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Applying Twelve Tone Constructions in a Standard Jazz Improvisation Setting: All The Tones You Are

By

Alexander Graham

A RESEARCH PROJECT Submitted to the Eastman School of Music Rochester, NY

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts December 11, 2005

Advanced Projects in Improvisation Professor Harold Danko Department of Jazz and Contemporary Media

Introduction

Background Information

There is a good deal of research and study in the jazz education field that focuses on the role of harmonic progressions in developing linear concepts for improvisation. This is for obvious reasons; without understanding harmony, it would be impossible to improvise melodic ideas that make any sense within the structure of a given piece. However, there are numerous other methods of constructing a line separate from just harmonic considerations. One of the more prominent of these methods is in twelve-tone music and there is an opportunity in the field of jazz improvisation to find and establish ways of incorporating twelve-tone rows and other linear-based concepts into the mainstream of jazz performance, research and education.

Problem Statement

This study uses Jerome Kerns standard song All The Things You Are as a palate for exploring different methods of incorporating twelve-tone rows into standard jazz chord progressions. An etude encompassing three choruses of the form has been composed by first transcribing 3 choruses of the authors recorded improvisations on All the Things You Are followed by replacing some of the transcribed phrases with selected

tone rows that match or approximate the original rhythmic phrasing.

The focus of the

etude is to create an improvised sounding statement that includes melodic statements and patterns that could potentially be explored further in different transpositions and settings. As well, several of the phrases prove to be technically difficult to master and provide a good technical exercise for practicing. Several melodic statements and patterns, including ones over minor and major ii-V-I chord progressions, have been extracted from the etude and are included in the Appendix for future study and practice.

Need for the Study

It would be fairly easy to get any number of books on twelve-tone music that could give you thousands of patterns to practice, but not very many that deal with the subject within a jazz context. As well, most study of twelve-tone music is concerned with escaping from the confines of tonality, not incorporating it, as this small study proposes to do. Whether or not there is an actual need for this study is a subjective question: for the author of this study, it provides an opportunity to explore some different concepts with the hope that he will be able to use some of what he has learned to create music that is both loyal to the jazz tradition and unique in its attempt to successfully incorporate more abstract ideas into this tradition.

Research Questions

The research questions for this project will be limited to four basic questions: Which tone rows of the ones researched are of musical interest to the author? Which rows are idiomatic to the alto saxophone? What rhythmic and articulation choices need to be made in order to apply the rows in an improvised setting? And, how can we justify twelve-tone rows within a tonal setting like All the Things You Are?

Assumptions

The main assumption made in the course of this project is that, despite occasional experimentation in twelve-tone settings by such jazz icons as Bill Evans and many others, there is no standardized way of approaching the use of twelve-tone concepts within improvising over standard jazz chord progressions.

Hypotheses

The main hypothesis of this project is that, when constructed carefully with an eye towards musicality and functionality, twelve-tone rows could not only work but work well within a tonal system such as with the song All The Things You Are. In doing so, the author hopes to add some unique qualities to his abilities as a jazz improviser.

Scope of the Study Delimitations Despite the vast amount of twelve-tone literature and materials available for this study, it is only intended as an experiment as to how some of these concepts can be incorporated into a traditional jazz setting and therefore will not be comprehensive in its scope. Therefore, significant information, including information that could potentially be useful within this context, was omitted from this study in the consideration of time restraints and succinctness.

Limitations There is little to no documentation in jazz history literature that documents historical figures that may have experimented with these ideas within the same context this study proposes to do. Therefore, it will be difficult and sometimes not possible to find many, if not most, of the relevant recordings and available transcriptions.

Review of Literature

Due to the limited scope of this study, it only focuses on studying twelve-tone literature in three books: The Tone Clock, by Peter Schat, Thesaurus of Scales and

Melodic Patterns, by Nicolas Slonimsky and Introduction to Post-Tonal Theory by Joseph N. Straus.

The Tone Clock is utilized as a guide for creating rows by using Schats system of organizing rows into three-note groupings.

The Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns is utilized to find symmetrical tone rows and other twelve-tone patterns more commonly heard and used in twelve-tone music.

