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basics

Jill Hadfield Charles Hadfield

Oxfordhasics

Writing Simple Activities


ITLL H A D F I E L D C H A R LE S HA DF I E L D

OXJ.ORD
IJNIVERSITY PRESS

Contents
Foreword
AL AN M AL EY

Introductlon L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 tL L2 13 L4 15 16 L7 18 19 20 27. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Actlvities Greetings introductions and The alphabet Numbers Tellingthe time Personal information Countries Nationalities Locating objects Feelings Families Colours Shapes Partsof the body Describing people Clothes Rooms Furniture In town Directions In the market Shopping Foodand drink Leisure activities Daily routines lobs Housework Abilities Rules Describing actions1 Describing actions2

Foreword
There is a formidable range of materials published worldwide for However,many of teachers Englishas a ForeignLanguage. of thesematerials, especially thosepublishedin English-speaking that teachers countries,assume using them will be working with smallish classes and have abundant resourcesavailableto them. Also many, if not most, of thesematerials make implicit about the beliefsand valuesof the culturally-biased assumptions teachers and learners. This situation is ironic in view of the fact that the vast majority of Englishas a ForeignLanguage classrooms not correspondat all do are are to theseconditions.Tlpically, classes large,resources havevery few opportunitiesfor training and limited, and teachers of professional development. Also, the cultural assumptions vary quite teachers and learnersin many parts of the world may significantlyfrom thoseof materialswriters and publishers. this situation.The authors This book is an attempt to address presentthirty lessons elementarylevel,eachwith the same at methodological framework. The lessonsare explained in clear, accessible language, and none of them require sophisticated which resources. Instead,they call on the basichuman resources The language all teachers and learnersbring with them to class. and points coveredare onesfound in a typical elementarycourse, the topics are those which form part of everybody'sdaily lives,for example, families,homes,and leisureactivities. Most importantly, however,the book offers a framework for who lack training and support.The hope and the teachers expectationis that such teacherswill begin by following each step will increases, but, astheir confidence of a lessonquite closely, presented here,respondingto the adapt and add to the techniques particular needsand abilitiesof their learners. This is an important book: one of the few attempts to addressthe problemsof the'silent majority' of teachers worldwide who have to little or no training, and few resources work with.
AL AN M AL EY

Assumption University Bangkok,Thailand

lntroduction
Englishis taught all over the world, by all sorts of teachers all to sortsof learners. Schoolsand classrooms vary enormouslyin their wealth and their provision of equipment.Learners very are different from placeto place.But, whateverthe conditionsin which you are working, there is one resource which is universal and unlimited: the human mind and imagination.This is probablythe singlemost valuableteachingand learningresource we have.Nothing can replaceit. In eventhe most'hi-tech' environment,a lack of imagination and humanity will make the most up-to-dateand sophisticated resources seemdull; conversely, most simple resources be the most exciting the can and useful. We havebeen fortunate to spendquite a lot of our time working not only in hi-tech environmentswith computersand video,but alsoin classrooms where there is little more than blackboardand chalk and someout-of-datecoursebooks. Someof our most (as interestinglearningand teachingexperiences Confuciussaid,a teacheris'alwaysreadyto teach;alwaysreadyto learn') havebeen not in the comfortablewell-resourced small classrooms a of privatelanguage school,but in classrooms where only the minimum of equipmenthasbeen available. Equally,someof our most memorableteachingexperiences in'hi-tech' classrooms have beenwhen we haveabandoned cassette video or glossy the or coursebook and got to work with that most preciousresource of all, the learners'ownexperience and imagination. Teachers often haveto usematerialswhich are out of date,or contain subject-matter irrelevantto their particular group of learners. For example, havehad greatdifficulty explainingthe we conceptsof the fridge -freezerand microwave oven to Tibetans.In the sameway,learners who havespentall their livesin northern countries might have difficulty with an exercise from an African textbook which asksif they preferyam or cassava. over the last So few yearswe havebeen trying to designmaterialswhich can be usedin aswide a rangeof teachingsituationsaspossible. The activitieswe suggest asflexible asthe human imagination is are creative; they are'teacherresource material'which teachers be will ableto adjust to suit their particular environment.In thinking about universallyapplicable,'lo-techmaterialswe havecome up with a list of criteria that needto be met. The materialswill needto: be usablein largeclasses well as small. as be suitablefor adult learnersaswell as secondary learners, and if possibleeasilyadaptable a primary context. to be centredon the universals human experience. of cover the main languageskills and have a useful baseof grammar and topic vocabulary.

Introduction

to and thus be traditional enoughto be recognizable all teachers, give them a senseof security,while providing communicative activitiesfor learners. be non-threateningin the demandsthey make on learners. material'rather than books for learners. be teacher-based'resource are assume that no technicaland reprographicresources available, rather than the technical. and be basedon the human resource be culturally neutral,not context-bound,and thus flexibleand to easilyadaptable the teachers their own culture and teaching by context. be flexibleenoughto complementa standardsyllabusor coursebook.

SimpleWriting Activities
This book containsthirty activities, designed accordingto the criteria above,for developing the writing skill at elementarylevel. Eachactivity has three main stages: Lead-in-This introducesthe learnersto the topic, and focuses their attention. Organizingtexts-This stageprovidescontrolledwriting practice in preparationfor a freer writing task. Creating texts-This stagegivesthe learnersthe opportunity to in usethe knowledgethey haveacquiredin the previoustwo stages producing their own text. The teacherprovidesa contextand a reasonfor writing.

Lead-in

Writing is easier the learnersare preparedfor the task,and if if The purposeof the their imaginationsare stimulatedbeforehand. in lead-in is to'warm up'the learners, other words,to start them that thinking about the topic and practisingsomeof the language will be neededwhen they actuallycome to write.
aaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaoaaaa*aaoaaaar aaa

texts Organizing

The aim of this stageis to give the learnerscontrolledwriting practicebeforethey attempt a freer writing task.This is important In because language writing is different from that of speech. the of tend to be short or incomplete,and the speech, utterances language usedis often colloquial,and may break grammatical is rules.However,most written language more formal and elaborate, and follows certain conventions. The text organizationtechniques usedin this book are as follows:

Introduction

Completion-The learnersfill in the blanks in a text or a crossword puzzlewith an appropriateword or phrase.This techniquecan give learnerspracticein a particular language point, for example, placeprepositions. Describinga picture-The learners write a descriptionof a picture.They may then discuss best order in which to describe the the different elementswhich go to make up the picture. This gives them practicein organizinga spatialdescription. using a linking word, foining-Learners join words or sentences such as'and'or'but'. This techniquehelpslearnersto developthe skill of linking ideaslogically and writing more fluently. Matching-The learnershave to match the two separatehalvesof sentences which are written in the form of two lists.This technique helpslearnersto understandhow sentences constructedand are which words can go with other words. Reordering-Sentences textsare givento the learnersin or muddled order and they haveto rearrangethem in the correct order.Reorderingsentences usefulfor teachingword order,while is reorderingtextshelpslearnerspractisechoosinga logical sequence for sentences. Substitution-In this techniquea basicsentence framework is written on the board. The learnercan vary this by choosing differentwords or phrases certainpointb.This showslearners at how a basicsentence form may be usedwith slight variationsto express number of different meanings. a Writing from notes-The learnersare given notes to expand into text. This givesthem practicein arrangingtheir ideascoherently.

Greatingtexts

It is difficult to write when you don't know who you are writing to, or why. In real life we alwayshave a reasonfor writing: for example, answera letter,preparea shoppinglist, or make notes to for a talk. In the classroom there is often no apparentreasonfor writing beyond'The teachersaid do this for homework'.If, however,you provide the learnerswith a context for creating a written text, you can make the task much more concreteand interesting. There is a wide variety of techniques which you can use.The oneswe haveusedin this book are as follows: Writing from a picture-The learnersusea picture as a startingoff point for creatinga text. :i: Responding to a text-The learnersare given a text to read before they write, for examplea poem or a letter.The text actsas a source of inspiration,and usefulwords and phrases which they can usein their own writing. Alternatively, they may be askedto use their .

lntroduction

own textsfrom the'Creating texts'part of the lesson. Surveyand report-In this techniquethe writing task is preceded by a speaking task in which the learnershaveto gatherinformation from eachother and useit to write a report. This givesthem somethingconcreteto write about, and a definitepurposein writing. Visualization-The learnersclosetheir eyesand visualizea scene which you describe them. They then write about the scene they to have imagined. They may sharewhat they havewritten with anotherlearner. Learners can alsoact as eachother'saudience. This is the most immediateand direct way of providing the writer with a reader. There arevarious techniques which can be used: Write and do-The learnerswrite texts,for example, letter,a a of series instructions,or a descriptionof a scene. Other learners read them and respondin an appropriateway,for exampleby creatinga tableauof the scene. Write and draw-The learnersdraw a picture and write a descriptionof it. They either passtheir descriptionto another learnerwho has to draw a picture of it, or the picturesand descriptionsare put up in the classroom and the learnersmatch them. Write and guess-The learners write a descriptionor riddle for othersto read and guess personor object being described. the Teachers often setwriting for homework,and someof the activitiesin this book may be given for homework if time is short. However,they are really designed be done in class, that you to so can circulatewhile the learnersareworking, supply any vocabularlthey need,and corrector explainany mistakes they arise.It is as also an advantagefor learnersto receiveimmediate feedbackfrom one another on their writing.

