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Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007

Nonferrous metallurgy
Nonferrous metallurgy
Subjects of interest
Overviews of nonferrous metals
Aluminium and aluminium alloys
Magnesium and magnesium alloys
Titanium and titanium alloys
Copper and copper alloys
Zinc and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys
Other significant alloys
Lecture 1
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Course instruction
Lecturer: Dr. Tapany Udomphol
Assessment
Assignment/quiz 20 %
Midterm exam 40 %
Final exam 40 %
Total 100 %
Nonferrous metallurgy
Nonferrous metallurgy
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Objectives
Objectives
This course provides fundamental knowledge of metals
other than ferrous metals, for example aluminium,
magnesium, copper, zinc, titanium and nickel alloys, which
are significant for commercial uses.
This starts with when the metals are extracted, melted and
formed in relation to their final applications. More importantly,
the nature of the alloys associated with their physical and
mechanical properties will be highlighted.
The selection of nonferrous alloys for the desired
applications will be discussed such that the exploitation of
nonferrous metals will be at its best.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Overview of nonferrous metals
Overview of nonferrous metals
Nonferrous
Light weight
Stiffness strength to weight ratio
High temperature properties
Corrosion resistance
Biocompatibility
Oxidation resistance
High cost
Why nonferrous?
Why nonferrous?
Depending on extraction
and production
Thermal/electrical conductivity
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Nonferrous metals
Nonferrous metals
Aluminium and its alloys
Magnesium and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Copper and its alloys
Zinc and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys
There are different types of nonferrous metals which are
commercially used;
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
World consumption
World consumption
Aluminium, titanium and
magnesium alloys are
increasingly used in recent years
due to its attractive properties.
The reserves for these alloys are
adequate for demands in centuries
to come but will be controlled by
future cost.
World production figure for
various metals and plastics.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Major chemical elements
Major chemical elements
available in earth
available in earth
Aluminium is the most abundant metal in earth.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Density of metals
Density of metals
Metal Density (g.cm
-3
)
Iron 7.87
Steel 7.80
Aluminium 2.70
Magnesium 1.74
Titanium 4.54
Copper 8.96
Zinc 7.13
Nickel 8.89
Lead 11.36
Silver 10.49
Gold 19.32
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Total energy consumption for the
Total energy consumption for the
production of nonferrous metals
production of nonferrous metals
Total energy consumption in megawatt
hours for each stage of production (1993).
Total energy consumption
Ti > Mg > Al > Cu > Zn > Steel
The energy consumption is
mainly paid in the
reduction process.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Mechanical properties in comparison
Mechanical properties in comparison
Relationship of specific 0.2% proof stress with temperature.
Titanium alloys have superior specific strength than
steels or aluminium good for high strength where
space is critical such aircrafts.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Aluminium and its alloys
Aluminium and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
Building/construction
Container
Packaging
Transportation
Electrical conductors
Machinery/equipment
Light weight
High corrosion resistance
High electrical and thermal
conductivities
High ductility
Easily deformable
Light-weight bike
Car body
Building/
construction
Containers
Equipment
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Magnesium and its alloys
Magnesium and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
Disadvantages:
Weight saving
High machinability
Used as alloying element for
aluminium, steel and nodular (SG)
cast iron.
Die casting for aerospace
Transport industry.
Light weight bodies.
Difficulty in melting process
due to high reactivity.
Magnesium side panels
Handy cam & mobile
phone bodies
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Titanium and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
High strength to weight ratio
Moderate-high temperature
properties
Corrosion resistance
Biocompatibility
Shape memory
Disadvantages:
High cost
Difficulty in extraction
Limited in high performance
applications
Structure of high speed aircrafts
75% in aerospace
Chemical industry
Hip-joint component
www3.lehigh.edu
Turbine blades
National science centre, Scotland
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Copper and its alloys
Copper and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
High electrical conductivity
High thermal conductivity
High corrosion resistance
Good ductility and malleability
Reasonable tensile strength.
Electrical conductance
Plating on components
Give different copper alloys -
brasses and bronzes.
Electronic products
www.bergquistcompany.com
Copper
trolley
wires
www.reawire.com
Copper plating
www.silvexinc.com
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Zinc and its alloys
Zinc and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
Disadvantages:
Fast rate of die casting
Excellent atmospheric
corrosion resistance.
Ability to form a well-adhering
coating on steel.
Used for galvanic protection in
steel and decorative finish.
Used in die casting.
Cannot be strain hardened.
Zinc diecast
www.zincdiecast.com
Zinc roof protection
www.vmzinc.com
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
Nickel and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys
Advantages: Applications
Disadvantages:
Tough and ductile
Good high and low
temperature strength
High oxidation resistance
Good corrosion resistance
High cost
Not normally mixed with
cheaper alloying metals
Applications required necessary
corrosion or heat- resisting properties
Special engineering applications
Turbine blades in combustion section
Aerospace flow bodies
www.immnet.com
Turbine blades
www.msm.cam.ac.uk
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007
References
References
Polmear I.J., Light alloys: metallurgy of the light metals, 3
rd
edition,
1995, Arnold, London, ISBN 0-340-63207-0.
Smith, W.F., Structure and properties of engineering alloys, second
edition, 1993, McGraw-Hill, ISB 0-07-59172-5.
. a.a. +..+..+ . :-. u.uu+..a..a+a. ISBN 974-582-
155-1.
Kainer, K.U. (editor), Magnesium alloys and technology, DMG, 2003,
WILEY-VCH, ISBN 3-527-30256-5.
Hatch, J.E., Aluminium, Properties and physical metallurgy, ASM,
1998.
Totten, G.E., Handbook of aluminium: Physical metallurgy and
processes, Vol.1, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003, ISBN 0-8247-0494-0.
Avedesian, M.M., Baker, H., ASM specialty handbook, Magnesium and
magnesium alloys, 1999, ISBN 0-87170-657-1.
Tapany Udomphol