Introduction to Post-Tonal Theory is utilized as a guide for the author to the common practice, history and terminology of twelve-tone music in twentieth century music.

Methodology

Sources of Data The sources of twelve-tone music used for this project come from the previously listed literature as well as the authors own creative work.

Treatment of Data Research was done to find twelve-tone rows within the literature that can fit into the common chord progressions found in All the Things You Are. An analysis of the

work is found in the next section of the paper that indicates the sources of the rows and how they were made to fit the structure of All The Things You Are.

Analysis
For this analysis, we will look at each row in the etude All the Tones You Are and discuss: 1. How the row is constructed, 2. How it is intended to be justified within the tonal confines of All the Things You Are and, 3. Does it work or not?

All of the provided excerpts are in treble clef, A-flat major and 4/4 time.

Row #1, Measures 1-2, Slonimsky #1296

1st Chorus

b-7 b n n n bbbb c b n &


F -7 B

#1296/ Slonimsky

This row is an example of four triads of the fourth hour (0-1-5) combining to make a row. Its justification was attempted by matching its rhythm with that of the original transcribed phrase and by adding a note at the end so that it could complete all

twelve notes. Also, the first and last note of the phrase match the original phrase and are strong harmonic notes of the chords (c and f.) The F isnt quite as effective as the C because it falls on beat two instead of one. Overall, this row works moderately well, but is certainly not one of the most effective of the etude.

Row #2, Measures 2-4, Slonimsky #1286

#1286/ Slonimsky

b7

b Maj7

b n b

This row combines one major and one minor triad with two diminished triads. It is displaced by one note, C, which happens at the end of the phrase. This same C is the goal note of this row, as it is the beginning of the next, tonal phrase from the original transcription. Overall, this works moderately well, but not great.

Row #3, Measures 5-7, Graham #1

#1/ Graham

b Maj7 D -7 G7 bb c # n &b b J n
D

C Maj7

n n

This row was constructed directly from the original phrase that was played. By taking advantage of the key change here, only a couple of notes had to be changed to

make this a twelve-tone row. This is a prime example of an important discovery made during the composing of this etude: The more tonal these rows can be made to sound through harmonic justification, the less effective they are as a means for creating unique devices in a tonal setting. Because of this, this is one of the weakest of the twelve-tone phrases outlined in this study.

Row #4, Measures 8-10, Slonimsky #1252

#1252/ Slonimsky

C -7

F -7

n n b b n n n #

This row starts on the low E-flat and ends on the B of the second measure. As with the second row, it is a quadritonal arpeggio built on two major and two minor triads and is displaced by two notes. The first three notes are from the transcription and are clearly in a C-minor tonality. The fact that the first three notes form a minor triad helps to justify using a row that is made up of all major and minor triads (0-3-7 or the 11th hour as described in The Tone Clock.) The final measure of this example is from the transcription and is an attempt at extending the C-minor tonality over the F-7 chord. Its debatable as to whether or not this works, but the addition of the tone row preceding it has the effect of making these notes sound more rational than before. As well, the Anatural in this measure has the effect of implying F7 (ii7 of E-flat Major) which is then

resolved at the end of the next measure by descending from A-flat to G on one of the Eflat major 7 chord (see Row #5.)

Row #5, Measures 10-12, Graham #2 (Derived from 6th hour in The Tone Clock)

#2/ Graham("6th hour" from "Tone Clock")

b7 b E Maj7 n n # n J # n n b b
B

j b j n

This row is constructed of two complimentary hexatonic scales, each of which implies a major tonality (A-major and E-flat major.) This is also based on both the 6th hour (0-2-4) and Slonimsky pattern #1293, and it is an attempt to imply a tri-tone substitution (bII7/E7), followed by a standard V7 dominant chord (Bb7.) As mentioned regarding the previous phrase, the A-flat to G resolution between the first and second bars of this example resolve the A-natural which is clashing against the A-flat contained in the F-7 chord. This works well, but when played, it is a little too smooth to raise any eyebrows as to its unique content.