Materials

A wide variety of text typesis usedin this book. Theseinclude descriptions, narratives, reports,instructions,lists,poems,and letters.This helpsto provide interestand equipsthe learnersto deal more effectivelywith different kinds of writing. Many activitiessuggest useof a poster.This is simply a text the written out in largeletters, a picture,on a big sheetof paper. If or you preparepostersbeforethe lesson, meansthat you do not it havethe time-consumingtask of writing or drawing on the board if while the lessonis in progress. This is a particular advantage you are not very confident about your drawing skills.It also meansthat

Introduction

you will not haveto write out the text, or draw the picture, again the next time you want to useit. Ifyou decideto useposters, to find a cheapsourceof sheets try of paper.In Madagascar, example,the teacherswe worked with for found the sheets paper usedfor wrapping vegetables the of in market were ideal for making posters. good way to fix postersto A the board is to pin a length of string along the top of the board like a clothes-line. You can then useclothes-pegs pin your postersto to the string! An alternativeto drawingson postersis drawingson smallerpieces of card (but still largeenoughfor all the learnersto see).Theseare usuallyknown as'flashcards'. They are usedin 1l 'Colours' and 24 'Daily routines'.

Gorrection

After someof the activitiesyou will want to correctthe learners' work in order to give them feedback about their progress. can be It very discouraging learnersif their work comesback coveredin for red ink, and this can have a destructive effect on their creativity, enthusiasm, and confidence. addition, if everymistakeis In correctedby the teacher, this robs the learnerof a valuablelearning experience-how to spot and correcttheir own mistakes. You can reducethe'big red pen' effect,and help learnersto self-correct by using the following strategies: Working with learnersas they are writing, supplying vocabulary and pointing out mistakes. Getting learnersto work togetheror read eachother'swork and help eachother with mistakes. When you correctlearners'work,usesymbolsin the margin to indicatethat there is a mistakein that line rather than correcting the mistakeyourself.It is then up to the learnerto work out what waswrong, and what the correctversionshouldbe. Usefulsymbols are: well done

o
T

organization

Sp spelling
tense

Pr preposition WO word order

lntroduction

A Ag P V Gr

article (singular/plural, etc.) agreement punctuation vocabulary other grammar mistake

work, but You may not want to correcteverymistakein a learner's preferto concentrate one specificareaat a time, for example, on If tenses, spelling,or prepositions. you adopt this systemyou will need to givelearnersa little time after you hand back their writing tasksto work out what was wrong, write in the correct version, If and askyou for help if they still do not understand. most of the you may want to devotea classmade the sameor similar mistakes, lessonor part of a lessonto remedialwork on this area.

Buildinga lesson
There are four companion books to this one,PresentingNew Activities, Language, SimpleListeningActivities,SimpleSpeaking and SimpleReadingActivities.AII of thesealso contain thirty activities,and in all five books the topics and the language activity I in presented So, and practisedcorrespond. for example, all five books is about'Greetingsand introductions' and activity 30 The activitiesin eachbook are is about'Describingactions'. This meansthat you graded,following a basicstructural syllabus. using material of can designyour own lessonor sequence lessons needs from any,or all, of the books,dependingon your learners' and the time available.

Activities

Greetings and introductions


L ANGUAGE

Hello. My name's What's your name? Nice to meet you. Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: writing from a picture. The dialoguebelow; the picturesbelow,on postersor on the board. Prepare posterif you are using one. the 30 minutes.

T E C HNIQUES

MAT ERIAL S P R E PARAT ION TIME GUIDE

Lead-in

Walk around the classintroducing yourself to the learners.Use 'Hello. My name's What'syour name?' Put up thesepictures.

Hello. Mg namos Be"ur. Mq noru"ts Kak . " Niceto neefgort. \itr."tb3our yron,?
l- mecl- uorr

Ni."to \ \- +ooY

Tell the learnersto repeatthe dialogue.Then cover,or rub out, the names,and get the learnersto repeatthe dialogueagain,using their own names.

texts: Organizing completion

Write this gappeddialogueon the board: FEN Hello. KATE My name'e FEN Lo -you Oen. -your NiceLoo. meeN -. ?

Ask the learnersto copy the dialogueand fill in the gaps.

Greetings introductions and

When everyonehas finished, write in the missing words on the board and get the learners checktheir work. to

Cleatlng texts: writing fiom a picture

pictures. the learners copythem and to write in Put up these Get to the dialogue.

Ask one or two pairs of learnersto read out their sentences inthe correct order, one taking Ben'spart and the other Kate's(get them to usetheir own namesif they prefer).

a aa aa aa ao ea aaaaa

aaaaa a t a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o t a a a a t a

Gomment

If appropriate, changethe namesto more familiar local names.

LANG UAGE TECHNI QUES

Theletters the alphabet. of Organizing texts: reordering. writing from a picture. Creating texts:

MATERIALS

Thejumbledwordsbelow;the pictures below, a posteror on the on board. Prepare poster the ifyou areusing one. 40 minutes.
aaaaaaaaaaaaa

P REPARATION TIM E GUIDE

raa aaat aaaaaaa

aaaaaa t a a a o o n a a a a

Lead-in

(i.e. 7- Spellout this dialogue pronounce each letterseparately): H-e-l-lW-h -a -l'-s


n

M- y

n-a-m-e' n-a-m-e? K-a-t,-e. y-o-u.

D-e-n.

y-o-u-r

M-y
N- i- c -

n-a-m-e'-e

whenthey Tellthe learners put up theirhandandtell the class to guess woro. a


aa aaaaaeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaat a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaonaao

texts: Organizing
leoldeling

Write these iumbledwordson theboard: LOLHE NEF


CEIN

TEME OYU TEKA

N/EAN'9 OT

YM
AMNE

YM UYOR g'THWA E9'MNA

Dividethe learners pairs,A andB.AskA to look at the into iumbledwordsin the first columnandto sort themout. B shoulc do the samefor the second column.

10

Thealphabet

When they have finished, askA to dictate his or her words to B, who should write them down. Then get B to do the samefor A. Tell them to make a dialogue from the words.

Creatingtexts: wdting fiom a pictule

pictures: Put up these

Tell the learnersto copy the pictures and write the dialogue in the sPaces. Get learnersto compare their dialogueswith others in the class.

Gomment

Learnerscan write their own dialoguesusing different names,and dictate them to one another.

l1

Numbers
L ANGUAGE T ECHNIQUES

Numbers. Organizingtexts:completion. Creatingtexts:respondingto a text. The crosswordbelow a blank versionwith cluesand a versionwith answers, two posters; poem below,on a posteror on the on the board; examples the objectsin the poem. of Adapt the poem if necessary. Make the crosswordposters, and the poem posterif you are usingone. Collect examples the objectsin the poem. of 50 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION

TI M E G UI DE

Lead-in

1,

Give the learnerssomesimple'mental arithmetic'with numbers up to 20. For example,ask them to add 6 and 4, and t8 and 2. You could make this into a competition betweentwo teamsif you like.

Organizing texts: completion


Across 1 6x2 4 b+11 5 1+2 7 b-7 O 3x5 I 3x3 12 20-3 15 6x3 16 7x2 Down 1 16-3 2 1O+1 3 3+4 5 5x2 6 3+2 10 4xZ 11 1Ox2 12 12-6 15 BxZ 14 7-5 16 2x2

Put up the blank versionof the crossword. Make surethat the learnersunderstandhow to fill in a crossword.

3 4

Tell the learnersto copy the grid, but not the clues. Ask them to completethe crosswordon their own, and then comparetheir answers pairs. in Put up the versionwith answers.

T2

Numbers

a a a ta a a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaoa

aaaaaoaaaa

Creatingtexts: responding a text to

Put up this poem. (If necessary, changesomeof the objectsto thoseyour learnersare more likely to havein their schoolbags.) ln 1am's echoolbag ONEEnqlieh book, MO wooden rulers, THREE claee nolebooke, FOUK blackpene, FIVEchocolaLe biscuits, 1lX paVer hankiee, 9EVENpoVcaoeettee, EIGHT coloured ?encile, NINEbus tickeL6, TEN oiicky sweels, Show the classan exampleof eachobject in the poem, and askthe learnersto identifr it. Tell them they may use their own languageif they don't know the word in English.

7 I

Readthe poem, holding up an exampleof eachobject asyou read eachline. Get the classto read the poem in chorus.Then ask for a volunteer to come out and hold up eachobject asthe rest of the classread the poem. Ask the learnersto tell you about other things they have in their Tell schoolbags. them they may usetheir own language they don't if know the word in English.Translate into English their suggestions and write them on the board. Ask the learnersto write a poem like'In Sam'sschoolbag', called'In my schoolbag'.

10

l3

Tetting time the


It's o'clock.

LANGUAGE What time is it?

Numbers. rECHNreuEs Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: responding to a text. MATERIALS Notes and clock faces, postersor on the board; diary pages, a on on posteror on the board. pREIARArroN Ifnecessary, adapt the notesto suit your learners'ages cultures. and Prepare postersif you are using them. the

TrMEGUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

Revisetimes by drawing a clock face on the board, drawing in the hands at different times, and asking the learnersto tell you what time it is. Use: What time is it? It's o'clock.

