP software with the maintenance optimizer Leverage self-services such as data volume optimization See all those connected systems in a default solution called SAP solution

Within projects, you can document the business process and custom code, perform business configuration, manage tests, and transport synchronously across stacks (with additional configuration). In addition, you can manage quality gates along the project life cycle (for example, design to build, build to test, and test to deploy). If you have more formal documentation requirements, you can benefit from change request management (with additional configuration). Projects can be copied to productive solutions once they are live. Within solutions, you can model business processes and map business process steps and interfaces to the connected systems. SAP recommends that you document mission-critical business processes (including custom code) in SAP Solution Manager to benefit from the following: Modification justification check and custom-code maintenance check Business process operations (with additional configuration): Business process and interface monitoring Job request management Data volume management Data consistency cockpit

Important training and certifications are: Run SAP methodology (E2E040) Customer COE (E2E060) Implementing SAP Solution Manager (SM100) End-to-end solution operations (E2E curriculum) End-to-end root cause analysis (E2E100) In-house system administration workshop for specific SAP products, such as SAP NetWeaver Portal, SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse, and SAP NetWeaver Master Data Management components and the SAP NetWeaver Process Integration offering; or SAP Business Suite software, such as SAP Customer Relationship Management (SAP CRM), SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM), and SAP Supplier Relationship Management (SAP SRM) applications End-to-end change management (E2E200) End-to-end business process operations (E2E300) Upgrade management (E2E400) While SM100 explains the configuration of SAP Solution Manager, the E2E curriculum (E2Ex00) explains how to use the methods and tools in SAP Solution Manager in day-to-day operations.

Training
SAP offers a curriculum to train customers and partners in application life-cycle management. You can find the full curriculum at www.sap.com /services/education (user name and password required).

Expert-Guided Implementation
With the expert-guided implementation service, SAP Active Global Support offers a methodology to support customers and partners during implemen-

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

tation and update projects using SAP Solution Manager. The goal of this approach is to guide a customer or partner through all configuration steps and to achieve technical readiness at the end of service delivery. Project support during the guided implementation is delivered remotely by SAP Solution Manager experts. An SAP expert explains and demonstrates the necessary activities to the participants. Moreover, the SAP expert provides background information and points out relationships to other activities. After the explanation and demonstration, participants have sufficient time to execute the steps on their own in SAP Solution Manager. During this activity, participants receive direct support from an SAP expert in case of problems or questions. A typical schedule is shown in Figure 11. The advantages of an expert-guided implementation are: Direct configuration of the participants SAP Solution Manager

Immediately usable scenarios Knowledge transfer to avoid dependence on consultants Efficient and safe remote delivery Execution of all activities in a defined time frame Direct access to SAP experts Empowerment for self-directed execution; no theoretical classroom training For detailed information and registration, refer to the following links: Expert-guided implementation introduction page at https://websmp103.sap-ag.de /~form/sapnet?_SHORTKEY =01100035870000717440&_SCENARIO=01100035870000000202 (user name and password required) Expert-guided implementation schedule at https://websmp109 .sap-ag.de/~sapidb/0110003587000 01780312008E (user name and password required)

Day 1

Days 2 4

Day 5

SAP expert explains the planned scenario and shows the fulfillment of prerequisites Duration: 12 hours per day Execution by participants Check and fulfill prerequisites Goal of day Installed SAP Solution Manager is prepared for execution of scenario implementation steps

SAP expert explains the implementation step-by-step Duration: 12 hours per day Execution by participants Execution of explained implementation steps For questions, a direct channel to the SAP expert is provided. Goal of day Implementation is executed step-by-step and scenario is ready for go-live.

SAP expert shows best practice for using the scenario and demonstrates tips and tricks Goal of day Implemented scenario is ready for productive use. Participants have clear understanding of the use cases and know the extension and adaptation possibilities of the implemented scenario.

Figure 11: Schedule of an Expert-Guided Implementation SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management 17

Continuous Quality Checks for SAP Solution Manager


SAP provides continuous quality checks to help you in the implementation, upgrade, and operations phases of your project. In addition, SAP provides checks for verifying and optimizing the configuration of SAP Solution Manager.

Session SAP Solution Manager preparation

Description The preparation session verifies the basic configuration of your SAP Solution Manager and then provides recommendations for optimization. The goal is to enable SAP Solution Manager for on-site or remote service delivery or for the support of additional SAP Solution Manager scenarios. During the preparation session, you receive help to: Verify the configuration of your SAP Solution Manager environment Optimize the configuration of SAP Solution Manager for service delivery Enable SAP Solution Manager as a delivery platform for remote and on-site SAP support services

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BUSINESS CONFIGURATION
BUILDING QUALITY INTO YOUR SOLUTION LANDSCAPE

Requirements Phase
During the requirements phase, your primary concern is to evaluate scenarios and their respective business processes and check their viability for your project. Planned change requests emerge during the operate and optimize phases and are followed by assessment and technical feasibility checks to prepare the subsequent decisionmaking milestone. You can use SAP business maps and engagement tools for knowledge transfer and more detailed process analysis. In SAP Solution Manager, this content is stored in the business process repository, a content library (Figure 12) that includes content designed specifically for implementations that you can use in your projects. You can access the business process repository via SAP Solution Manager or its online version at https://implementationcontent.sap.com /bpr. In a project you benefit directly from SAPs internal business configuration standard. The effect of this standard is that you not only receive software from SAP but also content for the software. This gives you a head start in implementation projects, as you do not have to start from scratch but can benefit from best practices and end-to-end processes that you can adapt to your individual business requirements. In many projects, however, you need to first analyze which transactions and processes are currently in use so that you can define the project scope. For that reason, SAP Solution Manager, offers a function that allows for an

Figure 12: Online Version of the Business Process Repository

automated analysis of systems and business processes: the solution documentation assistant.

Design Phase
To enable you to deal with impending bottlenecks quickly and efficiently, it is essential that you have professional, more visible project management procedures and a clearly defined project scope. With these in place, you can safeguard your companys investments, deploy resources for specific objectives, set priorities, and ensure that everyone involved in a project communicates well. The role of SAP Solution Manager during this phase is to provide you with road maps proven procedures for project management and to structure project management activities clearly using tools such as project administration functions. SAP Solution Manager helps you to draw up a well-defined, comprehensive conceptual design (business blueprint) for your project.

The purpose of the business blueprint is to outline the current situation as identified during workshops so that you can document the target state for the solution being implemented and the resultant requirements. The conceptual design drawn up by the project team describes how your enterprise wants to map its business processes using SAP and non-SAP software. This phase entails the following steps: Refining the original project goals and objectives Finalizing the overall project schedule Implementing organizational and change management Defining functional standards for and documenting custom developments Defining the requirements for the authorization concept, security policy, and end-user training Planning the system environment for operations

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Figure 13: Detailed Mapping of Project Structure in SAP Solution Manager

Solution Configuration To implement the scenarios and processes you defined in the requirements phase, you use the build phase to set up the software system landscape that will support your scenarios and business processes. You adopt the structure used in the business blueprint, which helps you to configure your solution around your business processes and also during subsequent testing activities. Configuration implementation encompasses the following steps: Continuous monitoring of project targets, especially costs, deadlines, and resources Active implementation of organizational and change management Elaboration of training materials and end-user documentation Creation of end-user roles and implementation of your authorization and security concept Elaboration and implementation of realization specifications for custom developments SAP Solution Manager is used as the repository for all project documentation, such as business blueprint, technical

In SAP Solution Manager, you can draw up your conceptual design in the business blueprint transaction (SOLAR01). It provides valuable support, especially for mapping and documenting the processes with regard to implementation. The project structure maps the business processes to technical objects (Figure 13). Quality Gate Design to Build The decision whether planned changes can enter the build and test phase is brought forward to the members of the quality gate design to build. Dur-

ing the quality-gate meeting, members discuss all aspects, including reasons for the requirements, priorities, involved risks, impacted mission-critical business processes, budget availability, and so on. The decision is documented and signed by the involved decision makers.

Build and Test Phase


The goals of this phase are to implement the software, conduct comprehensive testing, and release the software in preparation for production operation.

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Solution documentation Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Implementation and upgrade

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Figure 14: Documentation in SAP Solution Manager

Quality Gate Build to Test During the build to test Q-gate meeting, members decide whether the development and other change activities are mature enough to be transported from development to the test system. The decision and reasons are documented and signed by the involved Q-gate members. Only after the Q-gate has been passed successfully can data be imported into the follow-on systems. Synchronized Transports Across Technology Platform Todays software solutions involve multiple development workbenches and create different file types or transport objects. In addition, the execution of many business processes requires the availability of multiple applications and components. For example, trade promotion management in the consumer products industry requires SAP NetWeaver Portal, SAP ERP, and SAP CRM. Transports originated in the involved development workbenches in the development systems regarding user interface (UI) and business logic changes must be transported in a synchronized fashion to guarantee smooth testing in the subsequent testing landscape. Individual transports could lead to failures in a subsequent system due to nonreconciled transports of inconsistent UI or business logic changes.

specifications, and test cases (see Figure 14). Documentation is uploaded on the specific process structure. An approval process for documentation is implemented within SAP Solution Manager. SAP Solution Manager assists you in configuring your systems around your processes. You can navigate directly to the SAP implementation guide (referred to as IMG) in the different development component systems and set them up centrally from SAP Solution Manager. You can also document configuration settings centrally. All relevant customizing objects are tracked in SAP Solution Manager on the specific level of the project and can be accessed directly from it by the link to the implementation guide. With its integrated test tools, SAP Solution Manager supports you in organizing and documenting the results of a range of testing activities, from unit testing to integration testing. Fur-

thermore, SAP Solution Manager features a separate authoring environment for creating customer-specific learning maps, where you can prepare and distribute training materials for specific roles. Changes are implemented during the build and test phase. This might be a solution extension with custom development activities, customizing changes, interface changes, or integration of a partner or third-party application. Developers perform unit tests, and the quality assurance department prepares functional and user acceptance tests for the next phase. A change impact analysis should be performed to check whether mission-critical processes are affected by changes. In addition, we recommended that you prepare solution documentation for solution operations.

