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THOMISM AND ASIAN CULTURES: CELEBRATING 400 YEARS OF DIALOGUE ACROSS CIVILIZATIONS 23-26 May 2011 University of Santo

Tomas, Espaa, Manila, Philippines

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Mark Anthony Dacela DLSU Philosophy Department

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

S believes that P 1. P is a religious belief. 2. S believes that P

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

1. P is a religious belief. 2. S believes that P 1. S has faith if S believes that P. 2. S believes that P if S has faith.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

1. P is a religious belief. 2. S believes that P 1. S has faith if S believes that P. 2. S believes that P if S has faith.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

1. P is a religious belief. 2. S believes that P 1. S has faith if S believes that P. 2. S believes that P if S has faith.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

1. P is a religious belief. 2. S believes that P 1. S has faith if S believes that P. 2. S believes that P if S has faith.

Belief that P requires Faith

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs believes that

1. S has Faith. 2. P is a religious belief. 3. S believes that P

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs believes that

1. S has Faith. 2. P is a religious belief. 3. S believes that P a. Given 1, Is S justified in believing that P?

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener!

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

S1

S2

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

S1

S2

The Absent Gardener


S1 and S2 have justified beliefs

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

S1

S2

The Wager
S1 and S2 have justified beliefs

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

S1

S2

The Wager
S1 and S2 have justified beliefs Why must we wager that there is a gardener?

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
[A + B + C]

The Deluded Believer

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
[A + B + C]

The Deluded Believer


Suppose that x coheres with [a+b+c]

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
[A + B + C]

The Deluded Believer


Suppose that x coheres with [a+b+c] S is justified in believing x.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs

believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs believes that

S justified in believing that P if and only if:


1. 2. 3. 4. Ss belief that P coheres with Ss other beliefs Ss belief that P is grounded on a nondoxastic experience. Ss belief that P is a product of a reliable cognitive process P warrants Ss assent = Df . a. P is produced and sustained by properly working and appropriately designed epistemic faculties in a given cognitive environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Aquinas Epistemology of Faith

1. God proposes the objects of faith . 2. God-infused virtue predisposes the will to respond positively to the objects of faith. 3. Moved by the will the intellect gives its assent to the objects proposed by God.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: God proposes the objects of faith to the intellect

GOD

believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: Only God can propose the things of faith

GOD
believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: Epistemic role of the intellect

GOD
believes that

intellect

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: Epistemic role of the intellect

GOD
believes that

intellect

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: Epistemic role of the will

GOD
believes that

will
intellect

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: epistemic role of the will

GOD
believes that

will
intellect

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: Epistemic role of Gods grace

GOD
believes that

will
intellect

Gods grace

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: The movement of Faith

will

intellect

GOD

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


A: The movement of Faith will intellect

GOD

1. Virtue-infused will predisposes the believer to give her assent. 2. A properly functioning will produces religious beliefs.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hicks phenomenological analysis

1. A faith conducive environment enables a believer to have a religious experience of the world.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: Faith as interpretative element within our cognitive religious experience

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: All experiencing is experiencing-as

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to recognize what is before us as an x involves being in a dispositional state to act in relation to it in a certain distinctive way or range of ways

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to recognize what is before us as an x involves being in a dispositional state to act in relation to it in a certain distinctive way or range of ways Recognition

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to recognize what is before us as an x involves being in a dispositional state to act in relation to it in a certain distinctive way or range of ways Recognition

Disposition

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: A dispositional response is a response in terms of our involvement with our neighbours within our common environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: A dispositional response is a response in terms of our involvement with our neighbours within our common environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: A dispositional response is a response in terms of our involvement with our neighbours within our common environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: A dispositional response is a response in terms of our involvement with our neighbours within our common environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to experience the world as having a certain character is, among other things, to be in a dispositional state to live in the manner which such a character renders appropriate.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to experience the world as having a certain character is, among other things, to be in a dispositional state to live in the manner which such a character renders appropriate.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to experience the world as having a certain character is, among other things, to be in a dispositional state to live in the manner which such a character renders appropriate.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick: to experience the world as having a certain character is, among other things, to be in a dispositional state to live in the manner which such a character renders appropriate.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Hick : Faith as interpretative element within our cognitive religious experience