Organizing texts: completion

Put up thesenotesand clock faces: )ue, seeyou afuer schoolaN-. Helen, meeNyou allhe cinema -. af, Tom,meetr lor lunchaN me ie the meeNinq atr-. Jamee, . Helen )ue Tom James

T4

Telling time the

i6t
(If necessary teach'see','school','meet','cinema','lunch', and 'meeting'.) Tell the learnersto match the notes and the clock faces. 3 4 5 Get the learnersto copy the notes and write in the times in words. Check the answerswith the whole class. Put up thesenotes: 1am, Tom, -you )ue, Helen, Lhe 6 7 youatthe afLer me for at eiqhN o'clock.Tom. aNfour o'clock. )ue. at lwelvefitleen. Helen.

ie al ten lhirty. Mark.

Ask the learnersto copy the notes and fill in the gapswith appropriate vocabulary items from the first set of notes. Check the answerswith the whole class.

Creatingtexts: respondlngto a text

Put up thesediarypages: Meet 1am. Teaaeue Film-b.l5. Cinema. Meelina-3.2O. TellTom. Dinner wilh James.HuanaShan reslauranN -7.30. Arranqelo 6ee 7ue after work-6.OO Casablanca Cafe. Tell the learnersto write notes to Sam,Tom, Iames,and Sue making thesearrangements. Ask some learnersto read out their notes to the whole class. 15

tlA

Personal information

LANGUAGE My nameis -. Iam-. Iama I am from I live at My hobbies are TEcHNreuEs and -.

Organizingtexts:reordering. Creating texts: responding to a text.

MATERTALS Jumbledsentences; letter,on a posteror on the board. IREIARATToN Prepare posterif you are using one. the TrME GUIDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

Ask the learnersif they have,or haveeverhad, a penpal.Ask some questionsabout their penpals, example: for What is his or her name? Where is he or shefrom?

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaa t a a

Organizing texts: reoldering

Write thesejumbled sentences the board: on namemy Johnie. liveI aN79 Abbey Koad )eneqalfrom I am learner l'm a 15l am hobbies my dancinq are owimminq and Tell the learnersto write them out correctly.Remind them that eachsentenceshould begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop.When they havefrnished, them to comparetheir answers get in pairs.

Ask individual learners read out their answers the whole class. to to

16

Personal information

aa a aa aa taa aa aa aaaaaaaaaaaalaat aoaaaat aaaa a a a o a

Gleating texts:

Put up thisletter:
DearVenpal, LeLme inf,roduce myoelf. l'm 2l yearoold. My name'e 1anjayJhabvala. I'mfrom lndia. l'm a poolman, I liveaN25 City Koad,Delh| My hobbiee cyclin4 are and football. Wrile and tell me all aboul youreelfl

responding a text to

Ask the learnersto rewrite the letter, putting the sentences a in job, better order (name,age,country,address, hobbies).Draw the letter layout below on the board and tell them to follow it.

When the learnershave rewritten the lettet ask them to write a reply, telling the penpal all about themselves. T7

^ r\-/t Gountries

LANGUAGE 'Countries'(for example,India, Greece, fapan) and'food' (for example,curry, pizza, hamburgers) vocabulary areas. - is/ are from -. rEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:substitution Creating texts: responding to a text.

MATERTALS Substitutiontable,on a posteror on the board; menu, on a poster or on the board. pREpARArroN Preparethe postersif you are using them. TrME GUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead{n

1,

Ask the learnersif they have ever tried any of the fbllorving: curry, pizza,hamburgers, Ask them if thev know sushi,or chop suey. which countriesthesekinds of food come from.

Olganizing texts:

Put up this substitution table.


Tizza Chopeuey Voueeaka Goulaeh lamburqero
ta

substitution

from

lndia. Greece. Ja?an. Italy, China. Hunqary. the U)A.

are

Curry
Suehi 3 4

Tell the learnersto match the countries rvith the kinds of food, and then write sevencorrect sentences. Check the answerswith the whole class.

;;; 6;;;il;;'i;i;;'''''''''''';'' ;; ili,;;;,,


respondlng to a text TNTERNATTO\,A,, <=3-irRANT. webomeNo TheRENDEZVOU9 Fromltaly,try our taoty Vizzae. From)wilzer.a.a, ne vrinqyou A from fondue. FromGreece, moussaka. Mmm.Oelicic-e. epecialily Turkey, Andfrom Thailand, kebabe. epicyf'eh curry.

18

Countries

Explain any new vocabulary for example,'tasty','fondue','delicious', 'speciality','kebab', and'spicy'. Put the learners in pairs and ask them to discusshow they would lay out the menu to make it read and look better. Go round and help them while they are doing this. Collect suggestions from the classand write up a new more attractive menu on the board. Ask the learnerswhat they would chooseto eat.

Put the learners in groups of three or four and ask them to design their own international menu. When they have finished, get them to swap menus. Each group should then discusswhat they would choosefrom their new menu. Write thesespeech bubbleson the board if you think they need suPport:

Mmm.lthink l'lllry -. Whal about you?

eounds delicioue.

aa aa aa aa aa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaa a a a a a l a a

Comment

If appropriate,changefood items and their countriesof origin to suit your learners'cultureand generalknowledge.

t9

Nationalities
LANGUAGE 'Countries'(for example, Canada,fapan, China) and'nationalities' (for example,Canadian, fapanese,Chinese) vocabulary areas. TEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: responding to a text.

MATERIALs Lists and sentences, a posteror on the board; letters,on a poster on or on the board. eREIARATIoN Prepare postersif you are using them. the TrME GUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

1,

Ask the learnersabout the nationalities of famous people they are likely to know; for example,pop stars,sportsmen and women, and political leaders.

texts: Otganizing completion

Putup three lists, example: for


Country Canada Japan China Mexico )witzerland Thailand Venezuela Morocco Rueeia Nationality Venezuelan 9wise Canadian Thai Japanese Kueeian Moroccan Chinese Mexican Languagea French, German, and ltalian SVanieh )oanish Frenchand Enqlieh Chineee French and Arabic Kussian Japanese Thai

fuk the learnersto match country nationality, and languages. 3 Put up some gap-fill sentences the ones below Tell the learners like to copy them, filling in the gapswith words from the lists: Carlosis -. 9u RonqRonqie is Aeqonio a -. Jameoie a -from Maria ie ana _. He comeefrom Acapulco. the livesin Shanqhai. He liveein Caracae. Monlreal. opeako He and -.

and comeofrom Luqano. She opeako Marrakech.)he epeaks and -.

Jamilais -,from

20

Nationalities

Creatingtexts: responding a text to

Put up these letters:


Hil I likemusicand frlme.I soeak and -. yeareold.I'mCanadian.live 26 My name'o I at Jean.l'm23 Avenue Ternes, de Vontreal.Howaboul vou?Lel me inlroduce mveelf.

Hellol I livein thanqhai, biqcily in the easl of -.I'm a Chineee. My hobbieo readin4 are and badminton.likeEnqliohl opeak I I Vy and a little Enqlieh. name'e eonq Lin.Howabout vou? Explain that the sentences both letters are in the wrong order. in Go through the first one with the whole class,asking the learnersto reorderthe sentences. Get them to do the samewith the other letter, working on their own. Ask for volunteersto read out their lettersto the rest of the class. Suggest correctionsif necessary. Ask the learnersto chooseone of the two letters and write a reply to it. They can use languageand sentence patterns from the letters to help them.
aataeaaaaaaaaaaaa

Gomment

If you feel that your learners are not familiar with the ones prese.rt"d here, substitute different countries and nationalities, and adapt the letters.

21

8
L ANGUAGE

Locating obiects
'Everyday objects'(for example, bag,vase,rose) and'classroom furniture' (for exampleboard, chair, table) vocabularyareas. Placeprepositions(for example, next to, near). on,

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:reordering. Creatingtexts:write and guess. Five sentences about objectsin your classroom; description,on a posteror on the board. preparethe posterifyou are using one. Prepare sentences; the 40 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Lead-in

7,

in Write the first parts of the sentences about your classroom a column on the left-hand sideof the board and the secondparts in jumbled order on the right-hand side,for example: Theblackboard ie My ba6 io TheIable is on lhe chair. Lo nexL lhe door. nearLhewindow.

Ask the learnersto match the two parts to make sentences describingthe classroom.

texts: Organizing leoldering

Put up this description: (1)On the lable ie a va6ewith one red rose in it. (2) Theroom ie the door.(4) quibebi7.(3) Thereare r,wowindows oppooite (5) Lanqinq from Nheceilinq, overlhe tableare someballoone, you'.(6) 1eLween the Next to lhe cakeie a card eayinq'l love (7) windows a r,able. ln fronL of Lhevaseis a biq cake. is

22

Locating objects

Ask the learnersto read the text. Explain'vase','rose','balloons', 'cake', and'card' if necessary. them what is going to happenin Ask the room. 3 Get them to start drawing a picture of the room. Ask them how the text could be reorderedto make it easier. Number the sentences and get the learnersto decidewhat the bestorder would be to make the descriptionclearer. Go through their suggestions when they havefinished(2,3,6, 1,7, 5, 4 is the best,though 2, 3, 6, 4, 1,7,5 is possible). the learners Ask if any of the sentences be joined with-and'. can

Creatingtexts: wlite and guess

Tell the learnersa riddle about an object in your classroom and ask them to guess it is, for example: what It's next to the windoq on the wall abovethe table.What is it? another example: It's on the table next to the door.

