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ECSS-Q-ST-70-01C

15 November 2008

Space product assurance


Cleanliness and contamination control

ECSS Secretariat ESA-ESTEC Requirements & Standards Division Noordwijk, The Netherlands

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Foreword This Standard is one of the series of ECSS Standards intended to be applied together for the management, engineering and product assurance in space projects and applications. ECSS is a cooperative effort of the European Space Agency, national space agencies and European industry associationsforthepurposeofdevelopingandmaintainingcommonstandards.Requirementsinthis Standardaredefinedintermsofwhatshallbeaccomplished,ratherthanintermsofhowtoorganize and perform the necessary work. This allows existing organizational structures and methods to be appliedwheretheyareeffective,andforthestructuresandmethodstoevolveasnecessarywithout rewritingthestandards. This Standard has been prepared by the ECSSQST7001 Working Group, reviewed by the ECSS ExecutiveSecretariatandapprovedbytheECSSTechnicalAuthority.

Disclaimer ECSSdoesnotprovideanywarrantywhatsoever,whetherexpressed,implied,orstatutory,including, butnotlimitedto,anywarrantyofmerchantabilityorfitnessforaparticularpurposeoranywarranty that the contents of the item are errorfree. In no respect shall ECSS incur any liability for any damages,including,butnotlimitedto,direct,indirect,special,orconsequentialdamagesarisingout of, resulting from, or in any way connected to the use of this Standard, whether or not based upon warranty,businessagreement,tort,orotherwise;whetherornotinjurywassustainedbypersonsor propertyorotherwise;andwhetherornotlosswassustainedfrom,oraroseoutof,theresultsof,the item,oranyservicesthatmaybeprovidedbyECSS.

Publishedby:

Copyright:

ESARequirementsandStandardsDivision ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk The Netherlands 2008 by the European Space Agency for the members of ECSS

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Change log

ECSSQ7001A 11December2002 ECSSQ7001B ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Firstissue TransformingESAPSS01701intoanECSSStandard Neverissued Secondissue ThemaindifferencesbetweenECSSQ7001AandthisStandardarelisted hereunder: ReorganizationofthedocumenttoconformtotheECSSdraftingrules (e.g.splitofdescriptiveandnormativetext),and CreationoftwoDRDs

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Table of contents
Cleanliness and contamination control ................................................................................ 1

1 Scope.......................................................................................................................8 2 Normative references .............................................................................................9 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................10


3.1 3.2 3.3 Terms from other standards ..................................................................................... 10 Terms specific to the present standard .................................................................... 10 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 14

4 Principles ..............................................................................................................16 5 Requirements........................................................................................................17


5.1 Cleanliness and contamination control programme ................................................. 17 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 General....................................................................................................... 17 Documentation ........................................................................................... 17 Contamination budget ................................................................................ 18 Contamination predictions .......................................................................... 18 Contamination prediction with respect to budget........................................ 19 Cleanliness and contamination process flow chart..................................... 19 Design ........................................................................................................ 20 MAIT ........................................................................................................... 22 pre-launch and launch ................................................................................ 23 Mission ....................................................................................................... 24 Cleanrooms ................................................................................................ 25 Vacuum facilities......................................................................................... 33 Other facilities............................................................................................. 34 Cleaning of hardware ................................................................................. 34 Cleanliness monitoring of space hardware................................................. 36

Phases ..................................................................................................................... 20

Environments ........................................................................................................... 25

Activities ................................................................................................................... 34

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 5.4.3 5.4.4 Cleanliness verification............................................................................... 39 Packaging, containerization, transportation, storage.................................. 42

Annex A (normative) Cleanliness requirement specification (CRS) - DRD ........44 Annex B (normative) Cleanliness and contamination control plan (C&CCP) - DRD ....................................................................................................................47 Annex C (informative) Cleanliness and contamination control process overview ...............................................................................................................51 Annex D (informative) Guidelines for general cleanliness and contamination control.........................................................................................52
D.1 D.2 General..................................................................................................................... 52 Contamination attributes .......................................................................................... 52 D.2.1 Typical contaminants and their sources ..................................................... 52
D.2.1.1. On ground .....................................................................................................52 D.2.1.2. On launch ......................................................................................................54 D.2.1.3. During mission...............................................................................................55