Row #6, Measures 13-15, Slonimsky #1294

#1294/Slonimsky

bMaj7

A -7

D7

G Maj7

j j # n n. n j # n n b n. n . n # n

This row is the first attempt at using intervals wider than a sixth. It is built on two different tri-chords, 0-3-7(the 11th hour) and (0-2-5) and is aimed at the E-flat on the fourth beat of the second bar which then resolves in to GMaj7 on the third bar. The wide intervals as well as the fact that the first five notes of the row are in the key of A-flat make this work very well. The wide intervals sound dissonant and consonant at the same time, and the dissonant notes come in the middle before shifting again to notes within the harmony (B, Eb and F which are the 13th, flat and sharp ninths of D7, respectively.)

Row #7, Measures 17-20, Graham #3

#3/ Graham (derived from moving groups of perfect 5ths in minor 3rds)

A -7

D7

G Maj7

n j j # . n j n # . J n n # . n n n n n. n

As already described, this row uses groups of 3 perfect fifths and moves them up in minor third intervals. The rhythm is derived from the original transcription and has some nice landing spots in between the dissonant moments. There is a nice ascending A-

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Dorian scale that is hidden in this example connecting the first A with the final G (displaced by an octave) at the end of the last measure. This phrase is very effective and it is one of several examples of how versatile rows built on 4th and 5th relationships can be.

Row #8, Measures 21-23, Slonimsky #1219a

#1219a/ Slonimsky

#-7 E Maj7 3 C 7 #5 B7 . j # n n n # n b n n # b
F

Here again is a row constructed with 4ths/5ths, but this time ascending in wholesteps. It works on several levels by starting on six notes contained in the F#-7 chord and by aiming at the D on the end of three of the second measure which then resolves down to a B. This is not an uncommon fourths pattern in jazz circles, and as such it is not as fresh sounding as many of the other phrases presented here. The repetitive movement also belies a general lack of character. That said, it is a very functional row, and with some rhythmic and/or octave displacement could yield better results.

Row #9, Measures 26-28, Slonimsky #1227a

11

#1227a/ Slonimsky

b B -7

b 7(b 9)

b Maj7

n b n n n

This is the second row used that attempts to make use of larger interval leaps. This pattern is constructed of alternating minor sevenths and major thirds (with a fourth in between the sixth and seventh note to re-set the cycle.) The goal note of this phrase is the C on beat one of the third measure, and this transposition of the row was used because of the implied dominant sound that the final two notes (Eb and Db) create. It is one of the most effective of the rows contained within this etude and it is interesting to note that only two of the notes in the collection cannot be rationalized as extensions or normal chord tones (Gb over Bb-7 and D-natural over the Eb7(b9) chord.)

Row #10-11, Measures 30-35, Slonimsky #1232a and #1232b

#1232a/ Slonimsky (Converging Spiral)

bMaj7 b D -7 C -7 bb j n # n b n j &b b c n. J # ( ) 3 b b b B dim7 B -7 E 7 A Maj7 G m7(b 5) C 7( b 9) . J n n b n n b # n


D
#1232b/ Slonimsky (Diverging Spiral)

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Two tone rows are included here to demonstrate a more expansive use of the concept over larger portions of the exercise. Most notably, the first of the rows is a converging spiral that aims at Bb, and the second row is a diverging spiral that aims at Ab, which is of course the final tonic of the form. The basic thematic material here is borrowed from the original transcription with a couple of notes changed to fit the spiral concept. As indicated in the example, the E-natural to Eb leap in the Db-7 measure is connected with the Bb-G leap that begins the Bdim7 measure: The spiral begins on the first leap and is just completed when the second leap occurs making for an effective bit of thematic development. The second spiral aims at the final Ab and is made even more effective through its incorporation of the standard melodic material that proceeds and follows the actual row. The thing that makes these spirals especially effective is that they can be plainly heard to be approaching certain notes in much the same way that one could anticipate the final conclusion of a scale. However, their use is limited by this same attribute, and they are perhaps only effective if used sparingly.

Row #12, Measures 38-41, Slonimsky #1214a

b-7

b 7(b 9)

b Maj7

#1214a/ Slonimsky

n b # n n n n n

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This row begins on the Bb that occurs on the end of the first beat of the second measure and ends on the Gb on the third beat of the third measure. It is constructed of augmented triads (displaced by one note) and it is aimed at the previously mentioned Gb. This note doesnt fit the harmony of Ab but it works by implying an Ab7 that naturally leads to the Db major tonality that occurs in the next measure. This row works moderately well and works better than if the notes of some of the triads were not displaced by an octave as they are here. These larger interval leaps supply the character to this line.