6 7

Get the learnersto write five similar riddles about objectsin the room, without mentioning the namesof the objects. When they havefinished,put the learnersin pairs and get them to read their riddles to eachother.Their partnersshould guess what the objectsare. Ask for volunteersto read one of their riddles to the whole class. and let the class guess what the object is.

23

Feelings
LANGUAGE 'Feelings'vocabulary area(for example, hot, thirsty, h"ppy). And, or, but. rEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:joining. Creating texts: survey and report.

MATERTALs Notes;a list of eight to ten adjectives the'feelings'vocabulary in area. pREnARATToNPrepare your list of adjectives. rrME GUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

7.

Ask a few learnersabout their feelings,for example,'Areyou happy?Write their answerson the board in the following patterns: [Name] is [Name] isn't[Name]is For example: Vark ie hoNand thirely. Anna isn't anqryor bored. Kale is hunqrybut haVpy. and -. or -. but -.

Explain that'and'is usedto join two feelings that are similar,for sentence'or' example, two bad onesor two good ones.In a negative is usedinsteadof 'and'.'But' is usedto join two contrastingfeelings.

6;;;;i;i;;i;i;;1iliil''i''

#,ii.il;;;;;;;' on board: the


Timl hunqrylthirety Marial not anqryl cold Annal tired/ NhirelylhaVpy tsenlLiredl exciled 1aral nol Liredl bored Ask the learnersto expandthem into sentences using'and','or',or 'but'. 4 Ask the learnersto make two sentences, to describethemselves one and the other to describethe person sitting next to them.

24

Feelings

aaaaaa

aaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaa

Greatingtexts: suryeyand report

Write the'feelings'adjectives havepreparedon the board.Ask you the learnersquestions about their feelingsusing the adjectives, for example: Who is huppy today? How many of you are hot? How many of you are cold? Write the totals on the board, for example: Ha?py Hot Cold bored An7ry 32 37 1 O O

Tell the learnersto write the results as a survey,for example: -t ln ClaeeThree oday,lhirtry wo Veople happv. t are ThirIy-oeven ie are peoVle hot, bul one ?eroonie coldl No-one boredor an6ry.

z)

1-0

Famities
On the right; in the middle; on the left. He/she'sa.

LANGUAGE 'Families'vocabulary area(for example,mother, father, brother).

rECHNreuEs Organizing texts:reordering. Creatingtexts:writing from a picture. MATERIALS Photographs learners'families;board drawing of your family; of description,on a posteror on the board; sentence frames. pREIARArroN At the end of the previouslesson, the learnersto bring a ask photographof their family to the next lesson. Make a sketchfor a board drawing of your family. Spenda little time preparingwhat you're going to sayabout eachmember of your family. Preparethe posterif you are using one. TrME GUrDE 40 minutes

Lead-in

Draw a picture of your family on the board.As you draw,talk about eachmember,for example: This is a picture of my family. This is me ldraw sefl -in the middle, look, and here is my husbandstandingnext to meldraw husband) the right are my husband's On parents.[draw parents) This is his mother, and this is his father.They'reboth teachers ... etc.

Constructingtexts: leoldering

Put up this text:

(1 ) Thisis our weddinq phobo. (2) On the left,are my molher and father-bolh 65 and retired
now.
(7\

That's us-in the middleof the pictrure.

(4) Next to my parenleare my brolhere-Vichael and his wife Jill,and Hu4hand hie wifeAnne. 26

dffi frHgE

Families

."S* %d

ggH a B '$

and (5) Michael an enqineer, Huqhand Anneare both docfors. ie and her Felicily' siot'er, ie (6) Nexi lo my faLher-in-law my wife'o oaoyqon. are (7) Next io Felicily, t'hefar riqht of NheVicIure, my wife'e on and John. Lynn cousine, queot'-my (B) Al the end of Nherow,nex| lo tlugh,ie a ourprioe sisler Susan' family-her motherand f ather are (9) 0n lhe riqht'ie my wife'o nexN her' No et'anding wedding' bu| in (O) eueanlivee America, ehecameoverfor Nhe Ask the learnersto read the text and to try to draw the photo. Ask were in a different order. if them if it would be easier the sentences how the text could be better arrangedso that the reader Discuss can visualizeit better. 3 4 Get the learnersto write down the order they think would be the clearest. Working out from the middle from the class. Collect suggestions the the towards left and thentowards right (1,3,2,4,5,8, L0,9,6, the 7), or towardsthe right and then towards left (1, 3, 9, 6,7,2,4, 5, 8, 10) are probablythe best.

.' ".;" ;;;iil;'t;;il;' writing frOma picture

to rell on *'i. ;h;;;;;;;".. frames theboard. therearners use about them writesentences theirphotos. to
My My My io on NheriqhN. ie on Ihe lefl, of ie in Ihe middle the phoNoqraph. b mY-. ie mY-.

behindmy ln fronNof my Hiel her nameis Hel ehe's I'el she'sa -, 6

Get the learnersto work in pairs,describingtheir photographsto eachother.

27

1tI
L ANGUAGE

cotours
'Colours'vocabularyarea(for example, blue, red, green). What colour is the -? It's -.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:reordering. Creatingtexts:respondingto a text. Eight flashcards the illustrationsbelow; poem with lines in of jumbled order,on a posteror on the board; poem with lines in the correct order,on a posteror on the board. Make the flashcards. Make the postersif you are using them. 50 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

P R EPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Hold up the flashcards one by one, and askthe learnerswhat colour eachthing is.

5 ,q No&
blue red eea apVle

f fi

Fix the flashcards the board in a row. Write the name of each to colour abovethe picturesand the name of eachthing below it. For example:

Put the learnersin pairs and askthem to think of as many other things as they can which are the samecoloursasthe things on the flashcards. Supplyvocabularyif they need it. Write the learners' suggestions below the flashcards.

texts: Organizing reordedng

Teachthesewords with quick sketches the board:'rose','poppy', on 'swan', 'pear', 'grass', 'cloud','fountain','barley', 'clouds', and 'twilight'. Someof the things may be unfamiliar to your learners. fust explain that they are Englishflowers/birds/ fruit/ crops.If you can,try to find a local flower, fruit etc. that is similar.

28

Colours

.-n- #*

lrE

3 $ Y & A
Put up this poem. Explain that the lines in the left-hand column are alreadyin the correctorder,but thosein the right-hand column are in jumbled order.Also tell the learners that the poem rhymes. What io pink? WhaN pink? rooeie pink is A by lhe founlain'e brink. What ie red?A Voppy'o red What, blue? oky ie blue ie The Whatr white? ewaniEwhiLe is A WhaI ie yellow? Teare yellow are Whal ie qreen? qraooio qreen The WhaL violet? is Cloude violel are Whal ie oran1e? Why, oranqe an in eailinq the liqhL. ln iNobarleybed. ln the eummer Nwili4ht.. Juet,an oranqel Where cloude Lhe froat lhrouqh. Kichand riVeand mellow, WiIh emallflowersbelween.

Ask the learnersto put the lines in the correct order. '

Creatingtext: responding a text to

;'

;;; ;;;;;; with the lines in the correctorder. (It is by the Victorian poet, Christina Rossetti). What ia pink? WhaN Vink? rooeie pink ie A gy lhe founLain'e brink. WhaN red?A poppy'e ie red ln ite barleybed. Whal ie blue? oky ie blue The Where clouds the float throuqh. WhaN white?A ewanis whiLe io Sailinq Lhelight. in What is yellow? Tearsare yellow Kichand riVeand mellow. What ie qreen? qraooio qreen The With emallfrowere belween. is What, violetr? Clouds are violet ln trheeummer Nwilight. is WhaL orange? Why, oranqe an Justran oranqel

Ask the learnersto write their own poem on the samepattern, using the words and ideasthey collectedin the Lead-in.Show them how the pairs of lines should be structured: Whatr -? is ie/ are

Tell them that their poemsdon't haveto rhyme! I Ask for volunteersto read out their poemsto the rest of the class.

29

L2
L ANGUAGE

shapes
'Shapes' (for example, square,round, long) and'colours' (for example,brown, red, black) vocabulary areas. And, with.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:substitution. Creatingtexts:write and guess. Exercises, a posteror on the board. on Make the posterif you are using one. 40 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Lead-in

7.

Describetwo or three of things in the room, for example: It's squareand brown with four legs. It's small and round and red,with money inside. what you are describing(table,purse). Get the learnersto guess

texts: Organizing substitution

Write a substitution table on the board like the one below. Ask the from the table. learnersto write five sentences red. An 000Ke t6 tonq and Ihick. a??te are 6quare black. yellow. bananas round blackboard Ihin. pencil

Go round the class and checkthe learners'work.

30

shapes J-

12
t-

Greating texts: write and guess

Put up theseexercises: A Ioin theseshort sentences into one longer sentence using'and': yellow. lonq.l|'ecuryed. Itr'o ll'o lL'sblack.lt'o oquare.ll'o biq. ffaL.lt'eeilver. lL'eround.lL'e B Join theseshort sentences into one longer sentence using'with': It'o lon6and thin and round.lt hae a pointed end. ll'e lonqand veryNhin and eilver.llhae a poinl al oneendand a veryomallholeat,Ihe oLher. lt's roundand qold.lt hae a holein Lhemiddle. Ask the learnersto do them.

with the whole class. Check the sentences Ask the learnersif they what the objectsare (A banana,board, coin; B pencil, can guess needle,ring). Put the learnersinto pairs and ask them to make up some riddles of their own like the ones in the exercise. When eachpair has made up at least two riddles, join the pairs into groups of four and ask them to read out their riddles for the other pair to guess.