D.2.2

Transport mechanisms ............................................................................... 58


D.2.2.1. Overview .......................................................................................................58 D.2.2.2. Contaminants transport on ground................................................................58 D.2.2.3. Contaminants transport in space ..................................................................58

D.2.3

Main effects of contamination on space systems ....................................... 59

Annex E (informative) Cleanliness-oriented design............................................61 Annex F (informative) Modelling guidelines ........................................................63 Annex G (informative) Airborne particulate cleanliness classes equivalence..........................................................................................................64 Annex H (informative) Particulate levels on surfaces .........................................65
H.1 H.2 Standard method 1: Particle distribution .................................................................. 65 Standard method 2: Obscuration factor ................................................................... 65 H.2.1 H.2.2 Overview..................................................................................................... 65 Correlation for particles on surfaces........................................................... 65

Annex I (informative) Compatibility of various solvents with listed materials ..............................................................................................................67 Annex J (informative) evaporation residue of commercially available solvents................................................................................................................69 Annex K (informative) Molecular contaminant content of some wipe materials ..............................................................................................................70 Annex L (informative) Effects of humidity on materials and components ........71

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Annex M (informative) Cleaning methods ............................................................72


M.1 Removal of particulate contamination ...................................................................... 72 M.1.1 M.1.2 M.1.3 M.1.4 M.2.1 M.2.2 M.2.3 M.2.4 M.2.5 M.2.6 M.2.7 M.2.8 Overview..................................................................................................... 72 Vacuum cleaning and wiping...................................................................... 72 Gas jet cleaning.......................................................................................... 72 Tapes and films trapping ............................................................................ 73 Overview..................................................................................................... 73 Mechanical cleaning ................................................................................... 73 Solvent and detergent cleaning .................................................................. 73 Films trapping ............................................................................................. 73 Gas jet cleaning.......................................................................................... 73 Plasma cleaning ......................................................................................... 74 Bakeout ...................................................................................................... 74 Ultra-violet-ozone cleaning ......................................................................... 74

M.2 Removal of molecular contamination ....................................................................... 73

Figures
Figure 5-1: Graphical representation of ISO-class concentration limits for selected ISO classes................................................................................................................. 27 Figure C-1 : Cleanliness and contamination control process overview .................................. 51

Tables
Table 5-1: Outgassing criteria for materials in the vicinity of sensitive items around RT ....... 21 Table 5-2: Outgassing criteria for materials in the vicinity of sensitive items at temperature below RT ......................................................................................... 21 Table 5-3: Outgassing criteria for materials in the vicinity of cryogenic surfaces................... 21 Table 5-4: Selected airborne particulate cleanliness classes for cleanrooms and other controlled environment ........................................................................................ 28 Table 5-5: Correlation airborne and PFO for cleanrooms ...................................................... 29 Table G-1 : Classification system........................................................................................... 64 Table H-1 : Correlation between ideal class of IEST-STD-CC1246D and obscuration factor.................................................................................................................... 66 Table I-1 : Examples of compatibility of various solvents with listed materials ...................... 68 Table J-1 : Commercially available solvents evaporation residue.......................................... 69 Table K-1 : Molecular contaminant content of some wipe materials ...................................... 70 Table L-1 : Effect of humidity on materials and components ................................................. 71

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Introduction
TheobjectiveofthisStandardistoensureasuccessfulmissionbythedefinition of acceptable contamination levels for space system elements, their achievement,andmaintenance,throughout performanceassessmentversuscontamination, facilitiesandtoolsdefinitionforcontaminationcontrolandmonitoring, materialsandprocessesselection,and planningofactivities.

