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Need for the Drive:

A.C Drive

The need for installing a new classifier drive emerged in order to satisfy the requirements for

the Performance Guarantee Test as conducted by Loesche.

A typical VFD A.C Drive:

The basic function of the VFD is to act as a variable frequency generator in order to vary speed of the motor as per the user setting. The rectifier and the filter convert the AC input to DC with negligible ripple. The inverter uses a microcontroller which converts the DC (generated from converter/rectifier section) into three-phase variable voltage, variable frequency AC. Additional features can be provided, like the DC bus voltage sensing, OV and UV trip, over current protection, accurate speed/position control, temperature control, easy control setting, display, PC connectivity for real-time monitoring, Power Factor Correction (PFC) and so on.

Need for the Drive : A.C Drive The need for installing a new classifier drive emerged

A typical VFD

Some special features of an A.C Drive:

  • Braking

  • Speed Search

  • Dwell functions

  • Motor slip compensation

  • Torque compensation

  • Jump/Prohibited frequencies

  • Memobus communication

  • S-curve acceleration/deceleration

  • Multi-motor driving etc.

  • Auto-restart

  • Power Loss Ride Through

Why an A.C Drive?

The following advantages of A.C Drives make it most preferred to drive induction motors:

  • Provides efficient speed and torque control, thereby saving power.

  • Prevents high inrush current during starting.

  • Prevents harmonics and thereby enhances motor life.

  • A sag or surge in the supply line due to operation of other equipments in the same supply line may impose stress on the motor. Drives prevent such sags and surges from passing onto the motor.

  • Same VFD for wide ranges of motors with different ratings.

  • Low maintenance and high reliability.

Modes of operation:

There are basically 2 modes of operation.

  • Scalar or V/F Control (with PG or without PG)-- In this type of control, the motor is fed with variable voltage, variable frequency signals generated by PWM control from an inverter. Here, the V/f ratio is maintained constant in order to get constant torque over the entire operating range. Since only magnitudes of the input variables frequency and voltage are controlled, this is known as “scalar control”.

  • Vector Control (open-loop /closed-loop)-- In this method, the three phase current vectors are transformed from the stationary reference frame to the rotating reference frame and controlled with reference to a specific flux linkage space vector and vice-versa using Clarke-Park Transformation. The corresponding switching pattern is pulse width modulated and implemented using the SVM. This control simulates a separately exited DC motor model, which provides an excellent torque-speed curve.

VFD as Energy Saver:

If we take the example of a pump motor we can see that its water flow, head

Pressure and power delivered are directly proportional to the (speed), (speed) 2 and (speed) 3 , respectively. Therefore, by controlling the speed of the motor, we can save lots of power because

without a drive we cannot control the motor’s speed.