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Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Change management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Change management

A key prerequisite for efficient collaboration of the involved groups is the definition of processes, responsibilities, service-level agreements, and key performance indicators to measure the fulfillment of the service levels. SAP has defined process standards and best practices that can help customers set up and run end-to-end solution operations for applications from SAP, independent software vendors (ISVs), OEMs, and custom-code applications.

Test Management All relevant types of tests are executed: User acceptance tests Integration tests Regression tests Performance tests We recommend that you consider tests that proactively check data consistency, response times, and exceptions during business logic processing (the SAP standard integration validation). Testing and Monitoring Criteria Problems and errors are documented by testers or test automation tools via the incident management process. Root cause analysis can be performed to assess complex problems. Problems that need to be fixed require additional activities in the development system with subsequent transports into the test system landscape.

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Test coordinators monitor test activities, the status of open high-priority problems, and retesting activities after problems are fixed. Test-exit criteria must be in place to verify the following, at a minimum: User acceptance tests confirm that the business departments agree with the planned changes. Integration tests verify that transactions spanning multiple instances have been executed correctly. Regression tests validate that all core business processes can be executed with correct system behavior and results. Performance tests demonstrate that the changed solutions provide an acceptable response time. Final activities at the end of this phase include updates to end-user documentation and other activities prior to going live. Test Management Process The test management process has several steps: Create a test plan Create test packages Assign test packages to testers Run tests and log results Review results You can generate test plans and test packages starting from the SAP Solution Manager project structure. Test packages can include manual and automatic test cases. The framework for automatic tests in SAP Solution Manager (extended computer-aided test

Figure 15: Assignment of Tester to Test Package

Figure 16: Logging the Results of Test Execution in SAP Solution Manager

tool known as eCATT) can be used to automate the testing process and to create test data for user acceptance tests. With SAP Solution Manager you can assign test packages to testers and track the progress of your test activities (see Figure 15). During the execution of tests, you can manage collaboration between users and the development team by creating internal messages, logging tests, and monitoring the testing status (see Figure 16). At the end of a test cycle you can review the results of the testing. Quality Gate Test to Deploy The most important quality gate takes place at the end of testing when the

involved decision makers discuss the maturity of all tested changes. This includes test status reports, achievement of predefined quality goals, and test-exit criteria to decide whether a change can be transported into the production system landscape. As with the other quality gates, the final decision must be documented, including the information available at this point in time.

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Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Test management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Test management

Deploy Phase
Final preparation involves transferring the results from the build and test phase to the live solution. You clarify any open issues concerning readiness for going live. Once this phase has been completed successfully, your production business processes are ready to run in your solution. As with the build and test phase, test management in SAP Solution Manager is extremely useful during the deploy phase. You use the same resources and tools to conduct and document a wide range of system tests on aspects such as performance, load, and interfaces. This is also the time when the learning maps created in SAP Solution Manager are distributed to the appropriate end users. Users can refer to the maps for private study to learn about new functions relevant to their work and provide feedback on individual learning units or the learning map as a whole. You can evaluate feedback and use it to improve the training materials. The objective of the deployment phase is to make the transition from a preproduction environment to production operation. It is important to establish support structures for end users that are available long term and not just in the critical period immediately after going live. You can use the integrated service desk in SAP Solution Manager for this purpose.

Integration Validation After the functional quality assurance, we recommend that you monitor core business processes, such as creating a sales order, in single-user mode. In doing so, it is possible to detect problems in performance, data consistency, and technical compliance before they appear in load tests or in productive operations. With an end-to-end trace analysis (see Figure 17) you can anticipate performance problems that could happen in a multiuser situation. Moreover, data consistency problems can be avoided by analyzing the commit behavior in an end-to-end trace (Structured Query Language [SQL] behavior). You can prevent technical exceptions that are not visible in the UI of an application but still can produce significant problems in production. By closely monitoring the program flow with an end-to-end trace analysis, you can even reduce or eliminate load tests and improve process continuity after

changes. Simulating parallel execution in load tests requires a lot of effort for script management and provision of test data. Each reduction of effort for load tests has a significant impact on total cost of ownership. If load tests are necessary, however, they can be monitored and statistically analyzed with end-to-end workload analysis and end-to-end exception analysis. Instead of logging on to each system, you can analyze load tests from a single point of access: SAP Solution Manager. This procedure, conducted after the functional integration test, to analyze performance, data consistency, and technical compliance systematically is called integration validation. SAP extends quality management with best practices and with validation of integrated, cross-technology, and cross-component solutions.

Figure 17: Detailed End-to-End Trace Analysis

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One prerequisite for going live is that cutover plans have been carried out, which involves transferring data verified in the build and test phase from the legacy system to the production system. Tested configuration settings as well as modifications and customer developments are also transported to the production system. SAP recommends engaging the SAP GoingLive Check service about two months before you plan to go live. It reduces the risks involved with implementation by proactively identifying potential problems regarding performance, availability, and maintenance, so that, if needed, you can take corrective measures promptly. During the deploy phase, users gain practical experience working with a solution. This requires a well-organized user support structure that all employees can access. This phase also entails monitoring system transactions and optimizing overall system performance. SAP Solution Manager offers a wide range of resources and tools to help you run the solution. For instance, you can monitor the implemented processes across all systems. Particularly when a system has not been in operation for long, it is advisable to run SAP EarlyWatch services, which proactively analyze the system. The objective is to identify potential problems proactively, prevent bottlenecks, and monitor system performance regularly and automatically by setting up the SAP EarlyWatch Alert service in SAP Solution Manager. It is also an effective tool for checking your core business processes and systems.

The SAP EarlyWatch Check service proactively analyzes your operating system, database, and SAP software with the objective of optimizing performance and providing additional recommendations and proposals for further action.

After a successful test to deploy quality gate, the transport lock can be released and the final synchronized transport can take place. The project ends when the changed solution can be handed over to the support organization.

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Solution documentation Change management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Implementation and upgrade Change management

Continuous Quality Checks for Implementation


SAP provides continuous quality checks to help you during implementation and going live.
Session Going live Description One part of the continuous quality checks for implementation is a bundle of three going-live sessions that are delivered by certified consultants through a remote connection: going live for solution analysis, going live for optimization, and going live for solution verification. The delivery of the individual sessions takes place at key phases in the implementation project. Results of the sessions are recommendations in the form of reports. The support going-live session provides the following benefits: System monitoring for immediate reaction in case of unforeseen incidents during the deploy phase to ensure a smooth start of production Close contact between the SAP Active Global Support organization and the customer project team Provision of a detailed service report, including a consolidated action plan, about the activities conducted during the delivery of the support going-live session

Support going live

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BUSINESS CONTINUITY
IT SERVICE AND APPLICATION MANAGEMENT

The Basis of Business Continuity


By introducing the SAP NetWeaver technology platform and serviceoriented architecture (SOA), SAP has significantly increased the agility of IT to deliver on business demands. However, our customers system landscapes have become significantly more sophisticated. On the customer side, keeping the IT solution available, stable, integrated in the software landscape, and performing optimally is the main challenge of IT service and application management. The number of systems that IT has to operate is growing constantly, while IT staffing remains stable. In addition, IT staff members need to acquire new skills to support a growing variety of technologies and software that can result from acquisitions and from implementing third-party solutions provided by resellers and OEMs. The scope of IT service and application management is to ensure business continuity while reducing total cost of ownership in such distributed heterogeneous environments. Most IT organizations can survive this challenge only by managing their operations by exception. Within such an approach, routine tasks must be automated as much as possible. Instead of sitting in front of monitors, the IT staff should be alerted when a system reaches a critical state, a business process is affected, and business continuity is at risk. Reporting to prove business continuity and the value of IT to the business should be automated as much as possible.

Operate Phase
The high demand for new information technology over the last 30 years has accelerated the ever-growing market of software solutions. Solutions become outdated in just a few years, with solution landscapes becoming more powerful and thus increasingly heterogeneous and complex. Consequently, IT organizations responsible for maintaining solution landscapes have been under more pressure than almost any other department. Operating costs need to be kept as low as possible, while at the same time ensuring the stability of solutions and the integration of new products. Despite complex requirements, lower operating costs are frequently met by reducing the workforce or delegating tasks to central service providers that oversee many systems. Transferring the knowledge necessary to perform new tasks and replacing experienced staff have become increasingly difficult. SAP Solution Manager enables processes to be handled automatically in many different areas, such as automated system monitoring and error notification, the collection of technical data, and report summaries based on SAP EarlyWatch Alert and service-level reporting. Current know-how as well as task and workflow documentation are integrated in many areas where administrative responsibilities and other tasks occur (central system administration, solution reporting, and business process monitoring, for example). Automa-

tion and the efficient transfer of knowledge give experts the time they need to concentrate on their core competencies. This, in turn, allows small teams to monitor and manage complex system landscapes, while making the services they offer visible to users. As a result, SAP Solution Manager makes it possible for you to keep IT know-how inside your company or outsource it and monitor the services provided. A key process in solution operations is the basic process of incident and alert management, as shown in the following table.

