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TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter No 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.

7 INTRODUCTION 11 Industry Profile 12 Marketing Strategies 15 About Brand 15 Tools for building Brand Identity 18 Measuring Brand Effectiveness 21 Brand & Reputation 21 Brand Building 22
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2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 3 4 5 6 7 8 (i)

METHODOLOGY 35 Problem Definition 36 Objectives of the Study 36 Research Methodology 36 Research Design 36 Nature of Data 36 Types of sampling 36 Sampling Segment 36 Scope of the study 36 Justification 37 Limitations 37 LITERATURE REVIEW 38 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 40 FINDINGS 77 CONCLUSIONS 80 RECOMMENDATIONS 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 APPENDICES 87

LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO NO 1 TITLE Washing Products meets Requirements and Expectations. Detergent Markets have Much Range of Products to meet Consumers. Table showing Quality Rate and Usage of Detergent. Concerns which matters to Consumers about New Products. Which Quantity or Packets is Purchased by Consumers Mostly. Consumers satisfactions with Companys Environmental Concerns. Table showing Supply made in the Market. 43 PAGE

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Table showing Process which Derives the Market of Detergent. Table showing Relationship with the Suppliers. Function of Organization in Timely Introduction of New Products. The Response of Company in Responding to Customers Needs. Detergent which is Most Preferred by the Consumers. What Matters to Customers while buying New Products. Table showing on What basis Retailers make Purchase Frequency/Time duration for Purchase of Detergent. Table Showing Purchase Pattern.

55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71

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Which Quantity or Packet is Purchased by Retailers Mostly. 73 Table showing How Consumers Asks or Relates the Product. 75

LIST OF CHART CHART NO 1 TITLE Washing Products meets Requirements and Expectations. Detergent Markets have Much Range of Products to meet Consumers. Chart showing Quality Rate and Usage of Detergent. Concerns which matters to Consumers about New Products. Which Quantity or Packets is Purchased by Consumers Mostly. Consumers satisfactions with Companys Environmental Concerns. Chart showing Supply made in the Market. Chart showing Process which Derives the Market of Detergent. Chart showing Relationship with the Suppliers. 52 44 PAGE

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Function of Organization in Timely Introduction of New Products.

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The Response of Company in Responding to Customers Needs. Detergent which is Most Preferred by the Consumers. What Matters to Customers while buying New Products. Chart showing on What basis Retailers make Purchase Frequency/Time duration for Purchase of Detergent.
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62 64 66 68 70

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Chart Showing Purchase Pattern. 72 Which Quantity or Packet is Purchased by Retailers Mostly. 74 Chart showing How Consumers Asks or Relates the Product. 76

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The American Marketing Association defines a brand as A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors. A brand is thus a product or service thats adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand. Today the task and responsibilities of business executives have become critically important due to technological advancement, increasing awareness of people, growing size and complexity of business. Increasing participation of Govt. in the economy, rising standard of living and increasing completion. There is feeling that Indian corporate business has also entered from sellers market to buyers market in the business environment in general and because of increasing awareness among the buyers, increasing competitions in market, the study of buyer behavior, in consumer products are gaining importance in order to satisfy the needs and wants of people by providing correct products. The present study is aimed at examining the branding and its impact on consumers buying behavior; it is comprehensive study, restricted to Chennai market. Various sections of consumers i.e. Govt. servants, house wives, students and business men have been taken in the study with equal representation. The study is based on primary data collected on the basis of structured questionnaire/schedule. The study aims at to find out the factors/ motives behind the purchasing a using of particular brand, to find out the most popular factor, brand in market. After the analysis of collected data the main findings of this project and suggestions for appropriate policy implication are given in this report.

Industry Profile Detergent Detergent is a compound or a mixture of compound, intended to assist cleaning. Detergents are created in a way that:Water is an essential requirement in the cleaning process.
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Surfactants are added to remove grease from the clothes. Abrasives to rub off the dirt. Caustics are substances used to break up dirt particles. Softeners to deal with harshness of other components being used. Oxidizers are essentially used for bleaching. Enzymes to destroy any accumulation of properties, fats or carbohydrates in the form of dirt on fabrics. Apart from this, manufacturers optionally use other substances which add value to the washing experience. This includes fabric softeners, foaming agents, fragrances etc. The early method of production was by heating goat tallow with soda ash and conversion of this resulting soft soap to hard by salting out with sodium chloride brine. its original use seems to have been as shampoo and cosmetics. In the Western world, its use for personal cleanings made only slow progress between 600 B.C and 1600 A.D. Its medical properties were already known to Gallon. Market Penetration of Detergent in India

Detergent constitutes about 95 percent of total surfactants. Some of the important uses of detergent cake and powder are in:a) Hand Soaps and Shampoo.
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b) Special protective creams: cream including cold creams, vanishing creams, absorption base creams and creams for special purposed such as depilatories, deodorant etc. c) Cosmetics. d) Cleaning and degreasing of metals. e) Cleaning of glass and containers. f) Washing and treatment of food. g) Cleaning of painted surfaces. h) Cleaning of painted surfaces. i) Household washing. j) Removal of gelatin films. k) For making antiseptic soaps.

