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The aerodynamic forces and moments on the body are due to only 2 basic sources: 1. Pressure distribution over the body surface 2. Shear stress distribution over the body surface The figure below illustrates the pressure & shear distribution on an aerodynamic surface.

Shear stress is due to the tugging action on the surface, which is caused by friction between the body & the air. The net effects of p & distributions integrated over the complete body surface have a resultant aerodynamic force R & moment M over the body as shown in figure 2.

1.

Analytical Expressions

There are 3 axes-systems: Ground Body Aerodynamic Therefore the resultant aerodynamic force R could be split into components in the body or aerodynamic axes systems, as shown in figure 3.

The geometrical relations between these 2 sets of components are: = cos sin = sin + cos

From Source:

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Consider the 2-dimensional body defined by figure 4

Now consider the 2D shape in figure 4 as a cross-section of an infinitely long cylinder of uniform section (a unit span) such a cylinder is shown in figure 5. Consider an elemental surface area (ds) of this cylinder, where ds = (ds) x 1

The elemental normal force dN and axial force dA acting on the elemental surface ds on the upper body surface are: 1 = cos sin 2 = sin + cos In the same way on the lower surface we have: 3 = cos 4 = sin +

cos

sin

To determine the normal force N & the axial force N, equations (1) to (4) must be integrated from the leading edge (LE) to the trailing edge (TE) = Where: + = = per unit area + +

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Page 2

Therefore: 5 6 = = cos sin + + sin & cos + sin + cos + cos + sin

Because of the relations: = cos sin = sin + cos The lift & drag can be calculated using (5) & (6) Aerodynamic Moment Exerted on the Body It depends on the point about which moments are taken.

Consider the aerodynamic moment calculated about the leading edge (LE). The moment per unit span about the leading edge due to p & (figures 4 & 5) on the elemental area (ds) on the upper & lower surfaces are: 7 8 Note: = cos cos + + sin sin . & + . + sin sin + + cos cos . .

= 9 =

+

,

0A +

,

To define the dynamic pressure that arises when the fluid is in motion: = 1 2 freestream conditions

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Lift Coefficient: Drag Coefficient: Normal Coefficient: Axial Coefficient: Moment Coefficient: s = a reference area l = a reference length Lets consider 2 additional non-dimensional coefficients: Pressure Coefficient: Skin Friction Coefficient: = =

= =

Using the above geometry we can write: = . cos & = = 1 & = = . sin

1 1

+

,

, ,

+ .

,

. +

, ,

. .

3.

Centre of Pressure

The centre of pressure is the location where the resultant of a distributed load effectively acts on the body. If the moments were taken about the centre of pressure, the integrated effect of the distributed loads would be zero.

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Page 4

An alternate definition for the centre of pressure is the point on the body at which the aerodynamic moment is zero. =

&

cos

=1

In this case, L = N, therefore: = So as N & L decrease, xcp increases As the force approaches 0, x Note: the centre of pressure is not always a convenient concept in aerodynamics

4.

= = =

. . + +

. .

cos sin

With: =

cos cos

+ +

sin

Dividing by = sin

From Source:

Page 5

,

= sin 0:

=0

,

cos cos

+ =1

,

sin

When

&

,

Therefore: =

,

when =

,

=0

,

Therefore:

, ,

+

,

, ,

, ,

=0

,

F is called the aerodynamic centre and does not depend on the incidence.

From Source:

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