6 7

3l

13
L ANGUAGE T E C H NIQUES

Parts thebody of
'Partsof the body'vocabularyarea(for example, foot, head,knee). joining. Organizing texts: Creatingtexts:write and draw Drawing and descriptionof a robot, on a posteror on the board; two pieces paper for eachof the learners. of Make the posterif you are using one. 40 minutes.

M A T ERIAL S

P R E PARAT ION T I ME GUIDE

Lead-in

7.

Call out partsof the body,for example,'Foot!','Head!','Knee!'Tell the learnersto point to that part of their body,as quickly as they can.Increase your speedasyou go on.

texts: Organizing matchingandioining

Put up thesepicturesand descriptionsand ask the learnersto match them.

1 ThisroboL has a aquare headand a roundbody.lloarmeand leqoare rectanqular. has lrian7ularhandeand feel. lt 2 Thisrobol hae a lrian7ularhead.lts bodyio aquare and it, has roundarmo and reclanqular leqo. 3 Thierobol has a roundheadand a lrianaularbodv. has ll reclanqular armo and leqe.

32

Parts the or body 1- 3


3 4
( Checkthe answers with the class. 1-B, 2-C,3-A). Put up this robot and the description of it.

lLe bodyio reclanqular Its handeand feet are Lrianqular

and wilh

roundeyeeand af,rian7ular mouTn. it, has ten finqeroon each hand. iNhaefour arms and Lhree le4o,

Therobol hao a oquarehead

Ask the learners match the sentence to halvesin the description, joining them with'and' or'with'. 5 Ask them what they think is the best order for the sentences to make a description of the picture. This is probably: The robot has a squarehead with round eyesand a triangular mouth. Its body is rectangular and it has four arms and three legs.Its hands and feet are triangular and it has ten fingers on eachhand (i.e. describingfrom the top downwards).

Creatingtexts: wdte and dlaw

6 7

Give eachlearner two sheetsof paper.Tell them to draw their own robot on one sheet, and to write a descriptionof it on the other. When they have finished, put them in pairs. Tell them to give the description, but not the drawing, to their partner. Their partner should read the description and try to draw the robot. They can then compare their drawings.

33

1r4
L ANGUAGE

peopte Describing
'Describingpeople'(for example, tall, slim),'parts of the body' (for example,hair, face,nose), and'colours' (for example,blonde, blue, black) vocabulary areas. Organizing texts: writing from notes. Creating texts: visualization. Police poster,on a poster or on the board. Make the poster if you are using one. 40 minutes.

T ECHNIQUES

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

aa aa aa aa. aaaaaaaat aaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Lead-ln

Ask the learnersto closetheir eyesand to think of a famous person. Tell them to think of what the person loolcslike. Then they should open their eyesand describehim or her to the person sitting next to them, who should try to guesswho it is.

aa aa aa aaaaaoaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a o a a a a a a o a a a a a

texts: Organlzlng writing fiom notes

Put up this police poster and write the notes besideit on the board:

Lall elim lonqcurly blonde hair roundface blueeyee lonqnooe blackdreee

34

peopre14 Describing
3 Write this outline description on the board. Ask the learnersto expandthe notesbesidethe posterinto a descriptionbasedon the outline: Tolice lookinq a womanlael seenin a red car nearWesI are for StreeL. -heiqhr -ehaVe -hair -f ace -eye5 -no5e -cloNhee. Anyonewhoeeeslhe womanehouldconlacNLhe police immediately, 4 Ask somelearnersto read out their descriptions. Discussdifferent ways of describing the woman, for example: The woman is tall and slim with long curly blonde hair, a round face,blue eyesand a long nose.Sheis wearing a black dress. or: The woman is tall and slim. Shehas long, curly blonde hair and a round face,with blue eyesand a long nose.Sheis wearing a black dress.

Creating texts: visualization

Ask the learnersto visualizetheir ideal man or woman. Ask them what he or shewould look like. (With younger children you can askthem to imagine fairy-talecharacters, example,a prince or a for princess.)Elicit somevocabularyand write it on the board. Ask learnersto write a short descriptionof the person. Put the learnersin pairs,or groups of three,to comparetheir descriptions. Ask the groups to report back to the class,for example:'Sara'sideal man is tall and dark, but mine is blonde with a beard.'

6 7 8

35

1-5 ctothes
jacket,jeans),'colours'(for LANGUAGE 'Clothes'(for example, sweater, example, red, green,blue), and'describingpeople'(for example, tall, small, fat) vocabulary areas. TEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:reorderingand joining. Creating texts: write and do.

MATERIALS Sentences, a posteror on the board; a bag of clothesfor dressing on up asrobbers;anotherbag,marked'money'. eREIARATToN Make the posterif you are using one.Prepare clothes. the TrMEGUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

7-

Divide the classinto two teams.Chooseand sayan item of clothing that one of the learnersis wearing,for example,'ared shirt'.The first team to saythe name of the person wearing that item getsa point. Continue for about ten items of clothing.You can let a volunteerfrom the classcall out items of clothing.

Organizing texts: reordering and joining

Put up thesesentences. the learners Ask what they think the best order for the sentences would be. Tell them to write out the sentences the best order,and to combine someof them with in 'and'. 1 Theolher had a red eweater. jacket and blue jeane. 2 Thelall man had a qreen 3 lle had blacklrousere. 4 | eawtwo younqmen runnin4 downLheeLreetat, abouLeix o'clock. 5 DoLhmenwerewearinq trainers. 6 Theol,herwas smallerand falLish. 7 )ne waeNall. B le was quiteelim. 9 Doth menhad shorl brownhair.

36

ctothes -L J
3 Put them in pairs and get them to read eachothers'descriptions. from the classand agreeon the best order for Collect suggestions (4,8, 7,6,9,2, 1,3,5 is probably bestorder.I the sentences. the and 3 can be combinedwith'and'. and so can 7 and 8.)

4r

Creatingtexts: write and do

Tell the learnersthat you need some actors,and askfor four or five volunteers. Ask them to come outsidethe door with you. Tell them that they arebank robbers,and that they are going to act out a robbery. Give them the bag of clothesyou have brought in, and ask They can also swapsomeof their own them to disguise themselves. is clothesif they like. Then tell them that the classroom a bank, and that you are a cashier. You will be sitting at your desk.After one minute they should run in and demand money. You will give it to them, and they should take it and run out again. and tell them,'This is a bank and I am the Go back into the class a cashier.'Ask few learnersto come up and stand in a queueat the desk.Pretendto be dealingwith the first'customer'when the 'robbers'runin.

When the'robbers'havetakenthe money and gone out again,ask the classto discussin pairs what they saw.Ask them if they can remember what the robbers were wearing, and then tell them to write a descriptionof what they sawfor the police. When the robbershavechangedinto their normal clothesand come back into the room, tell them to try and rememberwhat they were all wearing,and write a descriptiontoo. what Get the learnersto work in pairs or small groups and discuss they havewritten. Ask them if all their descriptionsof the robbers are the same.

about the descriptionsfrom the whole class. Get feedback

37

LG Rooms
L ANGUAGE

'Rooms' vocabulary area (for example,living-room, bedroom, kitchen). On the right; on the left. Placeprepositions.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizing texts: matching. Creating texts: visualization. Picturesof houses, a posteror on the board; plan of a flat, on a on posteror on the board. Make the postersif you are using them. 40 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaa o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Lead-in

7. Put up these pictures:

Make sure the learnersknow the words for the different kinds of house.Ask them which they would like to live in most, and why.

Organizing texts: matchlng

Put up the plan ofa flat, and the halfsentences:

""'-

38

1-6 Rooms
Thelivin7-room t9 ThekiLchen ThebaLhroom ThekiLchen Thelivinq-room Thebedroom ThebaLhroom next lo Lhe bedroom. next lo Ihe kitchen. at the endof Nhehall. on the lefI. belween the living-room lhe bathroom. and belween lhe bedroom and lhe kitchen. on lhe riahLof the hall.

Get the learnersto match sentence halvesto make true sentences about the plan. They should mention all the rooms in the flat. 3 4 Tell them to arrangetheir sentences make a description of to the flat. Ask some of the learnersto read out their descriptionsto the rest of the class.

Creating texts: visualization

Ask the learners choosea housefrom the first poster.Get them to to closetheir eyesand visualizewhat it would be like inside. Ask them questionssuch as: How many rooms are there? What are the namesof the rooms?

6 7

Tell them to open their eyesand write a description of their imaginary house. Put the learnersin pairs. They should read their descriptions to their partners, who should try and guesswhat kind of home they havedescribed.

39

17
L ANGUAGE

Furniture
'Furniture' (for example,sofa, table, bed) and'rooms' (for example, living-room, kitchen, bedroom) vocabulary areas. Placeprepositions.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: write and draw. Drawing and descriptionof room, on a posteror on the board. Make the poster if you are using one. 40 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoaa a a a a a a a a a a l

Lead-in

Write this substitution tableon the board:


There is ign'l are aren'l
i n l he a eofa eome table bed any hal l . cooKer cupboardo chaire armchairs

livinq-room. kitchen. bedroom.