Different Brands of Detergent in Rural Areas of Tamil Nadu

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Marketing Strategies 6 Ps Followed by Detergent Manufacturers  PROMOTION: - QUALITY AND QUANTITY  PERFORMANCE: - PROCESS IN LOGISTIC AND MINIUM TIME TAKEN TO FUILFILL THE DEMAND  PREDICTABILITY: - DEMAND AND THE DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL REQUIRED  PRODUCTIVITY: - EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES  PROFITABILITY: - GAIN FOR DEALERS AND CUSTOMERS  PRODUCT: - VISIBILITY, SELLING OUT SUPPORT Other Marketing strategies of Detergent  Marketing channels and supply chain management.  Retailing and wholesaling  Integrated marketing communication strategy  Sales promotion and public relation  Personal selling and direct marketing  Segmented the detergent market  Door to door program  Village promotion and advertisement  Product robustness

What is Brand? The essence of the marketing process is building a brand in the minds of consumers. A brand is nothing more than a word in the mind, albeit a special kind of word. A brand name is a noun, a proper noun, which, like all proper nouns is usually spelled with a capital letter.

Any proper noun can be a brand. But what makes a brand powerful is the effectiveness of
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branding a company's ability to create a mood, thought, feeling, and definition for that brand such that the mere mention of the brand name co notates a greater meaning. The power of a brand lies in its ability to influence purchasing behavior.

A brand creates an identity in the minds of the customer. A brand name gets stored in the minds of the customer, and is subjected to positive or negative remarks from the customer based on the performance. However it cannot be changed without a purpose. Importance is given to branding right from a very long time. People will buy brands they recognize, regardless of whether or not they know or believe the claims, simply because there is comfort in that which is known.

Horizontal Brand Extension New industries are captured by formulating a suitable marketing strategy called horizontal brand extension. The business is prevented from loss by exploring new markets and hence curtailing the ambivalent economic shifts.

When an industry starts to show a loss caused by a lean patch in the economy it can have a rippling effect on not only the companies but also on their vendors, etc. To avoid the full impact of recession many companies are turning their marketing efforts from vertical to horizontal in an effort to safeguard the companies business.

There are three ways to capitalize on the market recovery and build your company to be stronger than before. 1. Market Extension allows you to cultivate new market segments for existing products/services 2. Application Extension allows you to qualify products/services for new applications 3. Product Extension allows you to develop new products/services/modifications for new markets and applications. Source: http://www.brandchannel.com/view_comments.asp?dc_id=52 1

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Challenges Consumer needs are assessed by proper research. Consumer demand will fail in case new products or changes in the existing products are not done. The brand will suffer if the products are neglected due to lack of quality. This requires extensive horizontal market research to make sure that first there really is a need and that second, you are familiar with the language of that market. Leveraging is carried out by the presence of the brand in order to attract new customers. By matching the relevant benefits to the pain areas of the customer, you can connect your brand with his psyche in a diligent way. At first, your extension should be easily conceivable by the customer. This requires combining your market research with your in-depth brand evaluation to find a connection. What aspect of your brand can be brought into this new position for appeal?

Brand message should be communicated in a grand but terse way. You must have functions in place to deliver your message. Whether it is done in-house or by utilizing partnerships to acquire new products, distribution channels, you must follow through on your branding or risk damaging your company. This requires an honest look at how this new venture will affect your brand. You also need to make sure that you can dedicate enough resources to this thesis to see it through to success.

Source: papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.../SSRN_ID1265073_code852572.pdf 2
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Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image; Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word, a slogan, a color, a symbol, and set of stories. Owned Word A strong brand name should trigger another word, a favorable one. Here is the list of brands that own a word: Volvo Safety BMW Driving Performance Mercedes Engineering Federal Express overnight Apple Computers Graphics Lotus Spreadsheets Kodak Film Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use. Here are some well-known brands slogans, which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: British Airways - The worlds favorite airline Ford - Quality is our number one job LIC - Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi

Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow. Yellow is the color of Kodak film. IBM uses blue in its publications, and IBM is called Big Blues.

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Symbols and Logos

Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson, hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness, to advertise its shoes. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols, even naming the product after them.

Beyond the logo: creating a distinctive brand Creating a consistent identity will make it easier for customers to buy. A professional appearance builds trust, making your business identity a boon to your sales force. As customers come to recognize and rely on your brand, youll build equity for future growth. Branding - Anything is Possible Consumers perceptions are harnessed by publishing success stories on the media and showing them what the company is capable of doing. Seeing the brands run in a competitive atmosphere there was a fast need to build up strategies so that there is a distinction between the rests Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character, animated, to etch the brands image into customers mind. The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize:

ICICI Prudential Chintamani

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Amul Butter - Utterly Butterly Girl

McDonalds - Ronald Objects Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. The travelers insurance company uses an umbrella, suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar, suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to owing a peace of rock which is of course, solid ad dependable. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts, which are easily remembered by people. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable.

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Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 Ds of Branding; differentiation, distinctiveness, defendable, digit-able. y Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. The more unique and distinct your communications, the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand.

y Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set youre offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering.

y Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations. This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos, symbols and other visual assets.

y Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. This goes for all brand assets.

1.6 Brand and Reputation Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active, or travels to one on business or vacation, will be exposed to their advertising. This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  commercials for products and services TV  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  ad for the companys branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. An
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 Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc. Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases). These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc.) Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally, or from a specific business need, with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. They will usually procure their information from a variety of sources and via a variety of channels of communication. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include:  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1.7 Brand Building The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. When something is not a brand, it will probably be viewed as a commodity. Then price is the thing that counts. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. But just having a brand is not enough. What does the brand name mean? What associations, performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create?

Building Positive Associations The best known brand names carry associations. For example, here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds:
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y Kids y Fun y Happy Meal y Ronald Mc. Donald y Quality y Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand, the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning:

y Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of well-engineered car that is durable, rugged and expensive. If a car brand does not trigger any attribute, then it would be a weak brand. y Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits, not just features. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own.

y Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds. Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand.

y Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age, serious, well-organized and somewhat authoritarian. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality.

y Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older, affluent and professional.