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Overview of Alert Management and Incident Management Processes Incident Management An end user creates a ticket. The ticket is processed by first-level support, usually located with a local key user. End-user handling issues are either resolved, or a ticket description is completed and forwarded to second-level support. Solution Monitoring and Alerting An alert is triggered by the system and has to be processed by technical operations or the business process operations team. If the issue cannot be resolved by one of the teams, an incident is forwarded to the application management team (for end-to-end root cause analysis) or to an expert team in custom development, business process operations, technical operations, or IT infrastructure.

End-to-End Root Cause Analysis End-to-end root cause analysis is performed to isolate the problematic component. If necessary, a specialist for troubleshooting the problematic component is involved. Incident or Problem Resolution Depending on the nature of the resolution, the business process champion, key user, custom development, business process operations, technical operations, or IT infrastructure resolves the issue.

For each incident and problem, an action plan is documented with a ticket, and implementation of the action plan has to be tracked. For implementing the action plan, system administration might be required, for example, to implement a patch or to change a configuration. Solution monitoring targets for two teams in a customers IT organization include: Business process monitoring in the business process operations team System monitoring in the technical operations team Solution monitoring on both the business process and technical (system) level follows the same procedure: Alerts are generated by solution monitoring tools in SAP Solution Manager.

Business process operations or technical operations are involved in resolving the alert. There is a description of how to handle each alert. If the resolution is not obvious, the alert gets the status of a problem, and end-to-end root cause analysis has to be performed. The next three sections explain the scope of technical operations, business process operations, and incident and problem management. Technical Operations Technical operations include system and end-user experience monitoring and the routine tasks of system administration.

System and End-User Experience Monitoring The business unit expects that performance problems and errors will be detected proactively and resolved before they affect business continuity. The monitoring of SAP NetWeaver, operations system, and database are subject to system monitoring. The goal is to ensure smooth technical operation. During operations, exceptions may arise from SAP NetWeaver or the underlying technology. Effective and efficient handling of these exceptions is a crucial factor for stable technical operations. While root cause analysis aims at problem resolution, system monitoring detects incidents automatically. When agents report diagnostics data that exceeds thresholds defined in a central alert definition, alerts are created and the responsible experts in IT are notified so that they can take corrective action. If the required corrective action is not obvious, root cause analysis has to be performed to resolve the incident. SAP Solution Manager provides both real-time and historical monitoring. While real-time monitoring goes down to a resolution of 15 seconds, historical monitoring starts at an hourly level and can be aggregated in SAP Solution Manager to day, week, and year levels with the help of the SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse (SAP NetWeaver BW) component. Real-time monitoring is presented with the dashboard technology in CA Wily Introscope. All dashboards are shipped preconfigured by SAP and are part of SAP Solution Manager. If you want to create your own dashboards (for example, for custom code or legacy applica-

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tions), you can purchase the SAP Extended Diagnostics application by CA Wily (a reseller product on the SAP price list), which entitles you to use the full version including all preconfigured instrumentation and dashboards for non-SAP applications. From the triage view of the SAP NetWeaver Portal component (see Figure 18), your IT staff can dive deeper into monitoring detailed metrics that are updated continuously every 15 seconds. To demonstrate that preconfigured

monitoring content covers all mainstream SAP NetWeaver components and SAP Business Suite software, we show the real-time monitoring view of the SAP NetWeaver Application Server component in Figure 19. If your IT staff needs to analyze the trends of performance and exception development, SAP Solution Manager offers end-to-end workload analysis and end-to-end exception analysis. Both are based on SAP NetWeaver BW in SAP Solution Manager (see Figure 20). All required extractors and

agents are provided with SAP Solution Manager; you do not have to develop them yourself. A well-running server environment does not necessarily guarantee appropriate response times and availability from a user perspective, as exceptions can occur on clients or in the network from the client to the server environment. With end-user experience monitoring, the true response times from a client to the server are measured periodically using scripts that simulate enduser click sequences.

Figure 18: Real-Time Dashboard for Monitoring SAP NetWeaver Portal (Triage View)

Figure 20: Historical Workload Analysis for SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse

Figure: 19: Real-Time Monitoring View of SAP NetWeaver Application Server

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Figure 21 shows a self-service time sheet application for a customer who is interested to see performance and availability in eight locations. In each location, the customer has implemented robots that continuously monitor end-user experience. In contrast to other end-user experience-monitoring infrastructures on the market, SAP Solution Manager can not only measure the pure behavior on the client, but it can also collect statistics and traces that can analyze the correlation to the server environment. Monitoring at the system and user level can be automated with end-to-end alerting. Thresholds are defined for key metrics, and alerts are raised automatically by the alerting infrastructure. By automating monitoring through end-toend alerting, you can run more systems with the same operations staff. The new alerting infrastructure provides an open, configurable consumption of alerts, such as exposure to third-party application management, e-mailing or SMS text messaging through SAP NetWeaver, and a unified alert in-box in SAP Solution Manager. Figure 22 shows the alert in-box that is part of the system monitoring work center in SAP Solution Manager.
Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Work Center in SAP Solution Manager

Figure 21: EndUser Experience Monitoring of a Self-Service Time Sheet Application

Figure 22: Alert In-Box in SAP Solution Manager

System monitoring System monitoring describes the standard process for monitoring systems, the roles and responsibilities within the IT organization, and the training available through SAP Education offerings.

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System Administration Regular routine tasks are part of a customers runbook for technical operations and include performing backups and restarts, managing printers, and performing identity management tasks. Business Process Operations There are four basic aspects to be considered and covered for a sustainable concept for business process operations: Business process and interface monitoring Job scheduling management Data consistency management Data volume management The following sections describe these aspects in more detail and refer to SAP standards for solution operations, which describe the operational processes and the supporting tools to set up, support, and execute operational processes. Business Process and Interface Monitoring The monitoring of business processes and related interfaces (see Figure 23) is one of the main aspects for a business operations concept. The goal is to ensure smooth operations and a stable flow of information according to defined business requirements. During operations, exceptions may arise from within business applications. Effective and efficient handling of these exceptions is a crucial factor for both an optimized total cost of operations and smooth business execution.

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard System administration Work Center in SAP Solution Manager System administration

Figure 23: Business Process Monitoring

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SAP Solution in Detail Standards for Application Life-Cycle Management

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard The exception handling and business process and interface monitoring standard describes the standard process for monitoring business processes and interfaces and the roles and responsibilities within the IT organization. The standard explains the methodology for defining a monitoring concept for business processes and critical interfaces. Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Business process operations

Additional sources of input for monitoring processes are best-practice documents for business process operations. Based on standard processes, the documents describe typical monitoring aspects or error situations, provide relevant information about the execution of business process steps, and refer to typical background processing or critical integration scenarios and their interfaces with the software components involved. The documents are available via SAP Solution Manager. Job Scheduling Management for Successful Automation Management Within a highly comprehensive and distributed landscape, job scheduling management is important to data management and data processing. Even in todays real-time processing environment, the need for running jobs in the background is high.

Furthermore, jobs are concatenated to huge job chains, usually containing many dependencies on the sequence of jobs. If one or several jobs abort and cancel, the alert mechanism has to inform the appropriate support level or has to be able to start an automatic error handling procedure and restart the jobs. Another aspect of job scheduling management is the efficient use of available system resources, such as CPU and memory. A typical requirement is the coordination of activities of concurrent online users and background jobs that need the same time window and system environment. This requirement needs to be managed to avoid system or performance bottlenecks or delays in data processing.

With SAP Enterprise Support, SAP provides a management application that allows customers to store, retrieve, manage, and analyze all information that makes up each customers single source of truth. SAP Solution Manager, enterprise edition, provides the knowledge repository to persist the single source of truth as well as the functionality to maintain, update, and use this data in all operations during the application life cycle.

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Relevant Solutions Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard The standard for job scheduling management explains how to manage the planning, scheduling, and monitoring of jobs. The standard also recommends setting up a dedicated team for job scheduling management as part of business process operations or the support organization. This team is responsible for the central management of the job schedule concept. Job scheduling management is owned by business process operations, which executes the required tasks mainly in cooperation with the business process champion and technical operations. Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Business process operations functionality supports the entire operational process from creating a job request through the execution and monitoring of the job. The SAP Central Process Scheduling application by Redwood is a scheduling tool that is integrated with job scheduling in an SAP software landscape. It is also integrated with job scheduling management tools in SAP Solution Manager.

Data Consistency Management Across the IT Landscape Transactional correctness and data consistency are crucial factors for the success of each SAP solution. Your daily business operations from enduser transactions to management decisions rely on correct and up-to-date data being available at the right time. As a consequence, data inconsistencies can have severe cost impact resulting from, for example, lost business deals or nonavailability of your solution. Transactional correctness describes a requirement regarding the configuration of the solution mainly software functionality and the underlying technical infrastructure. Checks for transactional

correctness have to be part of integration testing before a new solution or changes to an existing solution can be used in production. Transactional correctness corresponds to data consistency. The underlying root cause for data inconsistencies in a solution landscape is one of the following scenarios. One scenario centers on end users or key users who are not aware of manual activities that they have to perform in order to guarantee data consistency. For example, a key user changes master data in one component and sends (as a manual procedure) this update to other systems. In another typical scenario, an interface may not be functioning properly. This is recorded in an

error log on one side of the interface and may or may not trigger a workflow to somebody for resolving the issue. In a third scenario, jobs are not running correctly or, due to insufficient time, were not even started. If these jobs, for example, are loading data into a data warehousing solution, the business reports are not accurate and may lead to incorrect business decisions. Data consistency is an important aspect in business process operations. It is vital for the operation to create 100% transparency with regard to all aspects of data consistency.

