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Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice

Purpose
To experimentally determine the latent heat of fusion of ice

Procedure
1. Fill the beaker with about 200 mL water. Heat the water on a hot plate. You will need water that is about 10 C above room temperature. 2. Place the plastic foam cup and stirring rod on the balance together. Record the combined mass. 3. Keep the cup and stirring rod on the balance. Carefully fill the cup about half-full with the warm water. Record the combined mass. Take care not to pour water on the balance! 4. Calculate and record the mass of the warm water (mwarm water ). Put the foam cup on the lab counter. Stir the water carefully with the stirring rod and record the temperature (Ti ). 5. Immediately add 2 to 4 ice cubes that have been dried with paper towels. 6. Stir slowly until all the ice has melted. Record the temperature of the water in the cup; it should be about 10 C below room temperature. If you need to bring the temperature down, you can add more dried ice cubes. Make sure to get a final temperature reading of the water (Tf ). 7. Obtain and record the mass of the cup, stirring rod and cool water.

Materials
goggles, large plastic foam cup, balance, thermometer, stirring rod, 2 to 6 ice cubes, 200 mL water, 100 mL graduated cylinder, hot plate, 250 mL beaker, paper towel, balance

Data
Data Table: c p,w = 4.186 J/g C
Mass ( g ) Foam cup and stirring rod Foam cup, stirring rod, and warm water Warm water Equilibrium temperature Foam cup, stirring rod, and cold water Ice added Energy lost Energy gained Latent heat of fusion of ice
C.1.39 / Curriculum Framework / Why Do Different Substances Heat Up at Different Rates? Indiana Chemistry Standards Resource, November 2003

Temperature ( C )

mwarm water

Ti Tf

Tf

mice

Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice


Analysis and Conclusions
1. Where did the energy come from that melted the ice?

2. The fact that the temperature of the warm water went down is evidence that it lost energy. Equation 1 Qlost = masswarm water cp, w T T = how much warm water temperature fell Use Equation 1 to calculate the amount of energy lost by the warm water. Record it in the table. 3. The fact that the ice melted and the temperature of the melt water increased is evidence that the ice/melt water gained energy. Equation 2 Qgained = massice Lf, ice + massmelt water cp,w T T = how much melt water temperature rose Lf, ice = latent heat of fusion of ice = unknown The amount of energy lost must equal the amount of energy gained; enter the energy gained in the data table. The amount of energy you calculated in the previous question can be used to calculate how much energy it took to melt the ice, i.e., the latent heat of fusion of ice.
energy lost by warm water = energy ice gained to go from ice to water + energy to heat up this new water

Qlost = massice Lf, ice + massmelt water cp,w T

Rewrite the above equation using your data. Remember that the mass of ice is the same as the mass of the melt water.

Rearrange terms to isolate the unknown Lf, ice .

Solve for Lf, ice and enter it into the data table.

C.1.39 / Curriculum Framework / Why Do Different Substances Heat Up at Different Rates? Indiana Chemistry Standards Resource, November 2003

Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice


Analysis and Conclusions
4. Write your calculated value for Lf, ice on the board. After all the groups have posted their results, calculate the class average. How does this value compare with the accepted value for the latent heat of fusion of ice? Why didnt every group get the accepted value?

5. Explain how your results would be affected if the ice had not been thoroughly dried before use.

6. Explain how your results would be affected if you had used a metal coffee mug instead of a foam cup.

7. Compare the amount of heat needed to melt 5.0 grams of ice at 0 C to the amount of heat lost by the freezing of 5.0 grams of 0 C water.

C.1.39 / Curriculum Framework / Why Do Different Substances Heat Up at Different Rates? Indiana Chemistry Standards Resource, November 2003

Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice


Teacher Directions
Remind students to use the stirring rods rather than the thermometer when stirring the mixture. As long as both the stirring rod and cup are on the balance together, students can lay the cup down on its side in step #2. One student should be patting the ice dry while another is recording masses and water temperature. The accepted value for Lf, ice is 3.33 J/g. The data table with typical values is reproduced below. These values are used as an example in the answer key portion. Students will be more familiar with the non-SI unit of heat calorie rather than the SI unit of heat Joule. They may not be aware that a calorie is actually a unit of energy.

Answer Key
Data Table: c p,w = 4.186 J/gC
Mass ( g ) Foam cup and stirring rod Foam cup, stirring rod, and warm water Warm water Equilibrium temperature Foam cup, stirring rod, and cold water Ice added Energy lost Energy gained Latent heat of fusion of ice 8.77 130.03 m warm water 121.26 153.59 m ice 23.56 10,100 J 10,100 J 335 J/g Temperature ( C ) T1 41.7 T2 21.9

1. It came from the warm water. 2. Qlost = 121.26 g 4.186 J /g C 19.8 C = 10100 J 3. 10050.37 J = 23.56 g Lf, ice + 23.56 g 4.186 J /g C 21.9 C 10050.37 J = 23.56 g Lf, ice + 2159.8 J 7890.5 J = 23.56 g Lf, ice 335 J /g 4. Accepted value is 333 J /g. Random and systematic errors will prevent everyone from getting the accepted value. 5. The heat of fusion would be calculated too high. Energy thought to be used to melt the ice would actually be used to raise the temperature of the water on the ice. 6. The heat lost by the warm water would not all be gained by the ice/melt water mixture; some of the heat would be lost to the coffee mug and the air around it. The system would not be heat-tight. 7. It is the same amount of heat; it is being gained when the 5.0 g of ice melts and it is lost when the 5.0 g of water freezes. Q = 5.0 g 333 J /g = 1700 J
C.1.39 / Curriculum Framework / Why Do Different Substances Heat Up at Different Rates? Indiana Chemistry Standards Resource, November 2003