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

1 Scope
Thepurposeofthisstandardistodefine: The selection of critical items, the definition of cleanliness requirements tosatisfythemissionperformancerequirementsandcontrolthelevelsto bemetbypersonnel,items,facilitiesandoperationsofspaceprojects. Themanagement,includingorganization,reviewsandaudits,acceptance statusanddocumentationcontrol.

Itcoversdesign,development,production,testing,operationofspaceproducts, launchandmission. Inthisstandardarealsoguidelinesgivenforidentificationofpossiblefailures and malfunctions due to contamination and guidelines for achieving and maintainingtherequiredcleanlinesslevelsduringgroundactivities,launchand mission. This Standard applies to all types and combinations of projects, organizations andproducts,andduringalltheprojectphases,exceptmannedmissions. Italsoappliestothosegroundsystemsthathaveahardwareinterfacetospace systems,suchasMGSEintegrationstands. ThisStandarddoesnotaddressmagnetic,electricalorelectrostaticcleanliness. This Standard does not address completely biocontamination aspects. However,referencestorelevantECSSstandardsareprovided. Thisstandardmaybetailoredforthespecificcharacteristicandconstrainsofa spaceprojectinconformancewithECSSSST00.

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

2 Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated references,subsequentamendmentsto,orrevisionofanyofthesepublications donotapply,However,partiestoagreementsbasedonthisECSSStandardare encouragedtoinvestigatethepossibilityofapplyingthemorerecenteditionsof the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest editionofthepublicationreferredtoapplies. ECSSSST0001 ECSSQST1009 ECSSQST20 ECSSQST2007 ECSSQST70 ECSSQST7002 ECSSQST7029 ECSSsystemGlossaryofterms SpaceproductassuranceNonconformancecontrol system SpaceproductassuranceQualityassurance SpaceproductassuranceQualityassurancefortest centres SpaceproductassuranceMaterials,mechanical partsandprocesses SpaceproductassuranceThermalvacuum outgassingtestforthescreeningofspacematerials SpaceproductassuranceDeterminationof offgassingproductsfrommaterialsandassembled articlestousedinmannedspacevehiclecrew compartment SpaceproductassuranceParticlecontamination monitoringforspacecraftsystemsandcleanrooms SpaceproductassuranceMaterialandhardware compatibilitytestforsterilizationprocesses SpaceproductassuranceMicrobialexaminationof flighthardwareandcleanrooms SpaceproductassuranceBioburdencontrolof cleanrooms Cleanroomsandassociatedcontrolledenvironments Productcleanlinesslevelsandcontaminationcontrol program

ECSSQST7050 ECSSQST7053 ECSSQST7055 ECSSQST7058 ISO14644 IESTSTDCC1246D

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3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms


3.1 Terms from other standards
ForthepurposeofthisStandard,thetermsanddefinitionsfromECSSST0001 andECSSQST70apply.

3.2

Terms specific to the present standard


3.2.1 airborne particle
particlesuspendedinair

3.2.2

airborne particle cleanliness class

levelofcleanlinessspecifiedbythemaximumallowablenumberofparticlesper cubicmetre(orcubicfoot)ofair

3.2.3

bakeout

activity of increasing the temperature of hardware to accelerate its outgassing rateswiththeintentofreducingthecontentofmolecularcontaminantswithin thehardware NOTE Bakeout is usually performed in a vacuum environment, but can be done in a controlled atmosphere.

3.2.4

biocontamination

contamination of materials, devices, individuals, surfaces, liquids, gases or air withviableparticles [ISO146981:2003,3.1.4][ISO146982:2003,3.4]

3.2.5

cleaning

actionstoreducethecontaminationlevel

3.2.6

cleanliness (contamination) control

anyorganizedactiontocontrolthelevelofcontamination

3.2.7

cleanliness level

quantitativelevelofcontamination

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 3.2.8 cleanliness verification

activity intended to verify that the actual cleanliness conditions of the space system, the cleanrooms or the vacuum chambers are in conformance with the applicablespecificationsandothercleanlinessrequirements