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Relevant Solutions Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard The standard for data integrity and transactional consistency addresses issues with data inconsistencies and covers several topics that include application design principles, such as guiding the user; checks to avoid inconsistent data entry; proper interface, workflow queues, and batch job monitoring; and CIO-level reporting on exceptions and inconsistencies. If integration monitoring and IT reporting are not set up properly, inconsistencies always occur. Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Data consistency cockpit in the business process operations work center has functionality that supports the definition of appropriate data consistency checks and recommended procedures to resolve inconsistencies.

Data volume reporting lists archiving activities already being performed and identifies additional reduction potential that may be realized by changes in business processes. Scheduling this activity on a regular basis can show the growth of the database by business-object level and identify how growth could be minimized. Reaching a steady state, that is, a balance between additional new data and archived data, is an SAP standard that is required to run SAP solutions within given SLAs through future time periods.

Data Volume Management to Manage the Growth of Business Data The optimal management of business data is another important aspect of business process operations. Data volume management requires technical consideration for optimal storage management for business data. Just adding additional disks to storage area networks (SANs) and storage subsystems over time may make the situation worse. For example, system management can become more and more difficult, or performance may degrade. On the other hand, your business and business application requirements have an impact on the management of business data. For example, business and legal requirements define the data retention period of critical financial data.

The following three stages are typically involved: Data volume scoping is the starting point of data volume management. A detailed look at the solution landscape identifies the major challenges and provides an outlook on the most beneficial measures to take, such as deletion or data archiving, when implementing a data volume management strategy. The focus of a data volume management strategy is on the implementation of the methodologies of avoidance, summarization, deletion, and data archiving, depending on the kind and type of data and by considering business and external requirements, such as compliance with legal requirements.

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Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard The data volume management standard defines how to manage data growth by archiving data, deleting data, and avoiding data creation. The standard helps you increase the availability of your solutions because administration tasks such as software upgrade, database reorganization, data backups, and recovery can be done in less time. In addition, you can reduce the time needed for managing disk space and benefit from more efficient use of resources such as hard drives, memory, and CPUs. Work Center in SAP Solution Manager The business process operations work center supports the entire process of data volume management. Service tools can be used to define the scope. SAP provides tools and best-practice information to help you define the appropriate strategy for data volume management. You can use monitoring tools for data volume reporting to measure the success of your strategy.

Trigger by Incident Management When an IT problem occurs, it can be recorded, categorized, and prioritized in the service-desk tool of SAP Solution Manager by an end user or an IT employee. The problem message is sent to first-level support, which attempts to clarify the problem and searches both the customers solution database and the SAP Notes service database. If a solution is not found, application management (second-level customer support) begins by carrying out a root cause analysis. Trigger by Solution Monitoring SAP provides monitoring for both the technical operations team (described in the system monitoring standard) and the business process operations team (described in the business process and interface monitoring standard). The teams sole aim is to proactively detect errors and performance bottlenecks before they affect the continuity of the business. Alerts are triggered, based on thresholds, which notify the appropriate IT team responsible. The scope of solution monitoring is proactive detection of incidents; root cause analysis aims at incident resolution. For example, a memory-intensive activity on a specific system triggers an alert in the system monitor. The cause of such unusual memory growth is not clear; root cause analysis may point to a memory leak in custom-developed software.

Incident and Problem Management Incident management is used during testing to collect all errors. It is also used after going live as the central incident management function. Messages can be forwarded to SAP if necessary, and they can be tracked with SAP Solution Manager until the problem is fixed. The service desk functionality in SAP Solution Manager is a trouble-ticket tool that is integrated into all important functions of SAP Solution Manager and the connected, managed systems. Whenever problems arise during operations, end users create problem messages. The service desk then directs these messages automatically to the right place within the customers support organization. Here, or in close collaboration with SAP Active Global Support, the message is processed and resolved. The service desk provides everyone involved in the incident management process with central access at all times to the information

relevant to them, including system information. The service-desk tool simplifies the process of managing error messages and considerably reduces the time required to process incident and problem management. The following scenarios can be mapped using the service desk: A (global) group and a (global) support organization Multiple segments of a group and a common support organization A service provider that manages several companies Incident management is tightly integrated with root cause analysis. Root cause analysis is either triggered by incident management or solution monitoring (system monitoring or business process monitoring).

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Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Centers End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Incident management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Incident management Business process operations

End-to-End Root Cause Analysis If an end user experiences a performance problem in a browser, the performance hit may be in the client, in the network, or somewhere in the server environment, which itself comprises different instances of different technologies. Server-side processing may take place in SAP NetWeaver Portal (based on Java technology), then reach out to SAP ERP on the back end (based on ABAP), and then finally call the database and the storage subsystem for data retrieval. A performance problem or functional defect may occur at one or all stages of this round-trip launched by an end user from a browser. End-toend root cause analysis helps identify the specific component or components that cause a performance bottleneck. When the help desk within the business unit cannot solve an incident, the application management team performs end-to-end root cause analysis in order to isolate the component responsible for a functional defect or a performance problem: client, network, various SAP applications (such as SAP NetWeaver Portal, SAP CRM, and SAP ERP), database, or storage.

SAP Solution Manager supports endto-end root cause analysis to identify the component that is responsible for the error. This top-down approach systematically helps you target the cause of the error; you no longer have to perform an untargeted, intuitionbased approach using various component experts. The latter method involves much more time and expense. You can envision the end-to-end root cause analysis approach as a type of crime scene investigation systematically leading to the solution. End-to-end root cause analysis is supported by the following: End-to-end change analysis provides transparency on changes (code, business configuration, and content) that were applied recently to a production application. This analysis is particularly instrumental if the few ad hoc changes result in disruptions after they were applied. End-to-end workload analysis provides unified access to serverside workload statistics.

End-to-end exception analysis provides unified access to exceptions reflected in high-severity log entries and dumps. Component-specific log and dump viewers can be accessed directly from this analysis. End-to-end trace analysis records performance and functional defects in a single activity of a single user or process, from browser to disk. The measurement is started at the UI of the end user, and the trace level for the round-trip is selected. When the request hits downstream servers, all components switch their traces on or change the log level according the selected trace level.

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The example in Figure 24 shows the end-to-end trace analysis. Within this analysis, a complete flow trace of enduser activity is recorded, starting at the browser and ending at the disk. In this case, the request leaves the browser, passes the SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment (SAP NetWeaver CE) offering, and hits a back-end application. In this example, most of the time was spent in SAP NetWeaver CE. The end-to-end trace analysis allows drilling down to the level of code that is responsible for the performance bottleneck. Component Root Cause Analysis Once the application management team has performed an end-to-end root cause analysis and has identified the problematic component, incident management enables the issue to be forwarded to the right expert in custom development, business process operations, technical operations, or IT infrastructure. Various tools are needed to complete the different tasks in component root cause analysis. In a distributed customer solution, these tools may be located on different systems. SAP Solution Manager provides a central access point to the system landscapes and simplifies access to the required tools. Analysis Through SAP or an SAP Partner Even though preparatory work and end-to-end root cause analysis of an issue should be performed by every customer, many IT organizations are not able to resolve all problems themselves as this requires in-depth knowl-

edge of specific SAP components. SAP or its partners may have to get involved as needed. In order for these experts to be able to provide efficient support, they need access to the customers IT solution landscape. The remote supportability standard describes how customers can provide remote access to the required tools and how SAP reduces the risk involved in this activity. By giving external experts access to the tools and related data required to solve an issue, customers can accelerate the delivery of support services and reduce costs. SAP provides all tools required to perform end-to-end root cause analysis to customers, partners, ISVs, and SAP consultants, who can access these tools remotely and safely through a secured connection to the customer. How does SAP reduce the risk of uncontrolled or even inadvertent changes to the productive environment? This is achieved by read-only authorization policies of the individual root cause analysis applications. Access to productive servers on the operatingsystem level should be required only in exceptional situations. Such system access can be avoided by continuously collecting operating system (OS)
Figure 24: End-to-End Trace Analysis in Root Cause Analysis Work Center

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statistics in SAP Solution Manager and by using the OS command console, which allows read-only execution of OS commands. These OS-level tools are also instrumental for a customers application management team as the IT infrastructure team often does not allow OS access to their production servers.

IT Reporting To demonstrate the value of IT to the business, SLAs are aligned between business units and IT. In order to confirm that the service levels agreed between IT and business are met, SAP provides IT reports that you can adapt to meet your specific needs

by tailoring them to the relevant SLAs. Once you have configured those reports, they can be generated and broadcast automatically to defined recipients in your business or IT organization.

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard The end-to-end root cause analysis standard offers systematic analysis and resolution of incidents for a customers distributed mission-critical environment. The goal is to identify and provide: An immediate corrective action (work-around) to restore service operations as quickly as possible with minimal disruption to end users by isolating the area of concern A complete solution to the issue Work Center in SAP Solution Manager The root cause analysis work center gives access to all related tools. Operationally, root cause analysis tools are designed to work towards reducing the number of resources in each step of the resolution process. A small team of support consultants with technical core competence in root cause analysis and an expert for the specific component who can delve deep into the component are enough to drive the issue down to a component. Additionally, the root cause analysis infrastructure is open for fasttrack integration of new SAP technologies and applications and also for third-party software.