Ask the learnersto make sentences orally that are true for the flat house where thev live. or
a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa t a t a a a a o a a a a a o a a a a

texts: Organizing completion

Put up this drawing and extract from a letter:

CHEST OF

WARDROBE

DRAWERS

BOOKSHELVES

40

L7 Furniture
qivenme a room on Lhe eecond, . . . and Nhey've I'oor.l'm very wiLhit. lI'e quile a biq roomand very liqht,, Lhere becauee Vleaeed Lhe are lwo windowe overlookinq qarden.Vlydeokie the windowe my bedio aqainstNhe There'e a' and, wall-Lhe deek. armchair Nhedeskand -Lhe a chairNhere'o wardroD: -.Lhem, Nhere'e chesLof drawerowilh bookehelvee a it. Everythinq needreallyl I Write theseprepositionson the board: near (x2) oVpooiNe next between behi nd

Tell the Iearners fill in the blankswith the correct prepositions. to

4 5

with the whole class. Check the answers Discusshow the text is organized.Ask the learners: What did the letter writer describefirst? Why do you think she chosethat? Ask them how the writer made it easyto visualizethe room. r Th: writer described most important things in the room first-th, the windows and the deskbetweenthem-the things that would calc: your eyewhen you went in. Shethen went on to describervhere other things were in relation to the windows and the desk.)

Creating texts: write and dlaw

Ask the learnersto imagine that they havemoved into a ner'-r....:: or redecorated room in their house.(For youngerlearners.-.ru a can askthem to imagine they havefound a wizard'sroom, or a princess's room in a castle.) Ask them to draw a picture of the room, and to write a letter to a friend about it. They can useih. vocabularyand sentence patternsfrom the substitutiontable a:; the descriptionto help them. Ask them to exchange letterswith a partner,and to try to dra',t their partner'sroom. They can then comparetheir dran'ings.

18

Intown
On the right; on the left. Placeprepositions(for example,next to, beside,opposite).

LANGUAGE 'Town'vocabularyarea(for example, post office,cafe,bank).

rECHNreuEs Organizing texts:reordering. Creating texts: write and draw. MATERTALS Drawing of the alien town and the letter,on a posteror on the board. pREpARArroN Make the posterif you are usingone. TIME GUrDE 40 minutes. ';."

Lead-in

dliil;;;;;;;to closetheir eyesand imagine rhey are walking down the main streetof their town. Ask them questions, for example: What can you see? What is on the right? What is on the left? Give them a short time to imagine,then ask them to stop'walking' and open their eyes. Ask them to tell the person sitting next to them where they are in the street.

Olganizing texts: leoldedng

Put up this picture, andextract from a'letterfrom PlanetZeta':

\
--P o ST Y rr tce {

6 fYB
e-AEt*

./f,o.:.e.r-\-.

["ll*42

Pos r\. :oFFt


PoST -

{FrcE

-li S

%/

tr\ -.d

2 cr'rr ntL
/ \ q_CINE}AA

{F"ir}
-"areatr\

N Qc r NEM

{-o o !
42

k,Nenl,

a8 rntown
1 Here's pictureof the mainelreeNin my Nown. a we 2 NexN the poe| officeois a cafe where qo lo drink enoozola to you nicedreamel). ()noozola qivee a and have qoodeleeV no 3 Ihere aren'l any bankein Zela, because one needemoney, 4 Nexi to il, on lhe riqhl, is a bulcher'swhere gel our beellee we and worms. we 5 Ar the far end ie lhe park,where all qo troffy aroundand have fun. 6 On lhe other side of lhe elreetrare lhree poel officee-we Zetane wrile a lot,of lelterel we 7 1eside Lhecafe is the church, where all qo Lo danceon Thuredaye. but, becauee don'l havebooke, we b Therearen'l any bookshope Nhere four cinemae are oppoeiNe poet offtces. Nhe in Tell the learnersto look at the picture and put the sentences the best order to make a cleardescription.Ask them whether they can link any of them with'and'. 3 4 When they have finished, tell them to compare their texts with a partner. Go through the descriptionwith the whole class(the best order is probablyL, 5, 4, 6, 2, 7, 3, 8).

i;;iil;'i;.i;;"
write and draw

" .";";iil#;";;

letter. rhey caneither . writea reply thealien's to

describe their real main street,or imagine they live on another planet and describe imaginary street.In either case, them to an tell draw a plan ofthe streetbeforethey start, to help them organize their description. 6 descriptions with Put the learnersin pairs.Tell them to exchange They their partners,and to try and draw eachother'sdescriptions. can then comparetheir drawings.

43

Lg
L ANGUAGE

Directions
'Town'vocabularyarea(for example,station, cinema,park). Go straight on. Turn right. Turn left. Take the secondon the right. Tbke the third on the left.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: write and draw. Map of the areaaround your house,and lettet on a posteror on the board; sheetof paper for eachlearner. Make the posterif you are using one. 40 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Lead-in

Put the learnersin pairs. Ask them to describetheir route to school or work to each other.

aa aaaaoaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaoa

Organizing texts: completion

Put up a sketchmap of the area around your house,with a short letter to a friend giving directions for finding it. Leaveblanks for the direction words. Here is an example.

PARK
INEMA

44

19 Directions
OearHelen, lere's Nhemap LhaI you asked for. When you leave the olalion, qo on, ?aoLtrhecinema.At,Lhe end of the road _ ri6ht,. Go etraiqhl on,-the parkand take the -Lurninq on the My houoe Lhe-houee is on Lhe )ee you eoon! Anna Tell the learners to read the letter, and to use the map to help them fill in the blanks. 3 4 Tell them to check their answerswith the person sitting next to them. Check the answerswith the whole class.

write dlaw and

Creating texts:

Askthe learners imagine to that a friendis comingto see them,but

lxTilH#yff:51l::Jh:I*ilJ,:3::ffif:ffi'.i
mark the flat or house on it. They should then write a letter giving directions on how to find where they live. They can use language from the letter to Helen to help them. 6 Put the learners in pairs and get them to exchangeletters and maps.They should read their partner'sletter and useit to help them mark the flat or house on the map. Get feedbackfrom the class.Was it easyto mark the flats or houses from the descriptionsin the letters?

45

20 In the market
LANGUAGE 'Food'vocabularyarea(for example,apples,cheese, bread). Some,any. rEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:substitution. Creating texts: write and guess. MATERTALS Substitutiontable,on the board; poem and framework,on two postersor on the board. pREpARArroN Make the postersif you are using them. TrMEGUrDE 40 minutes.

Lead-in

1,

Ask the learnersto closetheir eyesand visualize a market. Tell them to imagine they are walking round it. Ask them what they can see for sale. Ask for volunteersto tell the rest of the classwhat they'saw' in the market.

o a a a aa

aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaoaaaaaataaaaaaaaa

Constructlng texts:

Write this substitution tableon the board.(If necessary, adaptthe


table to show food items that learnersare likely to know.) There ie ien't are aren'I

substitution

Ia

1a p p le e in t h e lma rk e r, I

50me l cneeoe

any I bread
melon

fish
otl

milk Tell the learnersto use the table to write sentences that are true about the market they visualized. 4 5 Ask the learnersif there were any other kinds of food in their market. Add them to the substitution table. Tell the learnersto write a description of their market using the sentences they have made, and new sentences with the other kinds of food they have suggested.

46

2Q lnthemarket

;#i;;'i;;i;="'"""
rrite and guess

Put up this poem: ln lhe market I bouqht, someeqq6, I bouqhL eomecheese, I bouqhla liLtleham, Dul I didn'N buy any peae. I went, homeand opened bookback my What kindof mealam | 4oinq cook? to

Ask the learnersto read the poem, then ask them what they think you are going to make with the ingredients. (a ham and cheese omelette) Ask the learnersto think of a simple recipe they know, and to write down a list of the ingredients. Put up this framework: ln lhe market, I bouqhL I bou4ht I bouqhL (etc., ae otr,enas neceeeary) Out I didn'N buy-. I wenf, backhomeand opened bookmy What, kindof mealam I qoin7lo cook? Tell the learners to make their own poems, using the framework and the ingredients they havewritten down. When they have finished, put them in groups of three or four and get them to read their poems to each other. They should try to guess what dish eachof them is going to cook.

47

21, shopping
L ANGUAGE

'Containers'and'food (for example, and drink'vocabulary areas a pot ofyoghurt, a loafofbread, a can ofbeer). Organizingtexts:substitution. Creatingtexts:write and guess. Substitutiontable,on a posteror on the board; instructionson slipsof paper. Make the poster,if you are using one; preparethe instructionson slips of paper. 40 minutes.

T ECHNIQUES

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION

T IM E

GUIDE

Lead-in

Divide the classinto two teams.Saythe name of a container,for example,'bottle'. The first team to name somethingthat comesin that container(for example,'milk'in a bottle) getsa point. Continue for eight to ten containers. The team with the most points at the end is the winner.
aaaaaa a a a a

aaaaaa

Organizing texts: substitution

Put up this substitutiontable: bar Two 9ix ?oL6 lube


lootn?aete ?reaa

yoTnurt ?or,aToee oeer iam chocolaLe lea

Three canS of loaves VackeL iar baq 4

Tell the learnersto match the containerswith the items of food and drink, and write a shoppinglist.