3.2.9

cleanroom

roominwhichtheconcentrationofairborneparticlesiscontrolled,andwhichis constructedandusedinamannertominimizetheintroduction,generationand retentionofparticlesinsidetheroom,andinwhichotherrelevantparameters, e.g.temperature,humidityandpressure,arecontrolledasnecessary [ISO146446]

3.2.10

clean zone

dedicated space in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled, and whichis constructedand usedina manner to minimize the introduction, generation and retention of particles inside the room, and in which other relevantparameters,e.g.temperature,humidityandpressure,arecontrolledas necessary [ISO146446] NOTE This zone can be open or enclosed and can or can notbelocatedwithinacleanroom.

3.2.11

contaminant

any unwanted molecular or particulate matter (including microbiological matter) on the surface or in the environment of interest, that can affect or degradetherelevantperformanceorlifetime

3.2.12

contaminate, to

actofintroducinganycontaminant

3.2.13

contamination budget

permissible contamination levels defined at different stages of the life of the instrumentandsatellite

3.2.14

contamination potential

potential amount of contaminant in the source which can produce contamination

3.2.15

controlled area

environmentally controlled area, operated as a cleanroom, with two prefilter stagesbutwithoutthefinalstageofHEPA(orbetter)filtersusedincleanrooms

3.2.16

fibre

particlewithalengthtodiameterratioof10ormore

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 3.2.17 FTIR spectrometer

analyser(chemicalidentification)oforganicandinorganiccontaminationusing infraredwavelengths

3.2.18

HEPA particle filter

throwaway, extendedmedium, dry type filter in a rigid frame that has a minimum particlecollection efficiency of 99,97 % (that is a maximum particle penetration of 0,03 %) for 0,3 m thermally generated DOP or specified alternativeaerosol

3.2.19

induced contaminant environment

environmentcreatedbythepresenceofcontaminatingitems

3.2.20

molecular contamination

airborne or surface contamination (vapour, gas, liquid, or solid) without observabledimensions(i.e.withdimensionsatmolecularlevel)

3.2.21

monitoring

toperformroutine,quantitativemeasurementsofenvironmentalparametersin and around cleanrooms, clean zones, and other clean areas, including contaminationparameters

3.2.22

non-volatile residue (NVR)

quantityofresidualsoluble,suspended,andparticulatematterremainingafter thecontrolledevaporationofavolatileliquidataspecifiedtemperature

3.2.23

obscuration factor (OF)

ratiooftheprojectedareaofallparticlestothetotalsurfaceareaonwhichthey rest

3.2.24

offgassing

evolution of gaseous products from a liquid or solid material into an atmosphere

3.2.25

outgassed quantity

totalquantityofoutgassedspeciesexpressedasamass(e.g.gramorpercentof theinitialspecimen)oraspressure volume(e.g.hPam3)

3.2.26

outgassing
NOTE Outgassing also occurs in a higherpressure environment.

evolutionofgaseousspeciesfromamaterial,usuallyinvacuum

3.2.27

particle

unitofmatterwithobservablelength,widthandthickness

3.2.28

particle fallout

accumulateddepositofparticulatematteronasurface

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 3.2.29 particle size

apparentmaximumlineardimensionofaparticleintheplaneofobservationas observed with an optical microscope, or the equivalent diameter of a particle detectedbyautomaticinstrumentation NOTE The equivalent diameter is the diameter of a reference sphere having known properties and producing the same response in the sensing instrumentastheparticlebeingmeasured.

