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On Output Power Index of Magnetic Levitation Power Supply for Maglev Train

Zhaoxiong Ke, Ding Zhang, Yungang Li, Ning Wang

College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China. Email: zjemaisl@tom.com

AbstractMagnetic levitation power supply (MLPS) is an onboard electrical installation for electromagnetic suspension (EMS) type maglev train, which can provide the energy for suspension control systems onboard. The output power capability of magnetic levitation power supply has a significant to stability of levitation control system of EMStype maglev train. This paper studies the output power index of MLPS. The relationship between output current and levitation gap is analyzed. Based on the principle of virtual work, the energy in magnetic levitation system is calculated, and the output power index, including maximum output power and normal output power are proposed. The analysis results are examined on the mono module maglev system. Keywords Magnetic Levitation Power Supply; Power Index ; Maglev

I. INTRODUCTION The output power capability of magnetic levitation power supply is significant to stability of levitation control system of EMS-type maglev train [1]. Ideally, the MLPS can be treated as the voltage source, and the output power is only dependent on the output current [2-4]. However, the levitation gap is varying when the maglev train runs. In order to maintain the system stability, the levitation control system has to adjust the levitation force repeatedly. Thus, the current in levitation electromagnet is varying according to the levitation gap. As the current in electromagnets is totally provided by MLPS, the output current of power supply is varying too. Therefore, the output power is dependant on the levitation gap, and it is necessary to analyze the output power index. Based on the principle of virtual work, this paper deduces the energy in magnetic levitation system, which is just the load of MLPS. Furthermore, combining the dynamic relationship of levitation control system, this paper proposed the calculation equation for normal and maximum output power of MLPS. Finally, as an example of mono module maglev system, the proposed calculation equations are verified by experiment results. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OUTPUT CURRENT AND LEVITATION GAP Usually, the MLPS has to supply all magnetic levitation control systems on the train. As the magnetic levitation control systems are independent to each other, we may simply consider one of them, as shown in Fig. 1. In each switching period T, the relationship between the electromagnet instant current iL(t) and the MLPS output instant current iS(t) can be described as:

C 978-1-4244-1849-7/08/$25.002008 IEEE

(1)

Where, d is the effective pulse duration ration. Furthermore, the relationship between the gap variance and the control current variance iL can be described as [5]:

i L (s ) (K 2 + C i )s + K 1 (2) = (s ) L0 s + (R K 3 ) Where, Ci is the structural parameter of electromagnet; L0 is the equivalence inductance of electromagnet; R is the resistance of coil winding; K1, K2 and K3 are the parameters of levitation controller. Apparently, the load characteristic of MLPS depends on the parameters of controller. Thus, the demand of output power could vary under different control algorithm. The combination of Eq.(1) and Eq.(2) can describe the relationship between the output current of MLPS and levitation gap.

I =

III.

II.

A. Total Energy in magnetic Levitation control system Typically, the energy in magnetic levitation control system E mainly consists of gravity potential energy EP and dynamic energy EV of levitation mass, and the magnetic field energy WM, thus: (3) E = EP + EV + WM Firstly, we will discuss the mechanical energy, including EP and EV. Simply, the under surface of rail could be chosen as the null point of gravity potential energy, and the up direction should be defined as positive direction. Thus the total mechanical energy is:

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

1 (4) M 2 2 Where, M is the mass of levitation load, is the levitation gap. Fig.2 is the structure of mono-electromagnet levitation control system. We can calculate its magnetic field energy by the equation as below: 1 (5) WM = L(t ) i 2 (t ) 2 Where, L(t) and i(t) represent the inductance and current in electromagnet respectively. As the inductance L can be calculated by [6]: E PV = E P + EV = Mg +

l Where, l is the length of magnetic circuit, A is the sectional area of flux, and N is the turns of eletromagnet. Suppose the permeability of core is infinite, and we may deduce the length of magnetic circuit express equation: l = 2(t) (7) Combining with Eqs.(5)-(7), we may deduce: L=

On the basis of the mutual transformation of the gravity potential energy and magnetic field energy, the variance of system energy is:

E = E2 E1 =

(11) Derivate to Eq.(11) by twe may get the variance of output power of MLPS:

1 1 1 M 22 M 12 = M 22 12 2 2 2

P = M 2 2 1 1

(12)

Assume that the levitation load move from 1 to 2.at same accelerate, ( a = 1 = 2 ), so:

0 N 2 A

(6)

WM =

0 N 2 A i 2 (t ) 4 (t )

1 N 2 A i 2 (t ) M 2 + 0 2 4 (t )

(8)

IV. OUTPUT POWER INDEX OF MLPS The key output power indexes consists of normal output power PNOR and maximum output power PMAX. Based on the work characteristic of loads, we may consider the static power Ps and dynamic power Pd respectively, and analyze the relationships between them to the key indexes above. A. Maximum Output Power Maximum output power describes the power requirement when full-loaded maglev train is levitated at maximum gap MAX, and it is dependent on the maximum PdMAX and PsMAX: (14) PMAX = PdMAX + PsMAX Where,

E = Mg +

(9)