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Figure 25: SAP EarlyWatch Alert Excerpt of Solution Key Performance Indicators

While SAP EarlyWatch Alert is a standardized IT benchmark that customers cannot change, there is limited flexibility in SAP-provided service-level reports to compile IT reports based on SAP EarlyWatch Alert reporting content in a more customizable form (see Figure 25). If you require full flexibility for IT report compilation and broadcasting, SAP recommends you use customer-specific reporting. Technically, the diagnostics data collection is gathering and extracting relevant KPIs on a continuous basis into the SAP NetWeaver BW layer of SAP Solution Manager. This happens after the basic setup of SAP Solution Manager is completed, which can be

conducted as of enhancement package 1 for SAP Solution Manager 7.0 with one consistent guided procedure that you can find in the solution manager setup work center in SAP Solution Manager. This data is used by end-to-end root cause analysis and end-to-end monitoring, but it can also be used for automated, highly customized IT reporting. With SAP NetWeaver BW, systematic aggregation from hour cubes to day cubes to even higher aggregated cubes is performed on a continuous basis, which enables you to create your own Web templates and embedded queries, resulting in completely customized IT

reports and broadcasting features. You do not have to create the data collection and extraction infrastructure and content on your own. Furthermore, no programming is required to compile customized IT reports. The IT reports and their broadcasting can be modeled with a graphical report builder in the SAP NetWeaver BW layer of SAP Solution Manager; cube content is already populated by the end-to-end diagnostics infrastructure.

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Continuous Quality Checks for the Operations Phase


SAP provides numerous continuous quality checks to help you during the operations phase. Session SAP Business Process Performance Optimization service Description This service can accelerate your core business processes in order to meet internal business requirements and external deadlines, reduce hardware resource and manpower consumption, and, as a result, can increase end-user satisfaction. Depending on the focus you establish, the service may analyze and optimize expensive SQL and ABAP programming language statements, optimize business processes in the logistics area, or optimize tasks being scheduled during your period-end closing processes. This session focuses on issues that can have a significant impact on system performance and stability. This can be general technical issues or, if the focus can be defined clearly prior to delivery, database performance issues. A session focused on database performance may cover an analysis of database parameter configuration or database management. Based on the assessment, recommendations for configuring your database are provided.

Technical performance optimization

Data volume management A data volume management session helps you establish a data volume management strategy that defines how to manage and reduce future data growth. It gives recommendations to reduce existing database size by utilizing a holistic approach that considers and integrates the following options: data avoidance, data summarization, data deletion, and data archiving. SAP EarlyWatch Check service This service helps you proactively analyze your operating system, database, and entire SAP software centric landscape to check performance and reliability and look for potential improvement. This session could be scheduled regularly to identify trends and changes in system performance over time at an early stage, enabling you to proactively adjust hardware or configurations to address potential increases in workload. Using this service with continuous quality checks for upgrade can help you manage the risk involved in a migration project. The session bundle consists of analysis, project check, and verification for the migration of operating systems and databases. The result includes recommendations to help you achieve a smooth migration.

SAP OS/DB Migration Check service

SAP Remote Performance The remote performance optimization session tackles bottlenecks that have a large impact on system perOptimization service formance and can help to increase the throughput of your core business processes. It provides recommendations for SQL statement optimization, customer program optimization, and application optimization. SAP Security Optimization service This service is designed to check the security of your SAP application It includes an analysis and the resulting recommendations for settings. It addresses application and customizing settings that impact on the security of the SAP application, and focuses on internal and external security. To improve internal security, many critical authorization combinations are checked. External security is improved by checking the access possibilities to your system and the authentication methods used.

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Optimize Phase
The optimize phase is a time for making sure that software changes are planned and implemented consistently once your software is in operation. SAP Solution Manager supports you in this task with its functions for managing change requests. If you need to make significant changes, like upgrading a software component in your solution, the tool lets you take a professional approach using tried-and-tested procedures. Another challenge you may face during the optimize phase is distributing a template defined at the head-office level to your organizations subsidiaries. SAP Solution Manager answers this challenge with the global rollout function. To keep your software landscape up-to-date, you must consider three types of software changes: Support package updates Software upgrades SAP enhancement packages Support Package Updates Installing support package updates is an ongoing task. Support package implementation is planned on a yearly basis, and SAP strongly recommends that you implement the latest support packages. By doing so, you ensure that your companys software is the latest status of a certain release, which means it has all the available corrections and improvements. In addition, this helps SAP support and develop-

Figure 26: Maintenance Optimizer in SAP Solution Manager

ment employees. Knowing the exact status of your software can dramatically reduce the time it takes them to support your software. Software stability and availability can increase as a result. Maintenance Optimizer SAP Solution Manager enables a holistic update process with a maintenance optimizer (see Figure 26) that: Lists available support packages for all installed SAP applications Allows direct download and installation of patches Checks compatibility of patches by considering dependencies among different systems Upgrade management functionality gives you an overview of the servicepack level of all SAP applications from one tool. It checks for new patches for your installed SAP landscape, taking into account possible dependencies among different systems.

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Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Change management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Change management

well as for a reliable and well-performing target solution. There are two major challenges: ensuring the compatibility of all connected software components and correctly sizing the hardware needed for the future solution. Software Compatibility In general, there are two dimensions of compatibility to be considered for complex solutions. First, the vertical stack consisting of SAP software components, SAP kernel, operating system, and database has to be checked for compatible combinations and restrictions of the upgraded versions.

Software Upgrades Changing business conditions lead to changing IT solutions, and every evolving organization needs to adapt its IT environment accordingly. In many cases, this drives the need to upgrade your SAP software. Upgrades allow you to benefit from the latest available functionality, leverage new technologies that foster innovation, and get long-term protection of IT investments. Details of upgrade-related tasks and the technical upgrade itself may vary depending on product, release, platform, and interface constellation. However, you should give your full attention to successfully accomplishing the following tasks: Align upgrade program with corporate business and IT strategies Plan the IT infrastructure Adapt applications and custom developments Manage parallel changes during the upgrade project Manage Unicode conversions and other data changes Minimize business downtime Ensure business continuity Align the Upgrade Program Large enterprises usually maintain a number of complex solutions that consist of software from different vendors, include multiple releases of the same software product, or incorporate same-

release software at multiple supportpackage levels. Additionally, organizational factors, such IT provider concept, data center concept, or server architecture, drive complexity. Within those environments there are always mutual dependencies among the applications. Therefore, an SAP release upgrade almost always triggers changes in all levels of the solution landscape and may require additional hardware resources. When planning an individual upgrade you have to consider such changes and may decide to make IT changes in combination with the upgrade. This could save effort and costs for the individual project. Thus, it is very important to update your corporate global IT program definition in the specific context of an upgrade before starting the first individual project. As the basis for an update of your corporate strategy, you need to have full transparency about the status quo. Thus, complete and reliable documentation of all solution components in the solution directory of SAP Solution Manager and an overview of every IT project documented in SAP Solution Manager are crucial for the planning and execution of an upgrade project. Plan the IT Infrastructure Proper infrastructure planning is a prerequisite for a successful upgrade as

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SAP publishes its product availability matrix (PAM) on the SAP Service Marketplace extranet (www.service .sap.com/pam, user name and password required) where you can retrieve the released combinations (see Figure 27). For add-ons, you should also check the respective release restriction and add-on release strategy notes. To find this information, enter the add-on name and search string release strategy into the SAP Notes search box on SAP Service Marketplace. Second, the compatibility or interoperability among different SAP and nonSAP applications has to be verified when one of them is upgraded. The upgrade dependency analyzer (UDA) helps you analyze known dependencies when upgrading technical components in your landscape (see Figure 28). Accessible from SAP Service Marketplace (www.service.sap.com/uda, user name and password required), the UDA provides dependency information to support the planning of upgrade

projects. The tool can compare two applications at a time: the one being upgraded versus one other one in the solution landscape. The output is an online dependency statement and an optional reference to SAP Notes. As of support package 17, SAP Solution Manager is linked to the UDA from the change management work center. Be aware that the upgrade dependency analyzer is a high-level planning tool for upgrades; it does not cover all dependencies that are relevant for planning an upgrade. For more detailed information, especially with respect to process or scenario information, refer to the scenario and process component lists located at www.service.sap.com/scl (user name and password required). In all cases you should consult the SAP master and upgrade guides. These guides refer to specific SAP standard notes that always reflect the most current status regarding release restrictions.

Capacity Planning Determining the right size of all relevant system resources is a crucial aspect of an upgrade. Only by doing this can you achieve performance on the established levels with no bottlenecks while spending a reasonable portion of the upgrade budget. It all starts with a clear picture of the current situation, which can be obtained easily by using SAP EarlyWatch Alert. There you can find the current load of key system resources as well as available buffers for future growth. A look into Quick Sizer on SAP Service Marketplace can provide an initial estimate of additional hardware requirements. Your hardware partner can work with you to refine the actual size of all major system components in the target scenario.