3.2.30

particulate

oforrelatingtominuteseparateparticles

3.2.31

particulate contamination (PAC)

airborneorsurfacecontaminationduetoparticles

3.2.32

plume

exhaust(moleculesorparticles)ofthrustersandengines

3.2.33

purging

supplyofcleangastoprotectthecriticalhardwarefromcontamination

3.2.34

quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)

device for measuring small quantities of mass deposited on a quartz crystal usingthepropertiesofacrystaloscillator

3.2.35

ram direction

inthedirectionofvelocityvector

3.2.36

sensitive item

itemwhosecontaminationmayaffectitsperformanceorlifetime

3.2.37

ULPA particle filter

throwaway, extendedmedium, drytype filter in a rigid frame that has a minimumparticlecollectionefficiencyof99,999%(thatis,amaximumparticle penetrationof0,001%)forparticlesinthesizerangeof0,1mto0,2m

3.2.38

venting

conveyingunwantedgaseousproductsthroughanaperture

3.2.39

visibly clean

absence of surface contamination when examined with a specific light source, angleofincidenceandviewingdistanceusingnormalormagnifiedvision

3.2.40

wake direction

directionoppositetothevelocityvector

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 3.2.41 witness sample

sample used to collect contaminants during exposure, usually in an environmentallycontrolledarea,andthenanalysedormeasured

3.3

Abbreviated terms
ForthepurposeofthisStandard,theabbreviatedtermsfromECSSSST0001 andthefollowingapply:

Abbreviation ACS AIT AIV AO BOL CC C&CCP CRS CVCM DIW DML DOP ECLS EGSE EMC EOL EVA FTIR GSE HEPA ICC IPA IR LEO MGSE MLI MOC MRR

Meaning
AmericanChemicalSociety assembly,integrationandtesting assembly,integrationandverification atomicoxygen beginningoflife contaminationcontrol cleanlinessandcontaminationcontrolplan cleanlinessrequirementspecification collectedvolatilecondensablematerial deionisedwater declaredmaterialslist dioctylphthalate environmentalcontrolandlifesupport electricalgroundsupportequipment electromagneticcompatibility endoflife extravehicularactivity Fouriertransforminfrared groundsupportequipment highefficiencyparticulateairfilter internalcontaminationcontrol isopropylalcohol infrared lowEarthorbit mechanicalgroundsupportequipment multilayerinsulation molecularcontamination manufacturingreadinessreview

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 NVR OF PAC PDR PFO PMP QCM RH RT RML SRR TB TML TRR TV UV ULPA VBQC VCM
nonvolatileresidue obscurationfactor particulatecontamination productdefinitionreview particlefallout parts,materialsandprocesses quartzcrystalmicrobalance relativehumidity roomtemperature recoveredmassloss systemrequirementreview thermalbalance totalmassloss testreadinessreview thermalvacuum ultraviolet ultralowparticleairfilter vacuumbalancequartzcrystal volatilecondensablematerial

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4 Principles
The cleanliness and contamination control process is applied all along the projectlifecycle,fromthedefinitionoftheC&CCPprogrammeduringtheearly phases(seeclause5.1)untilitsimplementationduringphasesB,C,D,EandF (see clause 5.2) through the systematic verification of the cleanliness requirementsbaselineincluding:predictionsthroughcontaminationmodelling and the establishment of agreed procedures (see clause 5.3 and 5.4) for: environments control (see clause 5.3) packaging, containerization, transportationandstorageofthespacesystem. NOTE Figure C1 of Annex C gives an overview of an exampleofacleanlinessandcontaminationprocess.

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5 Requirements

5.1

Cleanliness and contamination control programme


5.1.1
a.

General

Thesuppliershalldefineandimplementacleanlinessandcontamination controlprogrammeforeachlevelofconfiguration. NOTE1 Surveys can also be made to determine the contamination control requirements, based on missionobjectivesandscenarios. NOTE2 The objective of this programme is, starting from themissionperformancerequirements,toestablish cleanliness and contamination levels to be achieved at different manufacturing, AIT and missionstages. NOTE3 In general, the organization of regular workshops dedicatedtocleanlinessandcontaminationcontrol foraspecificprogrammeisagoodpractice.

b.

Thesuppliershallestablishmeasuresforthecoordinationandresolution of cleanliness and contamination control issues among the parties involvedintheproject.

5.1.2
5.1.2.1
a.