In summary, brands when their very name connotes positive attributes, benefits, company values,
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personality and users in the buyers mind. The brand builders job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions.
3 Source: www.modernmind.com/brand.htm 33

Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element. The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints.

y Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide, Nike can help. y Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? y Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually, verbally, and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel, Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery. y Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? y Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old, she doesnt look a day over 35. y Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable. Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex, Xerox, Jell-O, etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic.

Brand elements can play a number of roles. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions, brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and
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inherently descriptive and persuasive. Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations. The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand.

Marketing starts with the analysis of consumer behavior, which is defined by Blackwell et al. (2001) as acts of individuals involved in obtaining, using, and disposing of goods and services in an economical way, also including the decision making that precede and determine these acts. Knowledge of consumer behavior is an added advantage to promotional mix decisions. This, in turn, is not confined to manufacturers but extends into the premises of the retailer and the nonprofit marketers. Source: www.nean.org

Studying the Buying Motives and buying perceptions of consumers for Building up brand strategies People buy for their own reasons, not for the company's reasons every time. These reasons may not always be sensible, rational or intelligent, but have to be understood by a sales person. People have six motives for buying any product or service. They are not stated in any particular order as no one motive is more important than the other.

Desire for gain: This buying motive usually means a desire for financial gain. The customer expects to earn a profit as a result of making the purchase. For example, a firm may purchase an expensive automation system to enhance productivity. Also, an individual may buy the services of a financial planner in order to gain more profits.

Fear of loss: This refers to fear of financial loss. An individual motivated by a fear of loss may make purchases like a safety deposit box, yard lights, locks etc. It may also prompt a manufacturer to purchase product liability insurance as protection against loss caused by product malfunctions.

Comfort and convenience: Buying is backed by a desire for comfort and convenience. Think about your own workplace. Depending upon the company's budget and size, you may be
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enjoying such comforts and conveniences. They could be anything from a hot coffee to an elevator to a copy machine. Similarly, at home an individual may buy a microwave oven, an airconditioner, an easy chair or a computer.

Security and protection: Often, purchases are motivated by the desire to avoid physical harm either to oneself, or to loved ones, or to one's property. For protection, an individual for example may buy a car cover, join karate lessons, or hire a bodyguard. Similarly, a company might want to use sturdy shipping cartons so its product can be shipped without damage.

Pride of ownership: This is a case when the buyer buys something that he is proud to own. Such purchases could be premium products, or something that is prestigious to own.

Emotion: When a customer buys something that he feels will make him feel good about himself, his motivation is backed by the feeling of emotional satisfaction. Specific emotions associated with love and ego is referred to here. An individual may want to buy a cologne, tickets to a charity show, throw a lavish lunch, etc., to satisfy this need.

Different people have different motives for the same kind of purchase. For example, a German shepherd dog may be bought by one person for affection, by another for protection, and yet another person may buy it for the pride of owning one! People do not readily admit their dominant buying motives. However, it must be remembered that a marketer must try and appeal to all the six motives and see which provoke your prospects' strongest responses.

Following are the laws of branding which acts as a guide for different brands as it reveals the laws which should be adopted for branding strategies:

LAWS OF BRANDING: The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding

1. The Law of Expansion: The power of a brand is inversely proportional to its scope. Trying to be all things to all people undermines the power of the brand. The strength of brands lies in becoming
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synonymous with a single category. Brands that spread themselves across categories lose brand focus, identity, and ultimately market share.

2. The Law of Contraction: A brand becomes stronger when you narrow its focus. By narrowing the focus to a single category, a brand can achieve extraordinary success. Starbucks, Subway and Dominos Pizza became category killers when they narrowed their focus.

3. The Law of Publicity:

The birth of a brand is achieved with publicity, not advertising. A new brand must be capable of generating favorable publicity in the media or it won't have a chance in the marketplace. Anita Roddick built the Body Shop into a global brand with no advertising, but with massive amounts of publicity. On the other hand, Miller Brewing spent $50 million in advertising to launch a brand called Miller Regular. The brand generated no publicity and very little sales. 4. The Law of Advertising: Once born, a brand needs advertising to stay healthy. Sooner or later, a brand leader has to shift its branding strategy from publicity to advertising. By raising the price of admission, advertising makes it difficult for a competitor to carve out a substantial share of the market.

5. The Law of the Word:

A brand should strive to own a word in the mind of the consumer. If you want to build a brand, you must focus your branding efforts on owning a word in the prospect's mind. A word that nobody else owns. Kleenex owns "tissue," Federal Express owns "overnight," Volvo owns "safety."

6. The Law of Credentials: The crucial ingredient in the success of any brand is its claim to authenticity. Coke is the real thing in the minds of many, even though the last "real thing" advertisement ran almost thirty
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years ago. A brand's credentials in a category as authentic, real, original, or the leader are very powerful indeed.

7. The Law of Quality: Quality is important, but brands are not built by quality alone. Does a Rolex keep better time than a Timex? Does Hertz have better service than Alamo? Does a Montblanc pen write better than a Cross? Are you sure? The perception of quality, more than quality itself, is what builds a brand. And the best way to build a quality perception in the mind of consumers is by following the laws of branding.

8. The Law of the Category: A leading brand should promote the category, not the brand. The most efficient, most productive, most useful aspect of branding is creating a new category. Customers don't really care about new brands, they care about new categories. What was the market for cheap cars before Volkswagen? What was the market for home pizza delivery before Dominos? What was the market for in-line skates before Rollerblade?