Row #13, Measures 41-44, Slonimsky #1231a

b Maj7

#1231a/ Slonimsky

D -7

G7

C Maj7

n # # n n n n n.
Row #14, Measures 44-48, Graham #4 (derived from 4th hour)

This row is one of the most effective of the etude. It incorporates 6 consecutive major seventh leaps but still manages to have a delayed resolution at the end. The rhythmic material is derived from the original transcription and the row is aimed at the C in the third measure. It is one of the best uses of a row in the etude.

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#4 Graham (Derived from 4th hour)

C -7
3

F -7

b 7(b 9)

3 # b j j n . n b n n n 3

This row is constructed of notes of the 4th hour. The three, circled notes are original notes from the transcription and also form a 4th hour triad which was the inspiration for its use. They also represent the first time in the etude that multiple target notes were aimed at within one row, something made more difficult by having to construct the entire row with only 4th hour triads. It has a decent effect, and the line of target notes helps to hold it together.

Row #15, Measures 49-52, Slonimsky #1236b

bMaj7

#1236b/ Slonimsky

A -7

D7

G Maj7

n n n j b j n n n b n

This row is quite simply a diverging whole-tone spiral. It is created by playing one whole tone scale descending on the downbeats while playing the other whole-tone scale ascending on the upbeats. Its aimed at the final E that constitutes the sixth scale degree of the new key modulated to at the bridge. This row, while having an interesting

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sound and effect, doesnt work very well for a couple of reasons. Firstly, its range, with leaps as big as 12ths and 13ths, does not easily fit the character of the saxophone or for playing eighth notes in a standard jazz setting. Also, the alternating whole-tone scales provide a sense of symmetry without any sense of motion; in some of the rows previously covered, there are certain tonal implications that can be used as well as asymmetrical themes that are longing for resolutions.

Row #16, Measures 52-55, Graham #5 (9th hour)

A -7
Graham #5/ 9th hour

D7

G Maj7

3 # n n # n n n. n

The rhythmic and implied tonal movement for this row was taken from the original transcription. It begins on the F# on beat one of the first measure and ends on the E-flat of the second. It is constructed using the 9th hour as its basis, and all of the notes can be justified as primary or extended members of the chord changes presented. This fact is at once the reason why it does work, and the reason it doesnt. As discussed with Row #5, the tonal effect is too bland and even seems to even obscure the fact that it is even a twelve-tone construction. On the other hand, if one were to improvise using the twelve-tone system as his main palate, it would be effective to use phrases such as these to balance out the use of the more outwardly dissonant constructions. Worth noting is that this row also implies a ii-7/bII7/IMaj7 movement.

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Row #17, Measures 55-57, Slonimsky #1236b

#1236b/ Slonimsky

# j n n n # n

#-7 n
F

# n b # n n
3

This row is another diverging whole-tone spiral (see Row #15,) but it seems to be slightly more effective than the phrase previously discussed. The fact that it so clearly aims at the high Ab, which then resolves in a standard be-bop clich pattern, gives it more motion and resolution than before.

Row #18, Measures 58-61, Slonimsky #1299

B7

#1299/ Slonimsky
3

E Maj7

C 7 #5

n # n n b # n

n #

What is most interesting about this Slonimsky pattern is that it too is a diverging whole-tone spiral. The only difference is that the notes have been transposed up an octave halfway through the second measure, thus avoiding the awkward large leaps that exist in the previous whole-tone spiral examples. As well, the diverging whole-tone spiral turns out to be an alternating combination of 0-2-5 and 0-1-3 tri-chords (the 17

seventh and second hour,) a combination suggested by Peter Schat in The Tone Clock. Once again, this use of the spiral is more effective than the first because of its smooth incorporation into the tonal line that begins and ends the phrase. It is aimed at the Enatural on beat one of the third measure, an effective progression because E is the next note in the spiral pattern.

