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World Music Mid-Term Exam Guide

Part One: Instruments (20 points total) (10 bonus points possible) Suggested time: 10 minutes On the line next to each instrument, write the letter for the corresponding instrument classification as indicated below. (1 point each) A = aerophone C = chordophone I = idiophone M = membranophone Then, name the specific culture that uses this instrument most commonly. (1 point each) Bonus: describe the way in which the instrument is used in the music of that culture. (1 point each) Classification balalaika gaida gudulka kaval tupan Gankogui Axatse Mbira Hosho Kora Balafon Clave Arpa Marimba Berimbau Surdo Pandeiro Reco-reco Agogo Cuica Charango Siku (ira and arca) Bombo C A C A M I I I I C I I C I C M M I I M C A M Culture Russian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Ewe Ewe Ewe Shona Shona Mende Mende Cuban Mexican Latin American Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Brazilian Andean Andean Andean Usage (bonus point) Melody Drone/melody Melody (bowed) Melody Bass Keeps time Leads keeps time pairs, melody time keeping melody melody and rhythm keeps rhythm melody melody rhythm rhythm rhythm rhythm keep time keep rhythm popular guitar-melody pairs, Melody Keep time

Atsimevu (atsimewu) M

water drum *Sauyaq

M I

Ojibway Alaskan Native

rhythm rhythm

Part Two: Listening (8 points each, 40 points total) Suggested time: 20 minutes For each example, describe three distinguishing characteristics that you hear in the music. These may relate to the melody, rhythm, texture, form, and/or timbre. Be as specific as possible in each description and be sure that your description is objective. (2 points per characteristic) Then, based on the distinguishing characteristics you list, make an educated guess as to what part of the world the music comes from. (2 points) ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL AFRICAN MUSIC Polyrhythm Responsorial Forms Ostinato Use of percussion Background shimmer Close connection between music and languag3e Participatory nature of the arts Close connection between the performing arts ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL LATIN MUSIC Use of Harmony Parrallel thirds Paired phrases Distinctive dance rhythms Rhythm guitar ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL EUROPEAN MUSIC Nonpulsatile songs Asymmetrical meters Repetitive dance rhythms Bright timbres Epic songs Socialist realism ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL NORTH AMERICAN INDIGENOUS MUSIC Rhythmic vitality Blue notes Alternating improvisations in ensemble music

Part Three: Short Answer (5 points each, 25 points total) (15 bonus points possible) Suggested time: 20 minutes Answer at least 5 of the 8 questions. In one or two complete sentences, define or describe each term and connect it to one of the cultures we have studied in class. Some terms may apply to more than one culture, in which case you need only connect it to one of them. Musical Terms akia asymmetrical meter clave consonance Cyclicality dissonance drone falsetto grass dance Hocket (alternation playing) Huro Social Ideas Apartheid Bira Capoeira Criollo Egalitarianism Ghost dance Jali

Improvisation Katajjaq Mahonera microtone ngere non-pulsatile music Ostinato parlando-rubato Polyphony Polyrhythm

Responsorial forms (call and response) rumba (diana, canto, montuno) samba sesquialtera single meter son jarocho szjbg Vocables vocal pulsation Yodeling

Mariachi Medium Mestizo Native American Church Pantribalization Powwow

Romani Samba school Social hierarchy Socialist realism syncretism

Part Four: Essay (30 points) Suggested time: 20 minutes When studying Latin American music, we must understand and explain each type of music in terms of the concept of syncretism. Explain what syncretism means specifically as related to Latin American music (3 points), and then choose three Latin American cultures we studied and describe their musics in the context of syncretism. For each culture you choose to discuss, you should identify at least three specific musical and/or cultural characteristics to support your explanation (9 points per culture). Your essay should be at least two paragraphs in length. This is the actual question as it will appear on your test. You must write your essay at the time you take the test. You may not use your textbook, notes, or a friend to write your answer. I am providing the topic in advance so you can focus your thoughts and ideas into a well-written essay.