9. The Law of the Name: In the long run, a brand is nothing more than a name. In the short term, a brand needs a unique idea or concept to survive. But in the long term, all that is left is the difference between your brand name and the brand names of your competitors. Shorter names that are unique and memorable are far stronger than longer, vague or generic names.

10. The Law of Extensions:

The easiest way to destroy a brand is to put its name on everything. More than 90% of all new product introductions in the U.S. are line extensions. Line extensions destroy brand value by weakening the brand. The effects can be felt in diminished market share of the core brand, a loss of brand identity, and a cannibalization of the one's own sales. Often, the brand
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extension directly attacks the strength of the core brand. Does Extra Strength Tylenol imply that regular Tylenol isn't strong enough?

11. The Law of Fellowship: In order to build the category, a brand should welcome other brands. Consumers want to have choices. Choice stimulates demand. Healthy competition helps to build the category. The competition between Coke and Pepsi makes customers more cola conscious. Per capita consumption goes up.

12. The Law of the Generic:

One of the fastest routes to failure is giving a brand a generic name. The problem with a generic brand name is its inability to differentiate the brand from the competition. At your local health food store, you'll find Nature's Resource, Nature's Answer, Nature's Bounty, Nature's Secret, Nature's Way, Nature's Best, Nature's Plus, etc. Will any of these generic brands break into the mind and become a major brand? Unlikely. 13. The Law of the Company: Brands are brands. Companies are companies. There is a difference. Customer's think of brands, not companies. Procter and Gamble isn't Tide. General Motors isn't Cadillac. The brand itself should be the focus of your attention. Use the company name, if necessary, in a decidedly secondary way.

14. The Law of Sub brands: What branding builds, sub branding can destroy. Sub branding erodes the power of the core brand. Waterford is the leading Irish crystal maker. Introducing "cheap" Waterford as "Marquis by Waterford" only dilutes the Waterford brand. Sub branding attacks a brand's place in his mind of the prospect.

15. The Law of Siblings: There is a time and place to launch a second brand. A second brand can be launched to focus
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on a new subcategory within the same product family. Toyota launched Lexus because the Toyota brand couldn't fill the luxury car category. The focus is on the brand, not the company. Customers buy a Lexus not because it's made by Toyota, but in spite of it.

16. The Law of Shape: A brand's logotype should be designed to fit the eyes. Both eyes. A customer sees the world through two horizontally mounted eyes peering out of the head. For maximum visual impact, a logotype should have a horizontal shape. The ideal shape is 2 1 /4 units wide by 1 unit high.

17. The Law of Color: A brand should use a color that is the opposite of its major competitor. Coke is red, and Pepsi is Blue. Hertz is yellow, and Avis is Red. Color consistency over the long term can help a brand burn its way into the mind.

18. The Law of Borders: There are no barriers to global branding. A brand should know no borders. The perfect solution to growth in a competitive market is not line extensions, but building a global brand. A brand should have a consistent message globally, but must take into account the perceptions of its country of origin.

19. The Law of Consistency: A brand is not built overnight. Success is measured in decades, not years. This is the law which is violated most frequently. Once a brand occupies a position in the mind, the manufacturer often thinks of reasons to change. Markets may change, but brands shouldn't. They may be bent slightly, or given a new slant, but their essential characteristics should never be changed. Long-term, consistent programs might be boring, but they are also immensely powerful.

20. The Law of Change: Brands can be changed, but only infrequently and only very carefully. Nothing is absolute and there are exceptions to every rule. There are three situations where changing your brand is feasible: When your brand is weak or non-existent in the mind, when you want to move
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your brand down the food chain to a lower price and perception point, or when your brand is in a slow-moving field and the change is going to take place over an extended period of time. Remember, changing your brand is a long and difficult process. Change at your own risk!

21. The Law of Mortality: No brand will live forever. Euthanasia is often the best solution. While the laws of branding are immutable, brands themselves are not. They are born, grow up, mature, and eventually will die. Yet companies that are willing to spend millions to save a dying brand won't spend pennies to launch a new one. Opportunities for new brands and threats to old ones are constantly being created by the invention of new categories. The rise of personal computers created opportunities for Compaq, Dell and Gateway, but put pressure on Digital, Data General and Wang.

22. The Law of Singularity: The most important aspect of a brand is its single-mindedness. What is a brand? A singular idea or concept that you own inside the mind of the prospect. It's as simple or as difficult as that. Source: www.marketingprofs.com/5/schultz2.asp 5

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Planning and Decision Making In Branding

Source: Branding Management 4th Edition by David A Aaker 6

PORTERS 5 FORCES MODEL OF DETERGENTS

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Competitive Rivalry within the Detergents Industry: The competitiveness within the industry is very high. The players in the markets as well already and therefore as a brand will have to shout louder to be heard by the people. So, therefore there has to be huge promotions done. Bargaining Power of the dealers: The Detergents dealers are basically bargaining in nature. And thus due to a limited number of players in this segment their bargaining power is not that high. Bargaining Power of the Customers: The customers have a better bargaining power as they have a lot of option in the market. In the sense that there are a lot of players in the market already and there are n number of brands available.