Row #19, Measures 63-65, Graham #6 (consecutive perfect 4ths)

b 7(b 9) #6/ Graham A b Maj7 b D Maj7 n 3 j J b b b

The construction of this row speaks for itself. Besides pointing out that it is constructed by using the circle of 4ths, it should also be noted that the beginning note of the cycle was chosen carefully so as to give it a tonal relationship with the chords. The final few notes of the row are an implied D7 sound that helps to tonicize DbMaj7 on the next measure. Its symmetry is a little bland, but the variation in the rhythm and the flowing shape of the line help to make this more effective than it otherwise could be. In any case, it is another instance of a phrase built on patterns using fourths and fifths as the subject.

Rows #20-21, Measures 65-72, Slonimsky #1290 and Graham #7 (diminished chords)

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b Maj7 b C -7 #1290/ Slonimsky B dim7 D -7 b . b . n b & b bb c j n J J # n n n b-7 b b b b B E 7 A Maj7 G m7( 5) C 7 ( 9) b & b bb n n # n b #7/ Graham
D

Two rows are shown here to demonstrate an attempt to outline a larger guide-tone figure using more than one row. As outlined in the diagram, the target notes are E-

natural, Eb, E-natural (again), A-natural, Bb, G and F. Since most of these notes fall on downbeats (or anticipated/delayed downbeats), it helps to give a strong sense of harmonic movement despite the presence of the tone rows. The first of these rows is a quadritonic construction built on the four available augmented triads. It was chose to be used here after carefully seeking a row that could successfully hit all of the target notes in the right places, as this one does. The second row makes use of the three available diminished tetra-chords and was chose because of its contract to the augmented sound and its flexibility of construction that allows the row to once again land on important target notes while still maintaining its own symmetrical integrity.

Row #22, Measures 74-77, Slonimsky #734

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b-7 #734/ Slonimsky E b 7(b 9) j b n b n b n

bMaj7

This row represents the etudes first exploration of Slonimskys rows that are not contained within the Twelve Tone Patterns section of the Thesaurus. It begins on the high F of the first measure and ends on its target note, the Eb that begins the third measure (which represents the beginning of a new phrase.) The combination of alternating dissonant intervals (major sevenths, tri-tones and fourths) is quite effective, as is the fact that the row spans the space of more than two octaves. Despite the large range, it is quite playable on the saxophone unlike the first two whole-tone spirals, which are unwieldy. This is one of the more effective phrases of the etude.

Rows #23-24, Measures 77-80, Graham #8 and Graham #9 (inspired by Slonimsky #754)

b D Maj7

#8/ Graham

#9/ Graham

D -7

C # .n n b n . 3 n nnn
3

G7

Maj7

n n # n

Both of these rows are original constructions that simply alter the notes of the original transcribed figures without changing the overall rhythm or direction of the line.

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The transition from DbMaj7 to CMaj7 allows the first row (which begins on beat three of the first measure) most of the notes of a twelve-tone row without having to use notes outside of the tonality. The only exception is the Ab in the second bar, which acts simply as a passing tone to A-natural. The second row begins where the first row ends, with an F# at the crest of the overall phrase. The CMaj7#11 tonality implied by the F# is continued through the row until the first four notes of the fourth measure which constitutes an Ab major tonality before returning to the C major tonality now that the row has been completed. This shift to the Ab-major sound and back to C major functions like a bVI7-I progression, but sounds abstract nevertheless. This characteristic of the second row makes it more effective than the first of this group which is somewhat bland it its adherence to the harmonic structure.

Row #25, Measures 82-85, Slonimsky #417

C -7

F -7

#417/ Slonimsky

b 7(b 9)

b Maj7

n n b n # # n j b j n n

This row is aimed at the F that appears on the downbeat of the fourth measure, and when its rhythm is displaced, it simply forms four distinct 0-1-2 (first hour) trichords moving in ascending minor thirds. The disjointedness of the wide interval leaps does a good job of disguising the chromaticism of the phrase and it is approached and resolved in a way that keeps it coherent within the overall framework of the chord

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structure. Notice how the last three notes of this phrase, which are resolving downward in a V-I movement to AbMaj7, constitute an 0-1-2 tri-chord. This row works exceptionally well, and it belongs in a class with the other phrases that employ several larger interval leaps including rows #6, 9, 13 and 22.

