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# REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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UNIT 10
TORSION

O BJE C T I VE S

GENERAL OBJECTIVE To understand the principles of torsion reinforcement design. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit you will be able to: 1. 2. 3. explain torsion failure in beams. explain the effects of torsion reinforcements. design torsion reinforcements for beams.

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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INPUT 1

10.1

Introduction

For this unit, reference should be made to Section 2.4, Part 2 of BS8110 regarding the design of torsion reinforcement. This unit is concerned with the design calculations for torsional reinforcement when torsion is of a particular importance. In normal slab-and-beam or framed construction, torsional reinforcement is normally not provided because torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. This is stated in Clause 2.4.1 of the code.

10.2

## Torsion in plain concrete beams

When a plain concrete beam is subjected to pure torsion, the torsional moment, T induces shear stresses, which produce tensile stresses at 45 to the longitudinal axis. When the maximum tensile stress reaches the tensile strength of the concrete, diagonal cracks form, which tend to spiral round the beam.

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10.3

## Effects of torsional Reinforcement

A plain concrete beam fails as soon as diagonal cracking occurs. Torsion reinforcement in the form of longitudinal bars and closed links will carry the force resulting from the torsional moments. The longitudinal bars are distributed evenly round the inside perimeter of the links. The truss analogy is used to calculate the shear resistance of the beam. In this analogy, longitudinal bars act as stringers, the legs of the links acting as posts and the concrete between the cracks as the compression diagonals. Refer to Figure 10.2 on the next page.

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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kL  L 2 f ! 0.8 f cu 1  k  2 L L! ! c ,1 0.0022

k!
0.8fcu

1.4 c ,1 ) 0 f cu

3) 0 f cu

.001

.002

.003

.0035

Figure 10.2 Stress strain curve for rigorous analysis of non -critical sections

T = ultimate torsion moment of resistance As = total area of longitudinal reinforcement Asv = area of the two legs of each link fy = yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement fyv = yield strength of the link sv = longitudinal spacing of the link x1 = the smaller dimension between the corner bars y1 = the larger dimension between the corner bars

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## Considering a length sv of the beam, we have, Tensile force in links, F=

Asv v 0.87 f y sv

## Moment of force F about the centre line, = Fv

x1 for vertical legs 2

= F

## The torsion moment,

x T = F v 1 v 2 + 2 y F v 1 v 2 2

Torsion resistance, T=
Asv 2

x y y x A = .87 f yv 1 1 v 2 sv .87 f yv 1 1 v 2 0 0 s s 2 v 2 v 2

Therefore, T=
Asv v x1 y1 .87 f yv v 0.8 0 sv

0.8 is the coefficient factor to be taken into account as inaccuracy may occur. The closed link should be provided such that,
Asv T u sv 0.8 x1 y1 (0.87 f yv )

and As u

Asv f yv ( x1  y1 ) sv f y

*Note that fy and fyv should not be taken as greater than 460 N/mm 2

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## ACTI ITY 10a

Fill in the blanks. 10.1 Torsional reinforcement is designed according to Clause

______________ Part 2 of BS 8110. 10.2 Torsional crack is normally adequately controlled by ______________ reinforcement. Thus torsion need not be designed in a framed construction. 10.3 Torsional shear stresses induce tensile stress at __________________ to the longitudinal axis. 10.4 Diagonal cracks occur when the maximum torsional tensile stress reaches the tensile strength of the _______________________. 10.5 10.6 10.7 Diagonal cracks form due to torsional failure _______ round the beam. _______________ analogy is used to calculate torsional shear stresses. To determine torsional shear resistance of a beam, the ____________ analogy is used. 10.8 10.9 Torsion reinforcement is provided consisting of _____and _____ links. The area of links required is calculated using this equation: ___________________. 10.10 The equation in Question 9 above, x1 is the ____________ dimension and y1 the _______________ dimension between the corner bars.

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## FEED ACK 10a

Did you manage to get all the answers correct? Here are the answers. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 2.4.1 shear 45 concrete spiral sand-heap truss longitudinal bars, closed Asv u
Asv f yv x1  y1 sv f y

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INPUT 2

10.4

Torsional Shear Stress Torsion usually exists in combination with shear stress and bending. It is very rare that torsion acts alone. Therefore when bending reinforcement is required, the longitudinal torsion reinforcement area can be increased. This is done either by providing additional bars or by increasing the bar size. Because of the combination of bending, shear and torsional forces, a greater amount of reinforcement is needed.