Threat of New Entrants: There are a lot of players already in this market. And thus the scenario is of huge competitiveness. So, according to the experts opinion only the well established players would be able to enter in this market. For the new players it would be very difficult to enter. Threat of Substitute products: Fast moving durable goods are unavoidable goods is basically used as lively. Normally there wont be any substitutes for them. Marketing Strategy Development: Following a successful concept test of Detergents, the product manager has developed a preliminary strategy plan for introducing the new concept into the market. The plan consists of three parts. 1) The target markets size, structure, and behavior, the planned product positioning and Planned price, distribution strategy and Marketing budget for the 1st year. Long run sales and profit goals and marketing mix strategy over time. So for the target market is entire India comprising of the middle income, high income society. Penetration pricing method would be followed to enter the market with mass production. There would be Intensive distribution for goods, which would be found at all retail outlets. There would be 2 channels of distribution one direct to the retailer without any middle
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the sales, market share, and profit goals. 2) 3)

men, and other with a distributor who would sell then to the retailer. The margin decided for the distributor is 5% whereas for retailer would be 10%. Source: Branding: a key marketing tool by John M.Murphy 7

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2.1

Problem Definition

To analyze how the concept of brand loyalty is playing a key role in the buying decision of the consumers.

2.2 Research Methodology Researchers in common refer to a search for knowledge .One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.' Rodman and Moray' define research as a "Systematized effort to gain new knowledge" .Here we using the fundamental analysis as research methodology.

2.2.1 Research Design A Research Design is the arrangement conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The Research Design used for the study is analytical in nature. 2.2.2 Nature of Data Data collected through questionnaire and from websites. The thesis is more concentrated with primary data rather than secondary data. Sampling Segment: Consumers, Manufacturers and retailer/Wholesaler Sample Size: 100 respondents Sample Techniques: Simple random sampling

2.3 Scope of the study This thesis would find the brand perception of customers towards the products. Study is limited to Chennai city. Middle and upper middle classes are the major composition of the total population. Primary analysis is done to study the mindset of such populace. It also makes an indepth study of the various factors considered by the purchaser while going for buying the products in the market, their satisfaction level and their overall brand perception about the services of manufacturers.

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2.4 Justification Many researchers have done widespread research work regarding branding and its influence over customers purchasing decisions. After analyzing the said subject related to branding, I found a gap in the study. This gap was whether branding strategies acts as a purchase decider? So I decided to undertake research on this particular aspect.

2.6 Limitations  Designed areas were limited.  Opinion sought is limited.  Time is a constraint.  Some of the respondents did not response freely.

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CHAPTER 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

In the words of Bearden and Netemeyer, 1999, p. 301, he said that opinion is decided by the incentive characteristics, (Objects, brands, stories etc.), the context in which it is delivered (social, cultural), and the customer characteristics (knowledge, experience, expertise). It is within these stages that a consumer will either recognize a fit between a celebrity and a product/brand, or reject this connection on different grounds. Memory is structured as an associative network. When this happen the brand and the celebrity become parts of each others association set. Source: Bearden and Netemeyer, Brand Management, 1999, p. 301 8

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CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

CONSUMERS:

TABLE 1 TABLE SHOWING WASHING PRODUCTS MEETS REQUIREMENTS AND EXPECTATION

Particulars Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Total

No of Respondents 15 20 12 10 13 70

Percentage % 21% 29% 17% 14% 19% 100%

Inference: 21% of the respondents strongly agree that washing products meets requirement and expectation, 29% of the respondents agreed, 17% of the respondents are neutral, 14% of the respondents disagree about the statement and 19% of the respondents strongly agree about the requirement and expectation

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CHART 1 CHART SHOWING WASHING PRODUCTS MEETS REQUIREMENTS AND EXPECTATION

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TABLE 2

DETERGENT MARKET HAVE MUCH RANGE OF PRODUCTS TO MEET CONSUMERS NEEDS

Particulars Yes No Can't Say Total

No of Respondents 30 25 15 70

Percentage % 43% 36% 21% 100%

Inference: 43% of the consumers say that detergent market have much range of products to meet consumers needs,36% of the respondents do not feel so and 21% of the respondents not able to give any comments

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CHART 2

DETERGENT MARKET HAVE MUCH RANGE OF PRODUCTS TO MEET CONSUMERS NEEDS

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TABLE 3

TABLE SHOWING QUALITY RATE AND USAGE OF DETERGENT

Particulars Excellent Above Average Below Average Poor Total

No of Respondents 25 19 15 11 70

Percentage % 36% 27% 21% 16% 100%

Inference: 36% of the respondents feel excellent about the quality and usage of detergent,27% of the respondents feel above average,21% of the respondents feel below average and 16% of the respondents feel poor about the quality rate and usage of detergent

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CHART 3

CHART SHOWING QUALITY RATE AND USAGE OF DETERGENT

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TABLE 4

TABLE SHOWING CONCERNS WHICH MATTERS TO CUSTOMER ABOUT NEW PRODUCT

Particulars Packaging Price Brand Quality Total

No of Respondents 15 25 10 20 70

Percentage % 21% 36% 14% 29% 100%

Inference: 21% of the respondents feel packaging which matters in buying new product,36% of the respondents feel price,14% of the respondents feel brand,29% of the respondents feel quality which matters to buy new product

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CHART 4

CHART SHOWING CONCERNS WHICH MATTERS TO CUSTOMER ABOUT NEW PRODUCT

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TABLE 5

TABLE SHOWING WHICH QUANTITY OR PACKET IS PURCHASED BY CUSTOMER MOSTLY

Particulars Sachet packet 1Kg 500gm 200gm Total

No of Respondents 18 25 20 7 70

Percentage % 26% 36% 29% 10% 100%

Inference: 26% of the respondents purchase sachet packet,36% of the respondents purchase 1kg,29% of the respondents use to buy 500gm and 10% of the respondents use to buy 200gm