Figure 27: Product Availability Matrix in SAP Service Marketplace

Figure 28: Upgrade Dependency Analyzer Checks Restrictions for an Upgrade

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Additionally, SAP provides the SAP GoingLive Functional Upgrade Check service to conduct a plausibility check of the planned capacity of the target system. This may include upgrade sizing as well as Unicode sizing. Adapt Applications A significant cost driver during software upgrades is custom code and modifications made to standard software. The custom development management cockpit is the approach SAP advances to analyze the custom code in your software landscape and to optimize upgrades to these developments. In addition to custom developments, application adjustments need to be performed to match your solution to changed SAP standard functionality. SAP Solution Manager helps with this task by automatically presenting upgrade and delta views of the implementation guide for each component to be upgraded. Manage Parallel Changes It is very important not to compromise any aspect of your change management process in the course of an upgrade. You might be tempted to allow mass exceptions from the set of rules. You usually have to implement many changes in a short period of time, and you might feel that you do not have enough time for a thorough evaluation to determine if a change is really required. However, such practices introduce a lot of risks.

Therefore, you should make the reliability of the change management process your first priority. SAP Solution Manager provides powerful tools to implement change request management. Do not reassign roles, change the sequence, or implement new tools if these steps are not urgently required. If this has to be done, perhaps to facilitate the upgrade, you should try to adapt the process as early as possible in the upgrade and let the new scenario be established well before the upgrade in day-to-day business. To maintain the current production environment, we strongly recommend setting up a maintenance landscape in parallel to the project landscape for implementing corrections in the old release. During this phase, urgent corrections to the production system have to be applied twice: once in development systems of the maintenance and upgrade landscape (dual maintenance). To minimize project efforts for dual maintenance, you should implement a strict code-freeze period immediately after upgrading the development system. Convert Data SAP always attempts to create downwardly compatible software, which means that you can still execute old functions and software in the new release. However, continuous product enhancements may require data conversions. Such conversions can account for considerable preparation and execution effort. The most prominent is certainly the conversion to the Unicode standard. While this activity

is technically not required to be executed with an upgrade, many upgrades to products based on SAP NetWeaver 7.0 (particularly SAP ERP 6.0) require Unicode conversion because SAP does not support more than one installed code page in these releases. Singlecode-page systems do not have to convert to Unicode, but SAPs product strategy is committed to Unicode. Therefore, a conversion may not be avoided over the long run. In addition to Unicode conversion, other application-specific data conversions may be triggered by changes in applications data models. You can use the SAP application-specific upgrade (ASU) toolbox to analyze changes in the application areas. The ASU toolbox enables you to recognize additional, application-specific steps before and after the upgrade, in addition to the actual technical upgrade. It covers the following main areas of application changes: Checks for the existence and usability of certain customer-specific data, such as report variants and display variants Information on necessary customizing settings for new functionalities Start of reports adjusting your data to the new release that are not part of XPRA (eXecute PRogram After import) reports, which are started automatically during the upgrade

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The ASU toolbox can be integrated with standard upgrade procedures through automatically generated task lists, providing all required tasks in their optimal sequence (see Figure 29). The ASU toolbox is also integrated with upgrade project management in SAP Solution Manager to guide you through manual activities before and after the upgrade, including, for example, the direct display of related notes. Minimize Business Downtime For customers with extremely high system-availability requirements,

SAP offers the near-zero downtime method. With this method it is possible to reduce business downtime to three or four hours for a release upgrade. Business downtime is defined as total system outage for business users, including downtime for the technical upgrade as well as required data conversions, the implementation of customer transports, and system validation with sign-off by business users. In the near-zero downtime method (see Figure 30), the upgrade is performed on a clone of the production system.

During the upgrade, all changes on the production system are logged on the database level. After the completion of the upgrade on the clone, the real downtime begins. During this downtime, data changes from the production system are transferred to the clone. Data transfer is performed by a tool based on the migration workbench. The tool also transforms the data structure in case of changes in the data model between the old and the new release. After system validation, the clone takes over the role of the production system.

Figure 29: Structured Task Lists in the Application-Specific Upgrade Toolbox (Reduced) uptime PRD* SAP R/3 4.6C Recording Clone Delta replay Downtime

Cloned PRD* Upgrade (and Unicode conversion) *PRD = production system Figure 30: Illustration of the Near-Zero Downtime Method Validation, sign-off

PRD* SAP ERP 6.0

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The near-zero downtime method is applicable for other maintenance tasks, such as the application of SAP support pack stacks, database maintenance, or operating system maintenance resulting in greatly reduced system downtime. It should be possible to reduce business downtime to two or three hours. Regular use of this tool for various maintenance tasks could reduce the complexity related to the near-zero downtime method and could contribute to the general improvement of system availability during operations. The method has been made available first for ABAP-based SAP ERP, but can be extended to other scenarios on demand. Ensure Business Continuity One major challenge of any upgrade project is to ensure maximum business continuity after the completion of the technical upgrade, which means making sure that the availability, stability, and performance of the software can be provided at the same level as before the upgrade. Important measures to minimize the risk and the impact of business disruption are efficient testing of core business processes, sufficient training of end users, and an appropriate update of solution operations procedures.

Once delta changes and adjustments have been executed, the test workbench functionality in SAP Solution Manager helps you plan, execute, and monitor integrated testing based on your business process documentation and the delta changes that you selected to be implemented (see also Incident and Problem Management). The learning-map builder in SAP Solution Manager helps you create rolespecific learning maps based on documents generated during the upgrade project that are relevant to end-user training.

This method can also be used for an upgrade combined with the Unicode conversion. The necessary algorithms for the Unicode conversion of the recorded data are part of a tool in the migration workbench. In this case, business downtime can be reduced to less than eight hours independent of the database size.

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Finally, current operations procedures must be reviewed for currency and updated as required, and the operations staff has to be trained accordingly. This may include the following tasks: If new business processes, application components, or technologies are implemented in the course of an upgrade project (functional upgrade), the new parts of the solution need to be integrated into the existing operations concept. If the hardware, operating system, or database software migration is taking place to a different platform, system administration and monitoring procedures must be analyzed and updated. If interface technologies are changed or new interfaces are added, the interface management concepts and handling procedures need to be inspected and adopted to ensure performance and stability of business processes. A revision of the general security policy is usually required.

SAP Enhancement Packages As of SAP Business Suite 2005, SAP now bases its release strategy on optional enhancement packages. The concept was first available with SAP ERP 6.0; however, it is or will be extended to SAP Business Suite and SAP NetWeaver. Enhancement packages deliver new functionality and key innovations for SAP applications on top of a software release, eliminating the need for you to upgrade to the current release of an SAP product. Enhancement packages include functional enhancements, industry-specific enhancements, and simplifications; they have the same maintenance duration as the underlying core application. The switch framework enables you to activate new business functions in an enhancement package when desired. Until then, the technical installation of an enhancement package has no impact on your existing business processes or user interfaces.

Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Upgrade Change management Data volume management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Implementation and upgrade Change management Business process operations

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Figure 31: Enhancement Package Installer Tool

SAP Enhancement Package Installer Through SAP Service Marketplace, you may discover new enhancements and evaluate their business relevance for your company. The technical installation is separate from business innovation; it has no effect on any user interface or existing business process. First step of the technical installation is the calculation of the software stack. This step is carried out by the maintenance optimizer, which automatically determines the relevant download files including all needed support package stacks. In the second step, the enhancement package installer (see Figure 31) implements the enhancement package software through a guided procedure. The installer is available as of the fourth enhancement package for SAP ERP and the first enhancement

package for SAP NetWeaver. The previously used add-on installer (known as SAINT) is replaced by this installer. As the final step, the required enhancement package functions are tested and activated. Main advantages of the enhancement package installer include: Improved user experience due to intuitive guided procedure Streamlined installation process Reduced downtime Easier addition of support packages Mitigated risk due to an isolated shadow system
Relevant Solution Operations Standard and Supporting Work Center End-to-End Solution Operations Standard Upgrade Change management Work Center in SAP Solution Manager Implementation and upgrade Change management

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Continuous Quality Checks for Upgrade SAP provides continuous quality checks to help you during optimization.
Session SAP Upgrade Assessment service Description This service provides you with a technical overview of the production system, including helpful information on change management, upgrade-relevant data volume, system load and performance, and possible risks within your maintenance strategy. As an outcome, you get recommendations on indicators from analyzed focus areas highlighting potential risks, which can be covered or further investigated by additional remote services. This service supports your upgrade project during the going-live weekend or a holiday weekend the most critical time of the technical upgrade project. You are assigned named contact persons from SAP who are dedicated to the project for the designated weekend. These contact persons are on duty to speed up the resolution process for messages by tracking the messages created by the upgrade project team until their resolution. This session provides the following benefits: System monitoring for immediate reaction in case of unforeseen incidents while going live to ensure a smooth start of production Close contact between the SAP Active Global Support organization and your project team Provision of a detailed service report about the activities conducted during the delivery of the service, including a consolidated action plan To facilitate SAP release upgrades, SAP offers this service, which helps to prepare your system for efficient operation after an upgrade has taken place. This upgrade check usually consists of two service sessions: an analysis session and a verification session for upgrade projects of many SAP products. If downtime during your upgrade project is an issue, you can engage this service to identify and prioritize the causes of the downtime and get recommendations for improvement. The result is reduced downtime of your productive environment so that the availability of the core business processes will meet project requirements.

