You are on page 1of 7

A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies

Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information Smart WSN number of sensors spread across a geographical area each sensor has wireless communication capability sufficient intelligence for signal processing networking of the data MAIN Goal of the paper report recent trends in wireless sensor network research overview of the various categories of WSN a survey of WSN technologies discussion of existing research prototypes and industry applications. Contents Contents Introduction Wireless Sensor Network Middleware Technologies Conclusions I. Introduction Common to many areas structural engineering, agriculture and forestry, healthcare, logistics and transportation, and military applications. Measure various physical phenomena temperature, fluid levels, vibration, strain, humidity, acidity, pumps, generators to manufacturing lines, aviation. Wired sensor networks have long been used to support such environments recently. Wireless sensors have been used only when a wired infrastructure is infeasible, such as in remote and hostile locations. dramatic reduction in the cost of this wireless sensor technology has made its widespread deployment feasible II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS WSN

is a collection of millimeter-scale, self-contained, micro-electro-mechanical devices. Ttiny devices have sensors, computational processing ability (i.e.CPU power), wireless receiver and transmitter technology and a power supply. Typical WSNs communicate directly with a centralized controller or a satellite, thus communication between the sensor and controllers is based on a single hop. WSNs are intelligent compared with traditional sensors II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS WSNs intelligent compared with traditional sensors some WSNs are designed to use inetwork processing sensed data can be gathered in situ and transformed abstract and aggregated high-level data before transmission. WSNs differ from MANETs in many fundamental ways III. APPLICATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES III. APPLICATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES Potential Applications Disaster/Crime Prevention and Military Applications Environmental Applications Health Applications Smart Spaces Design Aspects Deployment, Mobility, Infrastructure Network Topology, Density and Network Size, Connectivity Lifetime, Node Addressability Data Aggregation, Query Ability and Propagation, Data Dissemination Real-Time, Reliability, Self Configuration Security III. APPLICATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES Operational Paradigms Single hop to Sink

Multi hop to Sink On Demand Operation Self Organization Data Aggregation Reacting Process Aggregation, Filtering and Correlation Event correlation is deployed sometimes as a part of applications, IV . MIDDLEWARE TECHNOLOGY Cougar Cougar [61,229, 32] is an architecture treats a sensor network as a distributed database large number of sensor nodes are connected through a multi-hop wireless network and each node keeps sensor data. A query optimiser is located on the gateway node to generate distributed query processing plans after receiving queries from outside. Expression in Cougar it is proposed to divide the model of the sensor data into a user expression and an internal expression. First, the user expression is a query, and an Abstract Data Type (ADT) is defined for the sensor, and it proposes the query language of the syntax similar to SQL. For instance, query processing for a monitor can be described as follows. 1 Data Driven Approach SINA SINA (Sensor Information Networking Architecture) [194, 209] middleware architecture that abstracts the network of a sensor node as a distributed object for query The following primitive operations aim to achieve effective information aggregation: Self orchestrated operation: An intentional operation delay for the response implosion.

Diffused computation operation 1 Data Driven Approach SINA aims to achieve scalability and low power consumption in sensor networks. SINA consists of the following function components. Hierarchical clustering: The sensor nodes contain the function to build the hierarchical cluster structure dynamically. Attribute based Name management: The sensor node is managed by the name based on the attribute but note ID. For instance, [type = temperature, location = NE, temperature = 103] means all the sensors indicating 103 degrees in the northeast division. Position management: The position of the sensor node is measured, and managed by GPS etc. 1 Data Driven Approach TinyDB TinyDB [145, 94, 223, 73, 146] enquiry processing system for sensor networks that operates on TinyOS. concept of query processing (acquisitional query processing(ACQP)) is introduced. In ACQP of TinyDB, the SQL is enhanced for query processing this query is converted to internal code, and executed for data retrieval and aggregation. For instance, the description that looks like the following SQL is used. 1 Data Driven Approach DFuse: A Framework for Distributed Data Fusion Framework for data fusion application development on decentralized distributed sensor networks. Fusion API The fusion API offers programming ease for a complex sensor fusion application. A distributed algorithm for fusion function placement and dynamic relocation combinatorial large number of options for placing the fusion finding an optimal placement that minimizes communication is difficult. 1 Data Driven Approach TinyLIME Linda: Linda enables two or more systems to share a tuple space using reading (rd), writing (out) and deleting (in).

LIME: A coordinated tuple space is formed from the partitioned tuple spaces that each distributed system maintains. 2 Event Based Approach Event Based Approach Time triggered approach is expensive in the case where the expected rate of primitive event occurrence is low. Event-driven communication is an asynchronous paradigm that decouples senders and receivers. The publish/subscribe paradigm has become popular, asynchronous and multipoint communication is well suited for constructing reactive distributed computing applications. 2 Event Based Approach DSWare Data Service Middleware (DSWare) [136] middleware which takes a data-centric approach by defining the common data service and group based service parts of various applications. DSWare performs routing in real-time taking power consumption into account. DSWare consists of six function components 6.2 Event Based Approach DSWare: six function components DataStorage DSWare aims to distribute on specific sensor nodes or aggregated the data for load balancing and to improve reliability. Data Caching The Data Caching Service provides multiple copies of the data most requested. Group Management The Group Management component uses cooperation between group members to achieve reliability of sensor information and detection and exclusion of abnormal sensor nodes. Event Detection An observation is the low level output of a sensing device during a sensing interval. It is a measurement of the environment. Data Subscription: As a type of data dissemination

service, Data Subscription queries are very common in sensor networks. Scheduling The Scheduling component schedules other components. 2 Event Based Approach Impala Impala [141, 140] has been built as part of the ZebraNet, sensing nodes are placed on free ranging wildlife to perform long-term migration studies on a collection of animals in an ecosystem. 2 Event Based Approach EnviroTrack EnviroTrack [1] the first programming support for sensor networks that explicitly supports tracking mobile objects. EnviroTrack is a middleware layer that exports a new address space in the sensor network 4 Internet Oriented Approach Web based query management A WSN is assumed with a 3-level regional hierarchy and the entire network employs 3level hierarchy areas, clusters, and sensor nodes. V. Conclusion Middleware has been a key technology in supporting distributed systems by providing common communication mechanisms. The algorithms and protocols must be designed to provide a robust and energy efficient communication mechanism. application/middleware layer processes aim to create effective new capabilities for efficient extraction, manipulation, transport Their applications and potential benefits are wide-ranging and could ultimately break the barrier between the physical and digital worlds. Thank You !