Row #26, Measures 86-89, Slonimsky #508

A -7

D7

G Maj7
3

b & b bb c
G Maj7
3

j n n # n n n n
3 3

n #

3 b 3

#508/ Slonimsky

A -7

3 b 3 & b bb n n n # b b b n n #

n J n.

n n

This row is a kind of answer phrase to the similar triplet phrase that precedes it. It is constructed by using groups of three notes that a separated by perfect fifths and repeating the pattern by descending in minor thirds. The transposition chosen for use here was chosen for two reasons: Firstly, it creates a tension and release pattern by starting with groups of notes not related to the key of G, cycling into groups of notes that are related to the key, and then going back out before resolving to the A-7 chord on beat one of the fourth measure. And secondly, it is aimed specifically at the A which begins the fourth measure. Notice, too, that the primary row ends midway through the third measure but the pattern is continued afterwards, the first instance of extending the tone

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row past the twelfth note that is contained in this etude. This phrase is very effective and also very difficult to play up to tempo.

Row #27, Measures 89-91, Slonimsky #370

A -7

#370/ Slonimsky

D7

G Maj7

bbbb & n.

n n n # n J n n #

This phrase is constructed of three identical tetra-chords moving in descending major thirds. It begins on the D-natural of the third beat of the first measure and is aimed at the D-natural that is positioned at the first beat of the third measure. The notes of these tetra-chords outline a dominant 13-chord sound, and as such, this phrase can be justified as a progression of dominant chords that eventually resolves to GMaj7 (G7-Eb7-B7GMaj7.) In final analysis, this is one of the more mediocre rows of the etude due to its obvious and repetitive symmetry.

Row #28, Measures 93-97, Slonimsky #415

B E 3 C 7 #5 3 3 3 3 b b c n bb n n n # b b n & J #
3

# F -7

#415/ Slonimsky

Maj7

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This row is similar to Row #26 in that it employs four three-note groups that are comprised of perfect fifth relationships moving in descending minor thirds. As with Row #26, this row is extended past the twelfth note in order to match the rhythm of the original phrase. But unlike Row #26, this row reverses the direction at the end for a nice effect. Notice the diatonic triplet pattern at the end of the fourth measure and how it thematically gels with the twelve-tone triplets that precede it.

Rows #29-31, Measures 99-109, Slonimsky Scale #12/Pattern #1, Slonimsky #1229a(variation), Graham #10 (quadritonal arpeggio)

Scale #12/Pattern #1/ Slonimsky

3 n b n j n n b n # n & b n b # b n b Maj7 b5 b9 A G m7( ) C 7( ) F -7 j bb &b b n

C min7 #1229a(variation)/ Slonimsky

b b b b 3 E 7( b 9) A Maj7 D Maj7 D -7 3 b bb n n # n # n n j n J n &b b c n b b B dim7 B -7 E 7 3


#10/ Graham
3

bbbb

This final example is an attempt to use three rows over a span that covers a longer guide-tone sequence than previously used. The guide-tones are circled in the example. The first row of this phrase is aimed at the first note in the sequence (F-natural at the end of the second measure) and it is based on one of Slonimskys Complimentary Scales.

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The second row is a variation on pattern #1229a, and it contains the third note of the guide-tone sequence (Eb) on the downbeat of beat one of the fifth measure, and the fourth note of the sequence (D-natural) on the up-beat of beat one of the sixth measure. The third and final tone row of the piece is a quadritonal arpeggio that uses two major and two minor triads. The C# on the downbeat of the eighth measure represents the fifth note of the guide-tone sequence. The final note of the sequence is also the final note of the etude; C-natural, which functions nicely as both the fifth of F-minor (where this exercise ends) or the third of Ab-major. For the most part, this seems to work well, but perhaps some better choices of rows could have been examined for this final sequence of phrases. That said, it does seem to reinforce the theory that if you can stick to a strong overall structure with guide-tones, or to simply landing on chordal tones on strong beats and aiming the rows accordingly, you can maintain a twelve tone color while still maintaining the harmonic integrity of the original chord changes.