SAP Upgrade Weekend Support service

SAP GoingLive Check service

SAP GoingLive Functional Upgrade Check service

SAP Downtime Assessment service

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CUSTOM CODE MANAGEMENT


GUIDELINES FOR SUPPORTABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY

Motivation
While it has been a hallmark of SAP to deliver standard applications customized to a particular need complemented by custom development only where absolutely necessary, the advent of service-oriented architecture introduces a significant change. Custom code and composite application development occupy a much larger space in satisfying the business needs of an enterprise. Customers deploying such applications expect seamless integration into existing application environments that adhere to end-to-end operations standards. As a consequence, development workbenches and development guidelines for custom code and composite applications need to be considered to have a stable, manageable, and operational application. Supporting custom developments is often more difficult than supporting standard applications. A standard application is typically used by more customers than a specific custom development. In most cases, there is much more support experience regarding a standard application than there is regarding a custom development. And the risk gets even greater if those

involved in the development project no longer work for the customer, or the third-party vendor has gone out of business. Therefore, proper documentation of custom developments is especially important. At a minimum, the specification of the development project, a list of all related code objects, and required customizing settings must be available. To ensure high-quality support of your business processes, your IT organization has to take care that there is one holistic operations concept for the overall IT solution landscape, including custom code applications. To achieve this, the operation of a custom code application has to fit into the operations concept. Therefore, special aspects have to be taken into account when developing and implementing custom code applications. Supportability and maintainability of custom solutions need to be planned and defined from the beginning when the development project is set up. Custom developments can be supported and maintained efficiently and the risk to mission-critical operations can be minimized only if the deliverables of the development project (source code, data dictionary definitions, customizing, other types of repository objects, and documentation) are well structured, well documented, and, as far as possible, compatible with the standard SAP solution.

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Composite-based application development is a fairly new development approach that is a key component of SOA. Based on a model-driven development approach, composites are machine-generated portions of application code that interfaces with business applications via a service-oriented interface. In some circumstances, machine-generated code is complemented with custom code. In other words, SOA enables companies to drive for innovation and improved productivity. By orchestrating existing services and combining them with additional application logic and suitable user interfaces, you can flexibly and quickly implement new business processes. During the transition to new approaches for custom application development, it is important to protect past investments in existing customization and limit the impact on day-to-day operations. This effort starts with a comprehensive analysis of the as-is situation. The city model outlined below introduces a framework that helps reduce the facets of custom code to the four most important dimensions. Within this framework you can determine your relevant optimization needs and track the effect your activities.

The City Model Using the available methods for the analysis of your IT system landscape, it is still difficult to illustrate clearly the optimization potential that can be attained. To help you to see the results in a clear and coherent manner, SAP provides a model that enables you to visualize the analysis data. Using this multidimensional abstraction model, you can measure and evaluate your custom enhancements and developments. Of the known characteristics of your custom enhancements and developments in your IT system landscape, you need to consider four main dimensions: Quantity Quality Estimation of the influence on core business processes (business criticality) Classification of the technical implementation in relation to the SAP standard (technical severity) The aspects governance and software life-cycle management complete this model. A metric is used to display custom enhancements and developments in the three-dimensional city model. In the abstraction of the figure, a multidimensional city is formed, with buildings that have different heights, colors, and locations within the city landscape. Each city reflects the state of each system in your IT system landscape. As the future-oriented mayor of your city which already consists of several custom developments you can improve the cityscape or redesign parts of it.

Key Aspects for Custom Code Management


Custom code development of components and functions should complement the standard application portfolio in order to achieve a particular functionality not delivered within the standard application. Custom code can be an application developed on top of SAP NetWeaver or an application that interfaces with the rest of the application landscape.

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Services and Functions to Support Custom Development


SAP supports this flexibility and optimization effectively with a number of SAP Enterprise Support services and functions available in SAP Solution Manager, such as the following: Modification justification check: The objective of this service is to reduce TCO with respect to customer modifications as much as possible and to provide expert advice on how to avoid modifications whenever feasible. Custom code maintainability check: This service analyzes the objects in your custom development project and the aspects of software change management. Moreover, it evaluates the quality of your coding with regard to future SAP upgrades, enhancement packages, support packages, and general maintainability. Custom development management cockpit: SAP Solution Manager provides a custom development management cockpit that gives you overall visibility into the impact and clearing potential on your custom developed solutions that can be triggered by a lifecycle change event, the implementation of a support package, and other events. Solution transition assessment: This service provides you with detailed analyses and coherent evaluations for custom developments and enhancements in your IT landscape. Concrete help makes the transition to the optimize phase easier.

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BENEFITS OF STANDARDIZATION
TAKE THE NEXT STEP TO ACHIEVE BUSINESS CONTINUITY

Ensure Continuous Business Solution Availability


Holistic application life-cycle management can help ensure that standards for system monitoring and business process monitoring are in place to proactively detect issues before end users are affected and that the root cause analysis standard is implemented. This enables you to systematically narrow down any problem to the root cause and helps SAP and partners continue problem investigation based on findings at the customer support level (speak the same language).

tion (MTTR) can be reduced significantly. Automated customer-specific servicelevel reporting is supported. Based on end-to-end diagnostics functionality in SAP Solution Manager, you can leverage automated service-level report generation and broadcast these reports in SAP Solution Manager to key people in IT and business units. This avoids the manual effort of cutting and pasting service-level reports.

Standardization and the end-to-end certification program keep a consultants daily rates at an acceptable level. After one year of the end-to-end certification program, over 4,000 consultants are already certified in end-to-end solution operations and the Run SAP methodology (as of September 2008).

Reduce Infrastructure Requirements


By optimizing business process performance, ITSAM can help limit or postpone infrastructure investments. By reducing data volume and avoiding future growth, ITSAM can help cut storage subsystem costs and operational costs associated with storage (for example, for backup and recovery tests).

Reduce License and Project Costs to Run SAP Solutions


There is no need for customers to launch their own projects to evaluate the best way to run SAP solutions, develop or pilot and license SAP application management tools, and integrate those tools into their SAP solution landscape. All tools for solution monitoring, root cause analysis, reporting, and SAP NetWeaver administration for all products on the SAP price list are part of the SAP Enterprise Support services contract that customers hold with SAP.

Operate More Systems with Fewer Resources


IT service and application management (ITSAM) helps ensure that IT operations are as automated as possible. Instead of monitoring the system landscape by human interaction, technical operations as well as business process operations are managing exceptions that are raised by SAP Solution Manager. System monitoring and business process monitoring enable you to set automated notification of alerts, aiding in the reduction of human administrative efforts to complete mundane repetitive IT tasks. ITSAM makes sure that the end-to-end root cause analysis standard is implemented for all production systems running SAP software. The targeted topdown approach of end-to-end root cause analysis allows one-step dispatching to the expert in root cause analysis. This approach reduces problem resolution time and the number of resources involved in the root cause analysis process. Mean time to resolu-

Increase Business Value of IT


ITSAM is focused on core business processes and end users, ultimately making IT an enabler for business agility and a value generator to the business. By implementing end-to-end monitoring and alerting for SAP NetWeaver and business processes, end-user experience monitoring, and end-to-end reporting, you can gain complete transparency of the value of IT to business.

Use Less Expensive Resources


Progressive data aggregation, the deliberate selection of data from components, and a unified diagnostics-data display across applications and technologies drastically reduce the level of specialized skills required to isolate the problem-causing component. You do not need to be a diagnostics expert to identify problem-causing components.

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APPENDIX: SAP PRODUCT STANDARDS


BASIC PRINCIPLES AND BENEFITS OF PRODUCT STANDARDS

In order to meet our customers need for consistent implementation and operations across their SAP solution landscape, all SAP products must adhere to internal SAP product standards. These standards are validated before each and every new product shipment and each new release of a product. Two of those standards are described in the following two sections.

Neither the business process hierarchy in SAP Solution Manager nor the activities in the implementation guide (often referred to as IMG) reflect the sequence in which you must perform configuration activities in the SAP application components. Only the business scenario configuration guide leads you through this process in the correct sequence. Business scenario configuration guides have the following structure: General settings General information that you need to start the business scenario configuration Systems connection Information about connecting systems in a system landscape. This involves, for example: Defining logical systems and assigning clients in the online transaction processing (OLTP) system Determining the systems, servers, clients, distribution models, and so on in the system in which the SAP application component is installed Completing the configuration settings and performing other activities required for the interactions in an SAP software system landscape Middleware Information about generating middleware (software that enables two applications to communicate by messages). Middleware performs message exchange switching, queuing, and mapping functions. Applications can run on different platforms and data models. The SAP Customer Relationship Management application is an SAP application that uses middleware. Data replication Information about replicating master data, transaction data, and customizing data. This involves, for example:

SAP Product Standard: Business Configuration


For all its products, SAP provides not only code and documentation but also integrated business content delivered via business scenario configuration guides and the business process repository in the SAP Solution Manager application management solution. You can access the business scenario configuration guides in the SAP Service Marketplace extranet at www.service.sap.com/ibc (user name and password required) or though a work center in SAP Solution Manager: Implementation/Upgrade Build Goto Business Process Configuration Environment Maintain Configuration Structure. The business scenario configuration guide describes the settings that must be made so that the business scenario can run; that is, for data replication, customizing, and master data. The software system landscape is installed using the master guide and the component installation guides.

Activities to initially transfer data from the OLTP system into the online analytical processing (OLAP) system Automatic replication activities Manual replication activities if, for example, automatic replication is not possible Business configuration Information about customizing settings in each system. During customizing you adjust company-neutral delivered functionality to the specific requirements of your company. This involves, for example: Organizational unit customizing Master data customizing Process customizing What Does the Standard Define? SAP software should support all major business processes in the business areas or industries that it is designed for. Business processes can differ from company to company, either because of legal requirements or local business practices. As a result, customers may need to configure the functions in SAP solutions accordingly. In general terms, business configuration refers to settings that: Are made to implement and upgrade an SAP solution at a customers site Define and establish parameters for the technical and business process flow at a customers site Business configuration is part of every implementation project for customers who have bought a new SAP product. Typically, technology and application consultants take care of an initial business configuration; a power user in a customers business department is responsible for maintenance.