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CHART 5

CHART SHOWING WHICH QUANTITY OR PACKET IS PURCHASED BY CUSTOMER MOSTLY

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TABLE 6

CONSUMERS SATISFACTION WITH COMPANYS ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN, SENSITIVITY TO RECYCLING, DISPOSABILITY

Particulars Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total

No of Respondents 15 10 12 20 13 70

Percentage % 21% 14% 17% 29% 19% 100%

Inference: 21% of the respondents are highly satisfied companys environmental concern,14% of the respondents satisfied about the concern,17% of the respondents are neutral,29% of the respondents are dissatisfied about recycling, disposability and 19% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied

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CHART 6

CONSUMERS SATISFACTION WITH COMPANYS ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN, SENSITIVITY TO RECYCLING, DISPOSABILITY

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MANUFACTURERS TABLE 1

TABLE SHOWING SUPPLY MADE IN THE MARKET

Particulars Company Distributor Whole seller Retailer Total

No of Respondents 3 2 3 2 10

Percentage % 30% 20% 30% 20% 100%

Inference: 30% of the respondents feel that the supply are made by company in the market,20% of the respondents feel distributor,30% of the respondents feel whole seller and 20% of the respondents feel retailer

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CHART 1

CHART SHOWING SUPPLY MADE IN THE MARKET

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TABLE 2

TABLE SHOWING PROCESS WHICH DRIVES THE MARKET OF DETERGENT

Particulars Margin Demand Supply Logistics Total

No of Respondents 2 3 4 1 10

Percentage % 20% 30% 40% 10% 100%

Inference: 20% of the respondents says that margin which drives the market of detergent,30% of the respondents feel demand,40% of the respondents feel supply and 10% of the respondents feel logistics

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CHART 2

CHART SHOWING PROCESS WHICH DRIVES THE MARKET OF DETERGENT

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TABLE 3

TABLE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SUPLLIERS

Particulars Yes No Can't Say Total

No of Respondents 5 2 3 10

Percentage % 50% 20% 30% 100%

Inference: 50% of the respondents feel that they have good relationship,20% of the respondents do not feel so and 30% of the respondents not able to give any comment

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CHART 3

CHART SHOWING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SUPLLIERS

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TABLE 4

TABLE SHOWING FUNCTION OF ORGANIZATION IN TIMELY INTRODUCTION OF NEW AND IMPROVED PRODUCTS

Particulars Excellent Above average Below average Poor Total

No of Respondents 3 2 3 2 10

Percentage % 30% 20% 30% 20% 100%

Inference: 30% of the respondents feel excellent about the function of organization in timely introduction of new products,20% of the respondents feel above average,30% of the respondents feel below average and 20% of the respondents feel poor

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CHART 4

CHART SHOWING FUNCTION OF ORGANIZATION IN TIMELY INTRODUCTION OF NEW AND IMPROVED PRODUCTS

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TABLE 5

TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSE OF COMPANY IN LISTENING AND RESPONDING TO CUSTOMER NEEDS

Particulars Yes No Can't say Total

No of Respondents 5 3 2 10

Percentage % 50% 30% 20% 100%

Inference: 50% of the respondents feel company is listening and responding to customer needs,30% of the respondents do not feel and 20% of the respondents not given any comments

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CHART 5

CHART SHOWING THE RESPONSE OF COMPANY IN LISTENING AND RESPONDING TO CUSTOMER NEEDS

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RETAILERS / WHOLESALERS

TABLE 1

TABLE SHOWING DETERGENT WHICH IS MOST PREFERED BY CONSUMERS

Particulars Arasan Wheel Henko Rin Others Total

No of Respondents 4 3 6 5 2 20

Percentage % 20% 15% 30% 25% 10% 100%

Inference: 20% of the respondents prefer Arasan,15% of the respondents prefer Wheel,30% of the respondents prefer Henko,25% of the respondents prefer Rin and 10% of the respondents others

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CHART 1

CHART SHOWING DETERGENT WHICH IS MOST PREFERED BY CONSUMERS

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TABLE 2

TABLE SHOWING WHAT MATTERS TO CUSTOMER WHILE BUYING NEW PRODUCT

Particulars Packaging Price Brand Quality Total

No of Respondents 6 4 3 7 20

Percentage % 30% 20% 15% 35% 100%

Inference: 30% of the respondents feel packaging which matters a lot,20% of the respondents feel price,15% of the respondents feel brand which matters and 35% of the respondents feel quality

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CHART 2

CHART SHOWING WHAT MATTERS TO CUSTOMER WHILE BUYING NEW PRODUCT

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TABLE 3

TABLE SHOWING WHAT BASIS RETAILERS MAKE PURCHASE

Particulars Cash Credit Partial cash Total

No of Respondents 5 8 7 20

Percentage % 25% 40% 35% 100%

Inference: 25% of the retailers use cash to make purchase,40% of the respondents prefer credit and 35% of the respondents prefer partial cash

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CHART 3

CHART SHOWING WHAT BASIS RETAILERS MAKE PURCHASE

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TABLE 4

TABLE SHOWING FREQUENCY/TIME DURATION FOR PURCHASE OF DETERGENT

Particulars Weekly 15 Days Monthly Total

No of Respondents 7 8 5 20

Percentage % 35% 40% 25% 100%

Inference: 35% of the respondents use to do weekly purchase,40% of the respondents prefer to do 15days once and 25% of the respondents use to do monthly