Conclusions
There are several important conclusions to be drawn from this etude, all of which will enhance further study of the use of twelve tone rows over standard jazz chord progressions.

Apparent Symmetry vs. Hidden Symmetry

Upon examining all of the phrases of this piece, it becomes apparent that the ones that seem to be most musical and effective in their construction (i.e. Rows #6, 9, 13, 22 25

and 25 to name a few) are also the ones that have a more complex or hidden symmetry to their design. Conversely, most of the rows that are constructed from more simple or apparent symmetrical formulae (Rows #8, 19, 27 and 28 to name a few) are generally bland in color and also lack in their ability to catch the ears attention.

Methods of Justifying the Prevailing Tonality of a Given Section

Three basic principles are employed in an attempt to justify their use within the tonal confines of the chord changes where they occur:

1. 2. 3.

Justifying the notes through the existing chords, Justifying the notes through implied chord substitutions, and Justifying the notes through use of target or goal notes that fit into smaller or larger goal note or guide-tone sequences.

Justifying the notes through the existing chords Examples of this technique include Rows #3, 23 and 24. This concept seems to work fairly well, but when all of the notes can be justified within the basic tonality of the chords, as in Row #23, it tends to lose its punch. In a sense, these rows dont have enough symmetry, and they sound like theyre not going anywhere.

Justifying the notes through implied chord substitutions

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Examples of this technique include Rows #5, 16, 19 and 27. Most of these examples are instances of using a tri-tone substitution, and the end effect is just that: Instead of sounding like a twelve-tone row, they simply end up sounding like run-of-themill tri-tone substitution patterns. Row #27 is an exception to this as it implies a pattern of dominant chords descending in major-thirds before resolving to the I Maj7 chord via a III7-IMaj7 substitution. While that effect sounds more unique than the tri-tone substitutions, it is weakened by the bald rhythmic an intervallic symmetry of this phrase.

Justifying the notes through use of target or goal notes that fit into smaller or larger goal note or guide-tone sequences

Of the methods used, this is the most effective. Most of the rows of the piece are of this ilk and their respective functions are explained in the analysis section. The main reason why these phrases seem to be the most effective is that they allow for the true character of the twelve-tone sound to be expressed without being dulled by the traditional rules of harmony. Instead of using implied chord changes or even upper-extensions to justify the notes, the construction of the row acts as its own justification and in the best examples, this is apparent to the listener. Instead of creating dissonance by using substitution chords to embellish the V-I relationship, these rows use patterns that create a kind of linear dissonance . With this approach, notes that are completely outside of the chord (for example, a major 7 on a dominant chord) can be used to great effect without having to stick to the traditional rules of using non-harmonic notes. As well, when these phrases are prepared and concluded properly through use of goal notes and the other previously

27

discussed techniques, they complete a tonal resolution and do not sound free or out just for the sake of being so.

Use of Larger Intervals

Phrases that use intervals larger than a third, either consecutively or in consistent alternation with other intervals, are among the most effective of this etude. Good examples of this formula include Rows# 6, 9, 13, 22 and 25. In them we find several major and minor seventh leaps, fourths and tri-tones. As with hidden symmetry, these leaps are one of the things that defines the most successful of the phrases composed for this project. These leaps create a unique sound and tension that is not commonly found in improvised jazz solos which tend to lean on scales and patterns of thirds, fourths and sixths for the majority of its material.

There is a considerable amount of work still to be done with this concept, but this project and the lessons learned from it constitute a considerable step in the right direction towards finding new ways to incorporate these concepts into improvising on standard jazz repertory.

28

Selected Bibliography

BOOKS Schat, Peter. The Tone Clock. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993. Slonimsky, Nicolas. Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns. New York: Schirmer Books, 1975. Straus, Joseph N. Introduction to Post-Tonal Theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1990.