48

21t Shopping
Creatingtexts: rite and guess
5 Ask the learners think of the peoplein their family.What is each to person's favouritefood or drink?Ask them to write a shopping list for the family containingeach person's favourite, example: for
(my father) 6 cane of beer (my litlle eieter) 5 baqoof sweele 1Obare of chocolale (mel)

6 7

Get them to compare their lists with their neighbour. Divide the learnersinto groups of four. Give each learner in each group one of thesefour instructionson a slip of paper: Wrile a WriNe a Writea WriNe a list, ehoppinq for an old ?ereonlivinq their own. on ohoppin4list a familyof oix. for list, ehoppinq for a VarLy. ehoppin7lisl a epecial for meal.

The learnersshould not show their slipsof paper to the othersin the group. Tell the learnersto write a shoppinglist for the personor situation described their slip. on When they have finished, get them to read out their lists to the others in the group. The others must guesswho the list is for.

49

22

Food drink and

mangoes, fish, LANGUAGE 'Food and drink'vocabulary area(for example, carrots). I like/ don't like -. He/ she likes/ doesn't like -. Very much; quite; not very much; not at all. rEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:reordering,and describingpictures. Creating texts: responding to a text.

MATERTALS Sentences, a posteror on the board; picture clues,on a posteror on on the board. the if nREnARATToN Prepare posters, you are using them. TIME GUIDE 40 minutes.
aaaaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Lead{n

Write up this quiz on the board: Name'. 1 four kindeof fruit, 2 lhree kindsof veqelable 3 three kindeof meat 4 lwo dairyfoode 5 vhreedifferenldrinke Divide the learnersinto groups of three or four and tell them to do the quiz together.Tell one member of each group to write down their answers.

The group that finishes first with all the answerscorrect is the winner.

" "''''i";;;;; putting them, the to il;;;;;""ces andask learners rewrite ;A;i;i;;';;i;;.. in thewords thecorrect order: leotdeting, and describingpictures r I manqoeo quite rike
2 don't,fieh like I all at, 3 doeen'l very carrote much he like 4 likeoshe rice muchvery muchal all 5 likeduakdon't I likeI buI vew chicken

50

dR 'R

Food drink 22 and


in Write the sentences the correct order on the board, and tell the learnersto check their work. Put up thesepicture clues:

@ @
6

g@@6>G

with the same Tell the learnersto use them to write sentences patterns as those they havejust completed.

Greatingtexts: rcsponding a text to

Ask the learnersto write a letter to a penpal in another country, telling him or her about the kinds of food they eat. They should say which kinds of food they like and don't like, using the sentence patterns they have practised.

5l

23
L ANGUAGE

Leisure activities
'Leisure activities' vocabulary area (for example,swimming, sewing, football). Organizing texts: substitution. Creatingtexts:surveyand report. Substitutiontable,on the board; charts. Choosesomeleisureactivitiesthat are familiar to your learners. Make the charts. 50 minutes.

T ECHNIQUES

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION

T IM E

GUIDE

Lead-in

Ask the learnersto tell you the namesof activitiesthey enjoy doing in their free time. Tianslate for them if they can't think of the word in English.Write the activitiesin a list on the right-hand sideof tne board.

Organizing texts: substitution

1-

Changethe list into a substitutiontablelike this: I likellikee (liet of aclivitiee) Vy VarLner don'l mindldoeen'Imind halel hatee Divide the learnersinto pairs.Tell them to usethe table to write sentences that are true (and correct!)for themselves their and partners. Ask somelearnersto report back to the rest of the class. They should tell you one thing about their partner and one about themselves.

Creatingtexts: surveyand report

Changethe substitutiontable back into a list by rubbing out the two left-hand columns. Tell the learnersto copy the list and make a chart like this (demonstrate the board): on

(liot,of activiliee)

52

23 Leisure activities
6 Divide the classinto groups of six to eight learners,and write the following prompts on the board:

Do you like-inq?

lika don'l mind

-in6

Tell the learnersto find out what the other members of their group feel about eachleisure activity listed on their charts.They should note the number of peoplewho like, don't mind, or hate each activity, for example: likes ewimminq eewinq
dancinq
.+

doesn'N mind
Z

hale6

2
1

Ask each group to report back to the rest of the classwhich was the most popular and which wasthe leastpopular activity in their group. Write this framework on the board: ln a ourvey leisure of ie aclivities in our qroupwefoundthat ihe f avouriteacliviNy. nexl moet poVular The activity is -. Leeopopular activilieeare -, Theleast, and -. acbivities are popular and -. Tell the learnersto write reports of their surveysusing their charts and the framework.

53

24

Daity routines

LANGUAGE 'Everydayactivities'vocabulary area (for example,get up, wash, have breakfast). Telling the time. TEcHNreuEs Organizingtexts:completion. Creating texts: writing from a picture.

MATERIALs Text frameworks,on postersor on the board; flashcards animals. of IREnARATToN Make the postersif you are using them; make the flashcards. rrME GUIDE 50 minutes.

lead-in

1,

Write a selectionof everydayactions on the board, for example: watrch'N read cook do houeework do homework Tell the learnersyou are going to do a quick survey to find out what they do in the evenings.

Readout eachaction. Ask the learnersto put up their hands if they do it regularly in the evenings.Count the hands and write the total by each action. What do most learnersdo?

aa aaaaaae

aaa

ataaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Organlzingtexts: completion

Putup thistextframework:
Every day I Firetl al andLhenl Then| -. Afler lhat | -Lo school. at, and I qo homeat ln lhe evening I Iand Lhen| -. tro bedat _ Tell the learnersto copy and complete it for a typical day in their lives.If you have a classthat needsmore support, you can give suggestions filling in some of the gaps,for example: for brush mv teeth qo naveeu??er qet u? havelunch waen havebreakfaet

54

24 Dailyroutines
4 Put up this text framework and ask the learners to describewhat they do after school: I qel homefrom echoolal -. Firstl andthen I -. Next land -. After lhal I somelimee I ao to bed at

or -,

Gleating texts: writing fiom a picture

Showthe learners flashcards four or five differentkinds of of animal, example: for

Chooseanimals that are familiar to your learners. Ask the learnersto chooseone and to write a descriptionof a typical day from that animal's point of view They can use the framework for the description of their own day to help them. When they have finished, put the learners in pairs to read their descriptions to each other and to guesswhich animal's day is being described.

55

,^r l-

ZC
rEcHNreuEs

Jobs
Organizingtexts:substitution. Creating texts:write and guess.

LANGUAGE '|obs'vocabularyarea(for example,farmer, doctor, waiter).

MATERTALs Model text on a poster. PREPARATToNMake the poster. TrMEGUIDE 50 minutes.


ao aoaaaaaoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Lead-ln

1, Put the learners groupsof threeor four.Tellthe groupsthat they in must think of asmanyjobs asthey canin threeminutes. One learnerin eachgroupshouldwrite down the jobs. 2 Writethejobsthe learners have The thoughtof on the board. groupwhichhasthoughtof the mostjobsis thewinner.

Organizlng texts: substltutlon

Putup this modeldescription:


My
falher mother brobher eioler iea

Ne 5he

a uniform. a euiL. overalle. caeualclobhee. an a?ron. a white coat.

He 5he He
a 11o

gete uV I veryearly, qet doesn'l u? | home about, comee at, lik e s t h ie I doeon'llike I her I o'clock. booe.

Chc

He the

earno 1 a lo| of money. doesn'tr earn I

Ask the learnersto write about a member of their family, or a friend, using the model.

56

28 robs
Creatingtexts: rrite and guess
4
Ask the learnersto chooseone of the jobs on the board, and to write a description of a day in the life of a person who doesthat job. Tell them not to mention the name of the job in their descriptions.Tell them that they can use sentencepatterns from the model text. When they have finished writing, put the learnersin groups of three or four, and tell them to swap their descriptions. They should read the descriptions they havebeen given, and guess which job is being described.

a aaaoaaaaar aaaaaaaaaaaaa

oaaaaaraaa

Comment

You can choosejobs that your learners are familiar with, and that are culturally appropriate.

57

26
L ANGUAGE

Housework
'Housework'vocabulary area (for example,wash the dishes,make the beds, do the shopping. To hate (doing something).

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:describinga picture, and completion. Creating texts: write and draw. Posterof a'kitchen robot'. Make the poster. 50 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Leadln

7- Write a selectionof household taskson the board, for example:


washthe dishes makelhe bede do the ehoppin7 Tell the learnersyou are going to do a quick survey to find out which household task they hate the most.

Readout eachtask.Ask the learners'Whohates most?'Tell them to put up their hands.Write the total by eachtask.What do the largestnumber of learnershate doing?

texts: Organlzing descilbinga picture, and completion

Put up this picture and text:

58

26 Housework
lntroducinq Robocook, amazingkitchenroboN. you haf,e the Do lonqfor waohing up? Doyou eomelimee cookinq? you loabhe Do Helpie herel Kobo'a arme helV wilh all those helV? Don't, deepairl borinq kilchen Iaske.Arm A Arm C while Arm b -, and AfLer Lhe meal Arm D and Arm E -.

ie liredl he never Kobocook alwayereadylo helplHe is never qrumbleol Duy oneNodayl Tell the learnersto look at the picture and write out the text, filling in the gaps.If necessary, help them by writing the tasksRobocook is doing on the board: layinq t able the waehinq diehee Ihe eweepinq froor Nhe puttin4lhe diehee away cookinq dinner Lhe 4 5 Get the learnersto check their answersin pairs. Go through the answerswith the whole class.

Creating texts:

Tellthe learners inventa machine help them with a household to to


task they hate doing. Ask them to draw their machine and to write a short paragraphdescribingit.

write and draw


7

Put the learnersin pairs and tell them to show their pictures and read their descriptions to each other.