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CHART 4

CHART SHOWING FREQUENCY/TIME DURATION FOR PURCHASE OF DETERGENT

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TABLE 5

TABLE SHOWING PURCHASE PATTERN

Particulars Bulk Retail Dozen Total

No of Respondents 5 6 9 20

Percentage % 25% 30% 45% 100%

Inference: 25% of the respondents prefer to do bulk purchase,30% of the respondents prefer to do retail purchase and 45% of the respondents prefer to do Dozen type of purchase

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TABLE 5

TABLE SHOWING PURCHASE PATTERN

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TABLE 6

TABLE SHOWING WHICH QUANTITY OR PACKET IS PURCHASED BY RETAILERS MOSTLY

Particulars Sachet packet 1kg 500gm 200gm Total

No of Respondents 5 7 3 5 20

Percentage % 25% 35% 15% 25% 100%

Inference: 25% of the respondents purchase sachet packet,35% of the respondents purchase 1kg,15% of the respondents use to buy 500gm and 25% of the respondents use to buy 200gm

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CHART 6

CHART SHOWING WHICH QUANTITY OR PACKET IS PURCHASED BY RETAILERS MOSTLY

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TABLE 7

TABLE SHOWING HOW CONSUMER ASKS OR RELATES THE PRODUCT

Particulars Brand Colour Price Other thing Total

No of Respondents 5 4 7 4 20

Percentage % 25% 20% 35% 20% 100%

Inference: 25% of the respondents asks for brand,20% of the respondents asks for colour,35% of the respondents asks for price and 20% of the respondents relates other thing

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CHART 7

CHART SHOWING HOW CONSUMER ASKS OR RELATES THE PRODUCT

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CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS

CONSUMERS 21% of the respondents strongly agree that washing products meets requirement and expectation, 29% of the respondents agreed, 17% of the respondents are neutral, 14% of the respondents disagree about the statement and 19% of the respondents strongly agree about the requirement and expectation 43% of the consumers say that detergent market have much range of products to meet consumers needs,36% of the respondents do not feel so and 21% of the respondents not able to give any comments 36% of the respondents feel excellent about the quality and usage of detergent,27% of the respondents feel above average,21% of the respondents feel below average and 16% of the respondents feel poor about the quality rate and usage of detergent 21% of the respondents feel packaging which matters in buying new product,36% of the respondents feel price,14% of the respondents feel brand,29% of the respondents feel quality which matters to buy new product 26% of the respondents purchase sachet packet,36% of the respondents purchase 1kg,29% of the respondents use to buy 500gm and 10% of the respondents use to buy 200gm 21% of the respondents are highly satisfied companys environmental concern,14% of the respondents satisfied about the concern,17% of the respondents are neutral,29% of the respondents are dissatisfied about recycling, disposability and 19% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied

MANUFACTURERS 30% of the respondents feel that the supply are made by company in the market,20% of the respondents feel distributor,30% of the respondents feel whole seller and 20% of the respondents feel retailer
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20% of the respondents says that margin which drives the market of detergent,30% of the respondents feel demand,40% of the respondents feel supply and 10% of the respondents feel logistics 50% of the respondents feel that they have good relationship,20% of the respondents do not feel so and 30% of the respondents not able to give any comment 30% of the respondents feel excellent about the function of organization in timely introduction of new products,20% of the respondents feel above average,30% of the respondents feel below average and 20% of the respondents feel poor 50% of the respondents feel company is listening and responding to customer needs,30% of the respondents do not feel and 20% of the respondents not given any comments

RETAILERS / WHOLESALERS 20% of the respondents prefer Arasan,15% of the respondents prefer Wheel,30% of the respondents prefer Henko,25% of the respondents prefer Rin and 10% of the respondents others 30% of the respondents feel packaging which matters a lot,20% of the respondents feel price,15% of the respondents feel brand which matters and 35% of the respondents feel quality 25% of the retailers use cash to make purchase,40% of the respondents prefer credit and 35% of the respondents prefer partial cash 35% of the respondents use to do weekly purchase,40% of the respondents prefer to do 15days once and 25% of the respondents use to do monthly 25% of the respondents prefer to do bulk purchase,30% of the respondents prefer to do retail purchase and 45% of the respondents prefer to do Dozen type of purchase 25% of the respondents purchase sachet packet,35% of the respondents purchase 1kg,15% of the respondents use to buy 500gm and 25% of the respondents use to buy 200gm 25% of the respondents asks for brand,20% of the respondents asks for colour,35% of the respondents asks for price and 20% of the respondents relates other thing

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION

In this modern era everyone wants to be so fast so that nobody could catch him. As in the FMCG sector everybody is running a race to be the No. 1.Companies want to capture the highest share to be the market leader and to enjoy the highest position in the market. In the past time the market was profit oriented instead of customer oriented , so companies were concentrating over profit by just producing the product and to sale them. But, now companies are paying attention more to know the behavior of consumers for producing the product. Now market is customer oriented. In this context it is said by the management gurus, CONSUMER IS THE KING and it is the consumer who determines what a business is. So the companies have moved towards the customers need from only profit based motive. But later it was found that it is not sufficient to know only customers need. Customers should get satisfaction in the product, for they are paying. It is highly essential to know from the consumer following things:1. What consumer really using and why and 2. What they want from product.

This is possible only when information is collected from the consumers. Thats why we did this project to interact directly with the customers to get real picture. These are the customers who can tell us that what they are expecting in reality and what the company is offering to them. The main aim of this project was to know about the satisfaction of customer. I get filled response of the respondents through questionnaire. I met those customers and retailers who are using and selling the detergents of different company. After analyzing the data I got a picture that is the things needed by the customers to get satisfied.