29

Concert

All the Tones You Are


Alex Graham
1st Chorus #1296/ Slonimsky

b-7 #1286/ Slonimsky b 7 b 9 E ( ) b n n n bb c b n &b b n b n b b b D Maj7 #1/ Graham D -7 G7 C Maj7 A Maj7 #1252/ Slonimsky bb & b b J # n n n n 4 b b B 7 ( 9) #2/ Graham("6th hour E b Maj7 C -7 F -7 bbbb # n n b b n n n J n # n # n n b b & n b j n j 9 b G Maj7 D7 A Maj7 #1294/Slonimsky A -7 j j bbbb # # n n n. b n n n j & n. n # . n 13
F -7 B A -7

j j n # . # J n n n # . n j n n . n n n n. 17 B7 E Maj7 C 7 #5 # #1219a/ Slonimsky F -7 3 . j bb n n n j # b n &b b # n b # n 21 b b b b b F -7 B -7 #1227a/ Slonimsky E 7 ( 9) A Maj7 D Maj7 bb n j & b b n j b b n n n 25 b-7 b D C -7 B -7 #1232b/ Slonimsky B dim7 #1232a/ Slonimsky (Spiral) j n # n b . J bb & b b n. J # n n n b 30 b b b b b E 7 A Maj7 G m7( 35) C 7 ( 9) F -7 B -7 2nd Chorus j bbbb n & n n b # n n 34 b b b E 7 (b 9) D Maj7 #1231a/ Slonimsky D -7 G7 A Maj7 # bb # n &b b n b n # n n n n 39 n #1214a/ Slonimsky
2005

b & b bb

#3/ Graham

D7

G Maj7

All the Tones You Are 2 #4/ Graham (Derived from 4th hour)

C Maj7

C -7
3

F -7

j # j b n . n n. n n n 43 3 A -7 D7 b b b b B 7 ( 9) E Maj7 A Maj7 #1236b/ Slonimsky (diverging whole-tone spiral) 3 bb . j j j & b b b n n n n n b b n 47 bb &b b n


G Maj7 A -7
#5/ Graham (9th hour)

D7
3

# n n n n 51 3 #1236b/ Slonimsky (diverging whole-tone spiral) # F G Maj7 B7 n-7 3 j n n # # n n bbbb n n b # & n. n n # n 55 bbbb & n n n # n n
#1299/ Slonimsky (combines 9th hour and 2nd hour)
3

E Maj7

C 7 #5

F -7

b-7

bb &b b
59

n b 7(b 9)
3

n b # #
A

bMaj7

# b b D Maj7 D -7

#6/ Graham (consecutive 4ths)

bb &b b
63

b . b j J n j J n b b b b b C -7 B dim7 B -7 E 7
#1290/ Slonimsky

b b . n n n n # b &b b J # n n n 67 #7/ Graham (dimished tetrachords) b Maj7 b5 7 b9 A G m7( ) C ( ) b b b F -7 B -7 #734/ Slonimsky E 7 ( 9) 3rd chorus bbbb j j b n b & n b 71 n C Maj7 b b #9/ Graham (inspired by Slonimsky #754) #8/ Graham D -7 D Maj7 G7 3 A Maj7 # . n n b . bb n n n n &b b n n 76 3 b

All the Tones You Are 3

C Maj7

C -7
3 3

F -7

#417/ Slonimsky

b 7(b 9)

n n # n #508/ Slonimsky A -7 D7 G Maj7 b b 3 E Maj7 A Maj7 3 n # b bb n & b b n j b j J j n n # n n n 84


80 3 3

bb &b b

n # n b n # n n

G Maj7 3
3

A -7
3

#370/ Slonimsky

D7

b b n & b b n n #
88

n #

b b

G Maj7

b n n. # F -7

n n n # # J n
B7
3

bb & b b n n
91

E Maj7
3

3 n n n n n # # J n n b C 7 #5 F -7 B -7 3

#415/ Sloinimsky

3 3 b 3 bbbb j J & n n b n b J 95 b b b b b E 7 ( 9) A Maj7 D Maj7 D -7 3 Scale 3 b #12, Pattern #1 with complimentary scale/ Slonimsky bb n n # n n # n n j n J n &b b 99 3 b b #1229a/ Slonimsky (variation) B dim7 B -7 E 7 3 3 bbbb b n n b j n # n & n n n b b # b n 103 #10/ Graham (3 major and 1 minor triad) b b Fine C 7 (b 9) F -7 A Maj7 G m7( 5) bb j &b b n 107