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For development at SAP, this means that new software must be designed, programmed, and prepared for implementation in such a way that it can be configured successfully and efficiently at customers sites. What Are the Basic Principles of the Standard? A standard for business configuration helps to ensure that software can be configured and upgraded consistently throughout the entire range of SAP products with standard SAP tools. Adherence to Customizing Standards SAP must make sure that customers can customize individual components, whether created in the ABAP programming language or not, within an SAP solution landscape. This means that the implementation guides for the respective components have to be maintained according to SAP standards as outlined in the customizing development guide. Also, all Java and other non-ABAP developments must adhere to the standards for business configuration in the customizing development guide. Implementation Content for Business Scenarios SAP must provide customers with sufficient information so that they can rapidly and successfully implement SAP solutions. In particular, SAP must identify typical business scenarios and provide material that helps customers configure the software to support these business scenarios. This material includes: The business process hierarchy A hierarchical representation of all master data, organizational units,

processes, and process steps making up a scenario, including transaction and implementation guide assignments. When working through this business process hierarchy, you can review business processes and access the corresponding transactions and customizing settings. The business process hierarchy enables you to easily create a business blueprint for scenarios and to configure business scenarios. The configuration guide Stepby-step instructions of how to configure a business scenario The business process hierarchy, configuration guide, and other material for configuring business scenarios are maintained and shipped with SAP Solution Manager. Benefits and Advantages for Customers Standardized customizing activities allow customers to implement new SAP products efficiently in the same way. Detailed configuration information also speeds up implementation projects. Rapid and successful implementations lead to earlier return on investment. With standardized configuration, customers can document, validate, and reuse their configuration settings. For example, you can make full use of business configuration sets, a technology that allows you to store and reuse customizing, especially for the following: Validation You can document your software configuration and prove compliance with legal regulations for software configuration, such as validation requirements from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Global rollout You can define an ideal configuration at global headquarters and roll this out to your subsidiaries, which can then adopt these configuration settings.

SAP Product Standard: IT Service and Application Management


The SAP-internal standard for IT service and application management (ITSAM) provides the foundation for effective and efficient operations of our customers IT solutions. What Does the Standard Define? The standard defines criteria needed to provide customers a standardized management concept to support business processes and operate the underlying solution landscape with optimal availability, optimal performance, and low cost of ownership, ultimately providing business continuity at an acceptable total cost of ownership (TCO). In addition, it provides the criteria needed for software components to be supportable in an efficient way via standardized SAP support processes. What Are the Basic Principles of the Standard? To ensure reliable and secure operations, the ITSAM (solution management) checklist contains rules and guidelines and covers the following aspects of business continuity and TCO management:

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Solution monitoring Centralized monitoring for business processes and management of technology components Management of SAP technology Design of daily operations for high availability and secure backup and recovery Business process management Optimized business process management, consistent data integration, and optimized procedures to manage data growth Software change management Design for centralized and consistent customizing and development and for minimum downtime Root cause analysis Efficient troubleshooting of heterogeneous distributed environments in order to meet the commitment in the servicelevel agreement of SAP Enterprise Support services Remote support Enablement of SAP and its partners to access the customer landscape safely through SAP routing software with read-only users; clear separation of remote support from administration. Content of the ITSAM Standard The ITSAM standard has both operational and support requirements. Operational Requirements From an operational point of view, this standard helps to ensure that customers can: Maintain or enhance their solution through standardized maintenance processes and tools Proactively monitor their solution and detect critical situations at an early stage

Scale their solution for high volume and high availability Safely operate their solution through solution-wide backup and recovery concepts Easily collaborate with SAP support for incident management To help customers achieve these goals, all SAP products must fulfill the following requirements: Documentation Application operations guide (one per application) . Component-specific content . Scenario-specific content Monitoring and alerting CA Wily Introscope mandatory for real-time monitoring . Third-party tool, owned by Computer Associates (CA) but free customer usage for SAPdelivered instrumentation and dashboards . For real-time performance metrics (Java, Microsoft .NET, ABAP, and C/C++) Transaction RZ20 in the computer center management system (CCMS) for alerting System management Provided through SAP NetWeaver Administrator tool for non-ABAPbased components, CCMS for ABAP-based components, and the system administration work center in SAP Solution Manager Online backup and documentation in the application operations guide Handling of obsolete data High availability concept (must be working also scenario-wide) Software change management

Modeling of the technical landscape in the production planning and maintenance system (PPMS). SAP Solution Manager holds a copy of this landscape modeling content, which is used for all maintenance procedures. Integration into the maintenance optimizer (automatic for ABAP and Java 2, Enterprise Edition [J2EE] components) Integration into the enhanced change and transport system (CTS+ and, one transport order automatic for ABAP and J2EE components). All content, code, and configuration must be performed in development environments and must be transportable to production with CTS+. Component configuration accessible via standard application programming interface (API) (J2EE configuration manager, ABAP remote function call [RFC] API, Web service API) Customer development (if enabled: version management, one transport order integration, and conflict resolution) Integration and automation Content for business process monitoring must be provided to monitor performance and availability of business processes as well as data consistency of interfaces. Standard interfaces must be used (able to be monitored, restarted, and recovered). Background processing must be effective, scalable, and able to run in parallel (error tolerant, restartable, and support for logging).

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Consistency checks can be conducted for replicated or dependent data in multiple systems. All online SAP transactions must be designed in a way that end users cannot create inconsistencies. Support Requirements SAP support staff, partners, and other support organizations must be able to: Access all support-relevant information remotely and in a safe way (no change capability) Efficiently and effectively perform root cause analysis for incidents using standardized tools Analyze errors and performance problems through all components within the solution landscape Perform all support tasks through a centralized hub To achieve these goals, all SAP products must fulfill the following requirements: Documentation: problem analysis scenarios (troubleshooting documentation, can be part of the application operations guide) Problem and performance analysis Logging and tracing . Follow semantic guidelines . Use standard logs: ABAP application log, syslog, Java logging API, listlog format, Windows event log . Enable dynamic logging and trace-level switch Performance and resource statistics: CA Wily Introscope (dynamic instrumentation for Java, Microsoft .NET; static instrumentation for C/C++)

End-to-end tracing: SAP passport handling and distributed statistical records (stand-alone and front-end components Online activity and resource monitoring3 . Stand-alone components, others only for own managed resources . For Microsoft Windowsbased front ends, instrumentation for BMC AppSight for SAP client diagnostics must be provided. Third-party tool (owned by BMC, but free usage for SAP front-end components) Offline analysis tool for front-end problems (no remote access needed) Remote and safe access All support tools accessible via SAP graphical user interface or Web browser Support role without change capabilities to be provided by each support tool Benefits and Advantages for Customers This standard enables you to: Address total cost of ownership and return on investment by risk management of the technical implementation and reduction of operations cost through standardization Increase the performance and technical robustness of the solution Protect existing investments through a customer-driven maintenance strategy, change management support, and optimization of resource utilization

Find Out More


To find out more about SAP Enterprise Support, call your SAP representative or visit us on the Web at www.service.sap.com /enterprisesupport, www.service.sap.com/coe, and www.service.sap.com/enterpriseedition (user name and password are required).

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Summary Effectively managing SAP applications, accelerating innovation, and reducing total cost of ownership require a holistic application management life cycle. This presupposes a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge base that supports informed and fact-based decision making. SAP supports these activities with standards, tools, software, and services. Business Challenges Accelerate innovation while reducing IT risk and total cost of ownership Establish a structured, comprehensive, and reliable knowledge base for informed and fact-based decision making Ensure business continuity with an optimized and reliable software solution landscape Key Features Application life-cycle management Take a comprehensive support approach that spans the entire life cycle of your solutions, from concept to phaseout Business configuration Build quality into all life-cycle phases with road maps, blueprints, quality gates, and testing of all types Business continuity Develop a sustainable concept for continuous business execution while reducing total cost of ownership in a heterogeneous environment Custom code management Use tools and guidelines for stable, manageable, and upgradeable custom applications that meet your business needs Business Benets Higher availability of business applications with monitoring standards for proactively detecting problems and analyzing the cause Fewer IT resources needed with automated IT operations that reduce human administrative efforts Reduced license and project costs with monitoring tools and services included in the SAP Enterprise Support services Reduced infrastructure requirements with proactive optimization services that can help lower or postpone infrastructure investments Increased business value of IT with complete transparency into ITs role as an enabler of business agility and a value generator for the business For More Information To learn more about SAP Enterprise Support, call your SAP representative or visit us on the Web at www.service.sap.com/enterprisesupport, www.service.sap.com/coe, and www.service.sap.com/enterpriseedition (user name and password are required).

50 094 788 (09/04) 2009 by SAP AG. All rights reserved. SAP, R/3, SAP NetWeaver, Duet, PartnerEdge, ByDesign, SAP Business ByDesign, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and other countries. Business Objects and the Business Objects logo, BusinessObjects, Crystal Reports, Crystal Decisions, Web Intelligence, Xcelsius, and other Business Objects products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Business Objects S.A. in the United States and in other countries. Business Objects is an SAP company. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specications may vary. These materials are subject to change without notice. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its aliated companies (SAP Group) for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.