59

27

Abitities

LANGUAGE Abilities'(for example,drive, sing, cook) and'jobs'(for example, bus driver, secretary,doctor) vocabulary areas. Can.
T ECHNIQUES

Organizing texts: reordering. Creatingtexts:write and do. of Iob advertsposter;letter of applicationposter;pieces paper with the namesof jobs for all the learners. Make the posters. 60 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S

PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

Lead-in

1,

Write a list of jobs on the board, for example: buedriver oecretary doclor larmer businessman/ woman hairdresser leacher

Divide the classinto two teams and give a clue to one of the jobs using'can', example:'She for can cure people'(doctor);'Shecan type' (secretary).The first team to give the correct answergets a point. The team with the most points at the end is the winner.

texts: Organizing reordering

Put up this posterofjob adverts:

WArure o:
SPONSIgILTTY

1 4 O T HE R
FOR CIIIIDREN

ro nttGERs
WANTE D:
WAWTED: DRIVER E N6 L I S H LORRY
EAC HER
FOR CLASS ONE

I/yANTED: ASTRoNAuT
FoRFxPEDtTfoN

FOR

DtSrAt{cE
TRIPS

r o M ARS

60

27 Abilities
Thenput up this letter:
Dear)ir, I can drive, einq,cookdelicioue meals, waehcloLhee and good oLoriee. hopeyou willconeider dishee, eew,knitr, and Nell I my application. can worklwenf,y-four I hourea day,oeven job daye a week. wouldlikelo applyfor Nhe of -. I I have five paire of arme for hu1qinq, Vaireof eyeefor wahchinq, five five paire of ears lor liotenin1, and fivemouthsfor einqinq eonq6and Lellin7 oloriee. Youro faithfully,

5 6

Explain any unfamiliar vocabulary,and then ask the learnerswhich job the writer is applying for (mother). Ask them to write out the letter, putting the sentences a better in order. Checkthe order of the sentences with the whole class(4, l, 5,3,2, 4, or possibly 3, I, 5, 2).

;;;ii;;'i;.[;" write and do

" " " " ";"

Ail;hj"u*;' a piece paper or withthename oneof the or jobson it. other


Tell them to write a letter of application for the job on their piece of paper. They should use the letter they have copied as a model. Go round and help them while they are writing, supplying any vocabulary they need. Collect up the letters in sets,i.e. all the zoo keeperapplications, all the clown applications, and so on. into groups.Thesegroups are'assessment Divide the class boards' for eachof the jobs. Give eachboard their set of applications. Tell the groups to read all their applications and to decidewho getsthe job.

10 L1,

6I

28 Rules:'must'and 'mustn't'
LANGUAGE Must,mustn't. rEcHNreuEs Constructing texts:matching. Creatingtexts:write and guess. MATERTALs Listsof places. pREpARArroN Prepare enoughlistsof places the sub-groups. for TrMEGUIDE 50 minutes.

Lead-in

Ask the learners'Whatare the rules at home?What do your parents tell you you mustdo?What do they tell you you mustn'tdo?' (If your learnersare adults,askthem to remembertheir childhood.) Put them in groups of three or four to talk about this. Then askthe groupsto report back to the rest of the class.

Constructing texts:

Writethese sentences theboard: half on


Youmusl ehout YoumusNn'N run in lhe corridors eatrin claee be laLe be polite do your homework climbout,of f,hewindowe wrif,eon Lhe texlbooks

matching

4 5 6

Ask for volunteersto make completesentences. them what the Ask sentences might be called('Schoolrules'). Get the learners write out eight completesentences. to They should givetheir sentences title'School rules'. the Checkthe answers with the whole class.

Greating texts: wlite and guess

7 I

Divide the class into groupsof four or five.Then divide eachgroup into two pairs,or a pair and a group of three (A and B). GiveAs in eachgroup this list of places: aeroplane, hospital,shop, zoo. Give Bs in eachgroup this list of places: prison, bank, park, boat. Ask the learnersto write a set of rules for eachplace.Give them an example, a library the rules might look like this: in

62

Rules:' must' and' m ustn' t'

28

L I BR A R Y
You nrustt"tk yietlg. eff Youmustvr'f or driYrk'
ruYl. Yo" nrustnh return books Yourrrust ontiwevocabulary. Go round and help, supplying any necessary Ask As to read their rules for eachplace to Bs,without sayingthe namesof the places.Bs must guesswhat the placesare.Then Bs should read their rules to As.

il;;;i..'ooo''""''""''''i;;:;;p.r,',n.,.rroolrulesonthewallsaroundtheclassroom.

63

29
L ANGUAGE T ECHNIQUE

Describing actions 1
Present continuous. Organizingtexts:describinga picture. Creatingtexts:write and do. Picture of a living-room on a poster. Make the poster. 60 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

aaaaaoaaaaaa

Lead-in

7.

Ask the learnersto closetheir eyesand imagine a room. Ask them to decidewhat furniture it contains.Then tell them that four peopleare in the room. Ask them'Who are they?What are they doing?'Givethem a little time to imagine,then tell them to open their eyes. Put the learnersin pairs and get them to tell their partners what they'saw'.

texts: Organizing a describing picture

Put up this picture:

64

Describing actions 1

pffi

Point to eachpersonin the picture and ask the learners what he or sheis doing. Supplyany necessary vocabulary. 4 Tell the learners that they are going to write a descriptionof the picture.Write the beginningof the descriptionon the board: Mrs ToNNer eleeVinq front of the television. while ie in Dul eheie eleeVinq, terrible Nhinqo happeninq aroundher. are all Veacefully Encourage them to connectsentences with'and'or'while'.

Creatingtexts: wilte and do

Put the learnersin groupsof about eight.Ask eachgroup to imagine that they are all members of the samefamily. Tell them to decidewho is who, for example,grandmother, grandfather,aunt, uncle,mother, father,son,daughter. Ask the groupsto imaginea kitchen or living-room scene. Each personshould imaginewhat they are doing. When you havegiven them a little time, ask the groups in turn to get up and form a tableau(they form a'picture'by standingin their position in the room as if they are doing their action). When all the groupshaveformed their tableaux,get them to preparea descriptionof the room and what everyone doing in it. is Eachgroup should appoint a'secretary' write down the to description. Collectthe descriptions and redistributethem so that eachgroup now has another group'sdescription.Eachgroup should read the descriptionit hasbeen given,and form a tableaufrom it. Ask the groupsin turn to get up and form their tableau.The other groupsshould call out when they recognize their descriptions from thesenew tableaux.

65

30
L ANGUAGE

Describing s 2 action
Present continuous. In the background; in the foreground. On the left; on the right. Behind; in front of; near.

T ECHNIQUES

Organizingtexts:describinga picture. Creating texts: write and draw. Posterof a park scene;two piecesof paper for eachlearner. Make the poster. 50 minutes.

M AT ERIAL S PREPARAT ION T IM E GUIDE

a taa aaaaat aaaaaaoaaaaaat aaaaaa t a a a a t t a a a a o a a a a

lead-in

1- Ask the learnersto imagine the street outside the school.What are people doing there?Collect suggestions from the class.

Organizing texts: describinga picture

Putup thispicture:

r\l/,r\l/
Ask for volunteersto tell you some of the things that are happening in the picture. 66

Describing actions 2

3#

Divide the class into three groups,asnear the samesizeaspossible. Ask the first group to write a descriptionof the scene, startingon the left and describing it from left to right. Ask the secondgroup to write a description,startingwith the foregroundand moving Ask the third group to write a description,startingwith backwards. the backgroundand moving forwards.Eachgroup should appoint a'secretary' write their description. to

Write someusefulexpressions the board: on in lhe back4round in lhe fore4round on the lefL on lhe ri4ht behind in fronLof near Ask for a volunteerfrom eachof the three groupsto read out their 'Which was the descriptions the rest of the class. to Ask the class (In bestway of organizingthe description?' this picture,it is bestto and then to move begin with the backgroundto setthe scene, forwards, finishing with the main event-the balloon race in the foreground.)

aaaaaaa ta aa a

a a *{a a a a a a a $ *a *i a a a a t *

Creatingtexts: write and draw

Ask the learnersto closetheir eyesand imagine a busy street.Then askthem to open their eyesand draw the picture they imagined. Then askthem to write descriptions the picturesthey have of pieceof paper. drawn on a separate descriptions and pictures.Separate Chooseeight of the learners' pictures.Labelthe descriptions B, C, A, the descriptions from the etc.and label the pictures 1,2,3, etc.Takecarethat matching picturesand descriptions not givencorresponding lettersand are numbers (for example, makeA somenumber other than 1, and C somenumber other than 3). Keepa list of the matchinglettersand numbers for yourself. and ask Put up the descriptions and picturesaround the classroom, and try to find the matching the learnersto read the descriptions pictures.

67

basics
level, at This bookcontains thirtyactivities elementary allof them daily whichformpartof everybody's lives,for dealing withtopics materials teacher the only and activities.The example,families leisure paper, pens.The are instructions and needarethe board, andclass provided additional have to and clear easy follow, the authors and in Introduction. support a short methodological

to and ldeas lead-ins language topics for for Real-life contexts writing picture textprompts helplearners thinking start to and Simple theirwriting about learners'work Tips correcting on

,ilililll

ENGLISH OXFORD tsBN0-19-442170-8