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DLSU Metaphysics Conference 2011: A Tribute to Claro R.

Ceniza

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem


Mark Anthony Dacela DLSU Philosophy Department

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?


1. What is X?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?


1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?


1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?


1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x

Green

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x

Green

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition

The tumbler is green.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition

The tumbler is green.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Truth is a property of a certain x


X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

1. What makes P true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

1. What makes P true? 2. How do we know that P is true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

1. What makes P true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

1. What makes P true? 2. How do we know that P is true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

D1: Truth is a property of P (where P is a proposition).

1. What makes P true? 2. How do we know that P is true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if:

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if: 1. A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs), and

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if: 1. A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs), and 2. A and B constitute P.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

A and B constitute P.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

A and B constitute P.
C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A B
A and B have the same structure as X and Y.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A and B (which constitute P) have the same structure as X and Y.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

P:The car is red or Jake is fat.


A and B (which constitute P) have the same structure as X and Y. = P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

Q1. What makes P true? Q2. How do we know that P is true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

Q1. What makes P true? Q2. How do we know that P is true? Q2*: How does S (where S is the knower) know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ? Q2*: What makes Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

Nondoxastic Experience Argument (NDE):

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

Nondoxastic Experience Argument (NDE):


S s belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Definition (df.) 1. Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

X
The car is red A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

X
The car is red A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification. NDE:. S is justified in believing that A and B have the same structure as X and Y = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):


NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification. NDE:. S is justified in believing that A and B have the same structure as X and Y = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

CPT does not guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Coherence Theory of Truth (CT):


P is true only if: 1. P is part of A (where A is a coherent set of beliefs)

Q2.
P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick. P is part of A.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick. P is part of A. = P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick. P is part of A. = P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick. P is part of A. = P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.


Does CT answer Q1 (What makes P true?)?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Does CT answer Q1 (What makes P true?)?

I have a tail. I eat dog food. I bark all night.

P: I am dog.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Does CT answer Q1 (What makes P true?)?

I have a tail. I eat dog food. I bark all night.

P: I am dog. P is part of A.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Does CT answer Q1 (What makes P true?)?

I have a tail. I eat dog food. I bark all night.

P: I am dog. P is part of A. = P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.


Problem:

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.


Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.


Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification. If P is part of Ss coherent set of beliefs then S is justified in believing that P.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.


Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification. If P is part of Ss coherent set of beliefs then S is justified in believing that P.

CT does not guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Verificationist Theory of Truth (VT):

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Verificationist Theory of Truth (VT):


P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

The car is red P

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

The car is red P

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

The car is red P

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

X verifies P.
X

The car is red P

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

X verifies P.
X

= P is true.

The car is red P

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**:

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2?
Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems:

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem. There is an X1 that verifies Ss belief that X verifies P.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem. There is an X1 that verifies Ss belief that X verifies P. What justifies Ss belief that X1 justifies the belief that X verifies P?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism. If X is merely created or imposed by S, then VT collapses into a form of relativism.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism. If X is merely created or imposed by S, then VT collapses into a form of relativism. VT does not guarantee truth for S.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Knowability Problem (KP):

Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Knowability Problem (KP):

Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?


There are no truths.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Knowability Problem (KP):

Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?


There are no truths.

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Knowability Problem (KP):

Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?


There are no truths.

How can truths be known?

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Knowability Problem (KP):

Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?


There are no truths.

Q: How can truths be known?

1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

DLSU Metaphysics Conference 2011: A Tribute to Claro R. Ceniza

The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem


Mark Anthony Dacela DLSU Philosophy Department