10.5

Detailing Requirements As required by Clause 2.4.8 of the code, spacing of links, sv must not exceed the least of x1,
y1 or 200 mm. The links are of the closed type complying 2

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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The longitudinal reinforcement is to be distributed evenly round the inside perimeter of the links. So, the clear distance between these bars is not to exceed 300 mm and there are at least four bars. One on each corner of the links is to be used. All longitudinal torsion bars should extend a distance at least equal to the largest dimension of the section beyond where it ceases to be required. For more information please refer to Clause 2.4.8, 2.4.9.and 2.4.10 of the code. 10.6 Reinforcement for Torsion Torsional reinforcement is required when the torsional shear stress, vt exceed the minimum torsional shear stress, vt,min . Values of vt,min are given in Table 2.3 of the code. In order to ensure that the crushing of concrete will not occur, (v + vt) must not be greater than vtu. vtu is the maximum combined shear stress (shear plus torsion) and is calculated as follows; Vtu = 0.8
f cu or 5 N/mm2

To avoid chipping of the corner of small section, where y1 < 550 mm, vt must
y not exceed vtu v 1 as stated in Clause 2.4.5 of BS 8110. Table 2.4 of BS 550

8110 gives guidelines of providing reinforcement for a combination of shear and torsion as below: v vt,min Nominal shear reinforcement, no torsion reinforcement. Designed shear reinforcement, no torsion reinforcement. v > vt,min Designed torsion reinforcement only.

v vc

v > vc

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ACTIVITY 10b

Now, lets do some calculations based on the questions given below. You can refer to BS 8110 for some technical terms. Good luck!

10.11 The beam section given below is subjected to a torsional moment, T = 150 kNm. A cover of 30 mm is provided.

300mm

700mm

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a)

## Calculate vt,min Calculate vtu Complete the following table;

b) c)

Form of reinforcement Nominal shear reinforcement. Designed torsion reinforcement only. Designed shear reinforcement, no torsion reinforcement. Designed shear and torsion reinforcement.

Conditions to be met

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2T

= 5.56 N/mm2

d)

e)

2 hmin hmax

hmin 3

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b)

vtu = 0.8

f cu

## = 0.8 30 = 4.38 N/mm2

c) Form of reinforcement Nominal shear reinforcement, no torsion reinforcement Designed torsion reinforcement only Designed shear reinforcement, no torsion reinforcement Designed shear and torsion reinforcement Conditions to be met vt vt,min v vc vt > vt,min v vc vt vt,min v > vc vt > vt,min v > vc

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INPUT 3

10.7

Design Example

A rectangular beam section is shown in Figure 10.3. It is subjected to a bending moment of 170 kNm, shear force of 160 kN and torsional moment of 10 kNm. If the characteristic strength of concrete and steel reinforcement are fcu = 30 N/mm2 and 460 N/mm2 respectively, calculate the torsion reinforcement required. Note: As required for bending moment was found to be 1100 mm2 and
Asv ! 0.79 from earlier calculations. sv

Asv/sv = 0.79
500mm

As = 1100 mm2

300mm

Solution

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Step 1:

Asv ! 0.79 sv

Step 2:

vt =

2T

## 2 v 10 6 300 300 2 500 3

= 0.56 N/mm2

Step 3:

0.56 > 0.37 (From Table 2.4, BS 8110) Therefore torsion reinforcement is required.

Step 4:

v=

= 1.19 N/mm2

Therefore,

## v tu y1 4.38 v 440 ! 550 550

Vt <

v tu y1 as required. 550

2 hmin hmax

hmin 3

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= 0.55

Full

## Asv ! 0.79  0.55 sv

= 1.34
A Provide R10 at 100mm centre rectangular closed link sv ! 1.57 s v

## Step 6: Longitudinal steel;

A As = sv s v f yv f x1  y1 y 250 240  440 460

= 0.55 v

= 203 mm2

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T12

T12

## R10 at 100mm centre

T12

T12

T25

T20

T25

Step 7:

The torsional reinforcement is to be extended at least a distance equal to 500 mm beyond the point where it ceases to be required.

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SUMMARY

1.

Determine the area of reinforcement, As and Asv to carry bending moment and shear using the methods discussed in Unit 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9.

2.

Calculate torsional shear stress by using equation 2 of Part 2, BS8110. The equation is reproduced below; vt = 2T

3.

## When vt > vtmin torsional reinforcement is required.

4.

Check that v + vt is not greater than vtu for section having y1 < 550 mm.

5.

## Calculate additional shear reinforcement by using the equation.

Asv T ! sv 0.8 x1 y1 (0.87 f yv )

6.

## Calculate additional longitudinal reinforcement by using the equation,

A As = sv s v f yv f x1  y1 y

7.

Fulfill detailed requirements for; a) b) c) spacing of links form of links distance to be extended

2 hmin hmax

hmin 3

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SELF-ASSESSMENT

Given the following information: hmin = 350 mm hmax = 800 mm T = 105 kNm

As = 762 mm2
Asv = 0.35 sv

A. Calculate;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Asv sv

## the additional As the total

Asv A (torsion) and sv (shear) sv sv

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10.

the proposed size and spacing of closed links required. State the Asv proposed. sv

11.

the proposed longitudinal torsion bars required (from item 7) . State As provided.

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A. 1. vt =
2T

= 2.51 N/mm2

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

= 1.60 mm

2 hmin hmax

hmin 3

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8.

= 1616 mm2

9.

Total

11.

## T16 (As = 1809 mm2 )

B. Reinforcement details;

3T16

2T16

2T16

2T25 + 2T16

END OF UNIT 10