Epistemic Community

Disposition

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

God
will believer

Dispositional State
intellect Objects of faith

Community of believers

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

God
will believer

Dispositional State
intellect Objects of faith

Community of believers

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

believes that

God
will believer

Dispositional State
intellect Objects of faith

Community of believers

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

believes that

God
will believer

Dispositional State
intellect Objects of faith

Community of believers

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

1.God proposes the objects of faith to the intellect. (Aquinas) 2.God-infused virtue predisposes the will to respond positively to the objects of faith. (Aquinas) 3.A faith conducive environment enables her to have a religious experience of the world (Hick) reinforcing the wills predisposition to respond positively to the objects of faith. 4.The will coupled with the believers religious experience of the world moves the intellect to give its assent to the objects proposed by God. (Aquinas, Hick) 5. Moved by the will the intellect gives its assent to the objects proposed by God. (Aquinas)

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


God-infused virtue reinforced by the believers epistemic environment enable the will to produce and sustain beliefs about God.

believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


God-infused virtue reinforced by the believers epistemic environment enable the will to produce and sustain beliefs about God.

believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


The believers assent as a dispositional response is identified as the constitutive achievement of a virtue-infused will functioning
properly in an appropriate environment.

believes that

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Infusion of virtue
1.God proposes the objects of faith to the intellect. (Aquinas) 2. God-infused virtue predisposes the will to respond positively to the objects of faith. (Aquinas) 3. Virtue-infused will predisposes the believer to give her assent. 4. Virtue-infused will functions properly in an appropriate environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Reinforcement of virtue 1. A faith conducive environment enables her to have a religious experience of the world (Hick) reinforcing the wills predisposition to respond positively to the objects of faith. 2. The will coupled with the believers religious experience of the world moves the intellect to give its assent to the objects proposed by God. (Aquinas, Hick)

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Reinforcement of virtue
3. The believers assent is actually constituted within her lived cognitive experience shared with her epistemic community. 4. Whether or not the believer responds in the manner predisposed by virtue is partially determined by her cognitive environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Internal Justification

External Justification

believes that

Guarantees the proper functioning of the will

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

A. The believers assent moved by her religious experience of the world, is internally justified. B. Religious beliefs, insofar as they are products of virtue, are externally justified. C. Religious beliefs, insofar as they are produced and sustained by a properly working epistemic faculty (willinfused with virtue reinforced by the believers epistemic environment), are warranted.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH


Cognitive Phenomenon involving religious beliefs believes that

S justified in believing that P = Df .


1. 2. 3. 4. Ss belief that P coheres with Ss other beliefs Ss belief that P is grounded on a nondoxastic experience. Ss belief that P is a product of a reliable cognitive process P warrants Ss assent = Df . a. P is produced and sustained by properly working and appropriately designed epistemic faculties in a given cognitive environment.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

A. The believers assent moved by her religious experience of the world, is internally justified. B. Religious beliefs, insofar as they are products of virtue, are externally justified. C. Religious beliefs, insofar as they are produced and sustained by a properly working epistemic faculty (willinfused with virtue reinforced by the believers epistemic environment), are warranted.
A satisfies conditions 1 and 2 B satisfies conditions 3 C satisfies conditions 4

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener!

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
Gardener! No Gardener!

S1

S2

The Absent Gardener

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
God There is no God

S1

S2

The Absent Gardener


While both beliefs satisfied conditions 1 and 2 S1 is more justified in believing, if his belief is grounded on virtue (Condition 3)

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
God There is no God

S1

S2

The Wager
Why must we wager ?

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
God There is no God

S1

S2

The Wager
Why must we wager ? The wager is grounded on faith.

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
[A + B + C]

X S2

The Deluded Believer

FAITH AS REINFORCED VIRTUE: AQUINAS AND HICKS EPISTEMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FAITH

Faith Puzzles
[A + B + C]

X S2

The Deluded Believer


Given that faith satisfies all conditions 1,2,3 and 4, the faithful is not a deluded believer.