B. Energy conversion while the levitation gap varying In practice, the energy of magnetic levitation control system is varying when the levitation gap changes. We may calculate the energy in two different gaps respectively, and analyze the energy conversion process when gap changes from 1 to 2. Based on Eq.(9), we may calculate the system energy at different gap:

PsMAX = k M FULL MAX

B. Normal Output Power Normal output power describes the power requirement when full-loaded maglev train is levitated at normal gap NOR, and it is dependent on the maximum PdMAX and PsNOR: (15) PNOR = PdMAX + PsNOR Where,

N 2 A i12 (t ) 1 E1 = Mg 1 + M 12 + 0 2 4 1 (t ) 0 N 2 A i22 (t ) 1 E2 = Mg 2 + M 22 + 2 4 2 (t )

(10)

PsNOR = k M FULL NOR

(t )

C. Design Example As an example of mono module levitation system [4], the parameters and power index value are shown in Tab.1.

V. EXPERIMENTS The Designed MLPS is tested to supply to mono module magnetic levitation control system [7], which consists of two electromagnets. The normal output-voltage of MLPS is 240V. The Fig.3 is the actual output-voltage and output-current waveforms when each point starts levitating.

Figure 2. Structure of mono-electromagnet levitation control system

C 978-1-4244-1849-7/08/$25.002008 IEEE

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

TABLE . PARAMETERS AND POWER INDEX CALCULATION RESULTS Parameter M (kg) Load weight Maximum levitation gap Normal levitation gap Definition Value 1200 20 10 0.1 5 6 2.2 1.1 8.2 7.1

a MAX (m/s )

2

Start levitation Acceleration Maximum dynamic output power Maximum static output power Normal static output power Maximum total output power Normal total output power

PdMAX (kW) PsMAX (kW) PsNOR (kW) PMAX (kW) PNOR (kW)

MAGLEV SYSTEM

Parameter Imax (A) Inorm1 (A) Inorm2 (A) PMAX (kW) PNOR (kW)

The proposed calculation equation (15) and (16) are verified by two groups of experiment results, which are shown in Tab.2. Where, Imax is maximum output current, Inorm1 is normal output current before levitated, Inorm2 is normal output current after levitated, PMAX is maximum output power; and PNOR is normal output power. In test1, in order to illustrate the power headroom of MPLS, an electric stove, whose resistance is 33, is added at the output port of MPLS. So, the Inorm1 of Test1 (8A) is just generated by the electric stove. Test 2, As Eq.(2) shows that the output current of MLPS is dependent on the parameters of controller, the control algorithm is impropriety, and the maximum current exceeds the upper limit in Test1. Therefore, a adaptive magnetic levitation control algorithm [8] is adopted to improve the dynamic characteristic. As shown in Fig.4, the Imax is declined to 22.8A, and the PMAX is declined to 5.47kW. Comparing the experiment results in Table II and theoretical values (they are calculated by Eq.(15) and Eq.(16)) in Table I, we may find out that the worst maximum output power is 8.2kW in theory, and the PMAX is 8.35kW in Test1. The PNOR is range from 1.1~7.1kW in theroy, and it is about 1.5kW in Test1 and Test2. The experiment results match to the theoretical values well. VI. CONCLUSIONS The energy in magnetic levitation system, which is just the load of MLPS is analyzed. Based on the dynamic relationship of levitation control system, calculation equations for normal and maximum output power of MLPS are proposed. Finally, as an example of mono module maglev system, the proposed calculation equations are verified by experiment results. The dynamic out power of MPLS could be reduced by improving the levitation control algorithm. REFERENCES

[1] P. K. Sinha, Electromagnetic Suspension: Dynamics and Control. IEE Control Engineering Series, vol. 30, Peter Peregrinus Ltd. 1986. M. Bauer, P. Becker, A. Zheng, Inductive Power Supply for the Transrapid, Proceedings of Maglev'2006, Dresden, Germany. Y. Yasuda, M. Fujino, M. Tanaka, S. Ishimoto, The First HSST maglev commercial train in Japan, Proceedings of Maglev'2004, Shanghai. R. Mecke, Optimisation of inductive energy transmission systems with an extraordinarily large air gap, Proceedings of Maglev'2002, Switzerland. D. Zhang, Y. G. Li, W. S. Chang, etc, Research on Load Model and Output Characteristics of Levitation Main Power Supply of Maglev Vehicle, Transaction of China Electrotechnical Society, Vol. 22, No.7, pp.83-86, 2007. K. Zhao, M. Chen. Electromagnetism, 2nd ed., High Education Press, 1985. D. S. Liu, J. Li, W. S. Chang, Study on Motional Coupling of Single EMS Module, Journal of the China Railway Society, vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 22-26, 2006. F. J. Zhu, J. Li. Research on the Adaptive Control of the Suspension System Based on the Single Electrical Magnetic, Computing Technology and Automation, Vol.26 No.4, pp.1721,2007.

[4]

[5]

[6] [7]

[8]

Figure 4. Levitation process of mono module levitation system using improved control algorithm

C 978-1-4244-1849-7/08/$25.002008 IEEE

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