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CHAPTER 7 RECOMMENDATION The Data Bunch up would enable one to hit upon  The potential of detergent market  The distribution channel followed  The segmentation of market.  The awareness about the companys products  The problems being faced by the distribution channel.  Availability of the brands in the outlet.  Pricing strategies.  Pack size.  Retailers and consumer schemes and promos.  After sale service  Selling out support.  Product visibility.  Customize schemes  Study of trends in debtors collection period; inventory holding period, and creditors payout period and its repercussion.  Strategies of different competitors of in detergent market.  Logistics.  Stock keeping unit(SKU)  Although detergent market is flooded with number of brands providing many services but due to lack of awareness among consumer. Thats why local brands are holding. It is not
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very widely used. Therefore special efforts should be given to make the consumers aware.
 Due to lack of advertisement in rural, people are still not aware about the bad effect of

using inferior brands. Due to which companys real motto of making high quality detergent is not achieved. So company should give special emphasis on this issue and advertise in different Medias to make the people aware about it.  In some places of rural India still most of the products are not available. In such cases local brands find their place.  Many consumers are not aware of different schemes available to them. So special effort should be taken to make the people aware  Continuous efforts should be made to make the people aware about the distinct feature through different promotional activities, hoarding, banners etc.  Availability period also needs further shortening and crushing  Company can also stretch the Average Payment period to wholesaler and retailers.  Consumers generally hesitate in using new product. So company should try to gain the confidence of consumer, through building consumer-manufacturer relation.  Guide and educate customers as to how to use the detergent so that they can get maximum output.  In order to reduce the price, Supply chain needs more flexibility and efficiency  Since detergent like Power and Arasan are dominating the rural market and have the advantage of first entrant, the late entrant is already on the podium in the third place and fourth place i.e. HLL and P&G. Research revealed that the category had gaps which in which one new company could settle into. .
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CHAPTER 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY Links 1. http://www.brandchannel.com/view_comments.asp?dc_id=52 2. papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.../SSRN_ID1265073_code852572.pdf 3. www.modernmind.com/brand.htm 4. www.nean.org 5. www.marketingprofs.com/5/schultz2.asp 6. http://www.marketingpower.com/mg-dictionary-view329.php - 2007-05-07 7. Branding Management 4th Edition by David A Aaker 8. Bearden and Netemeyer, Brand Management, 1999, p. 301

Books Chandra Prasanna

Fundamental of Marketing Management Principal of marketing

Tata McGraw-Hill

Khan M.Y. Kathori C.R

Tata McGraw-Hill Vikash Publishing House Kalyani Publisher

Rearch Methodology Financial Management

Sharma R.K. Gupta Shashi K. Magazines: Business world

 Management Compass  Ps of Marketing 4  Management Chronicle  Advance edge Newspapers  Economic Times  Times of India.  Hindustan Times
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(i)APPENDICES QUESTIONNAIRE CONSUMERS Q.1. Washing products meet your current requirements & expectation. A) Strongly Agree B) Agree C) Neutral D) Disagree E) Strongly Disagree

Q.2. Does Detergent market have much range of products to meet your needs? A) Yes B) No C) Cant Say

Q.3 Which brand of detergent you consume? ..

Q.4 Rate the quality and usage of your detergent A) Excellent B) Above Average C) Average D) Below Average E) Poor

Q.5 What matters to a customer in a new product? A) Packaging B) Price C) Brand D) Quality

Q.6 Which quantity or which packet is purchased by customer mostly? A) Sachet packet B) 1 Kg C) 500gram D) 200gram

Q.7 Are you satisfied with the companys environmental concern, sensitivity to recycling, disposability? A) Highly satisfied Highly Dissatisfied B) Satisfied C) Neutral D) Dissatisfied E)

MANUFACTURERS Q.1 Supply made in the market by A) Company B) Distributor C) Whole seller D) Retailer

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Q.2 what drives market of detergent? A) Margin B) Demand C) Supply D) Logistics

Q.3 Do you find people to people relationship with the suppliers A) Yes B) No C) Cant say

11. Do you feel that your organization is functioning effectively in timely introduction of new and improved products? A) Excellent B) above Average C) Average D) below Average E) Poor

12. Is the company is listening and responding to customer needs? A) Yes B) No C) Cant say

RETAILERS / WHOLESALERS ENTERPRISE NAME:-

AREA:-

Q.1

Which detergent is most preferred by consumers? B) Wheel C) Henko D) Rin E) Others

A) Arasan

Q.2

What matters to a customer in a new product? B) Price C) Brand D) Quality

A) Packaging

Q.3 Basis do you make purchase? A) Cash B) Credit C) Partial cash

Q.4 Frequency/ time duration for purchase of detergent? A) Weekly B) 15 Days C) Monthly

Q.5

Purchase pattern B) Retail C) Dozen


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A) Bulk

Q.6

Which quantity or which packet is purchased by customer mostly? B) 1 Kg C) 500gram D) 200gram

A) Sachet packet

Q.7 How consumer asks or relates the product? A) Brand B) Colour C) Price D) Other thing

Response Sheet 1

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Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : Nadeem Ahmed.S.N FW810/01455/MKT PGP/FW/08-10/HR 9884136038 MBA (Marketing & HR) nadeem.mgt@gmail.com Success Strategy of Retail Industry in India

Date when the Guide was consulted: 28/10/10 The outcome of the discussion: Final Report ready. The Progress of the Thesis: Final report checked by the faculty.

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