Documentation
Contamination requirements specification

The supplier shall define and document cleanliness requirements in a cleanliness requirement specification (CRS), in conformance with the DRDinAnnexA. TheCRSshallbedefinedasearlyaspossibleintheprogramme,inorder toproperlyaddressitduringthedesignphaseandprovidedatthelatest atSRR,aspartofthereviewdatapackage. NOTE Cleanliness is of fundamental importance for the spacesystemsperformance.

b.

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c. The CRS should be prepared in collaboration with users and engineers fromthedifferentdisciplines. NOTE d. Users can be, for example, experimenters or scientists.

In case the CRS cannot be produced at an early stage of the design, a cleanlinesscontrolpolicydocumentshallbeused. NOTE1 The cleanliness control policy document gives the correlation data between acceptable performance losses and the contamination levels from library searchorfromteststhatareperformed. NOTE2 The cleanliness control policy document can become the CRS during the development of the design.

5.1.2.2
a.

Contamination and Cleanliness Control Plan

In reply to the CRS, the supplier shall establish a cleanliness and contamination control plan (C&CCP) in conformance with the DRD in Annex B (C&CCP DRD), to be provided at the latest at PDR, as part of thereviewdatapackage.

5.1.3
a.

Contamination budget

As part of the CRS (see Annex A), a contamination budget (allocations) shallbeestablished. NOTE This budget determines the maximum allowed on ground and inorbit molecular and particulate contaminationlevels.

b.

The specified contamination levels shall be derived from the acceptable performancelossessimulatedthroughdedicatedmodelling.

5.1.4
a.

Contamination predictions

As part of the C&CCP (see Annex B), particulate and molecular contaminationpredictionsshallbeestablished. NOTE Contamination predictions are done in order to estimate the expected on ground and inorbit molecularandparticulatecontaminationlevels.

b.

These predictions shall be updated to evaluate the molecular and particulatecontaminationlevelsgeneratedduringallongroundactivities andduringlaunchandinorbitphases. NOTE Ground activities can be MAIT, transportation,launchpreparation. storage,

c.

Modelling techniques shall be used to predict in orbit contamination levels. NOTE Examples of modelling techniques are given in AnnexF.

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d. Foreachongroundactivity,forlaunchandinorbitphases,thefollowing itemsshallbeidentifiedinthecontaminationprediction: 1. 2. 3. 4. e. theseenenvironment, thesensitivesurfaces, thedurationoftheexposuretothisenvironment,and thepotentialmeansofprotection.

During all on ground activities, the contamination predictions shall be consolidatedwiththeresultsofmolecularandparticulatemonitoring.

5.1.5
a.

Contamination prediction with respect to budget

The contamination predictions for all the different phases shall be comparedtothecleanlinessrequirements,i.e.contaminationbudget. NOTE For example, for of such phases are MAIT, BOL andEOL

b.

Ifthecontaminationpredictionsorwhenavailableactualmeasurements, result in a higher than the specified level, then corrective actions and precautions to reduce contamination shall be investigated and implemented. NOTE The linear dependency of MOC and PAC as a function of time is not always valid for longer periods.

5.1.6
a.

Cleanliness and contamination process flow chart

The supplier shall establish a contamination and contamination process flowchart. NOTE Anexampleofcleanlinessandcontaminationprocess flowchartisgiveninFigureC1ofAnnexC.

b.

WhenevertheCRSrequirementsarenotmet,countermeasuresshouldbe prioritizedfromthemosttotheleastpreferred. NOTE Themostpreferrediscategorizedas1andtheleast preferredas4intheexamplegiveninFigureC1.

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5.2

Phases
5.2.1
5.2.1.1
a. b.

Design
General design aspects

Thelevelofsensitivitytocontaminationshallbeoneofthedriversinthe initialdesign. Thedesignshallbecleanlinessoriented. NOTE1 Awaytoimplementacleanlinessorienteddesign isgiveninAnnexE. NOTE2 Such design can contribute to achieve the contamination levels defined by the CRS on groundaswellduringthelaunchandmission. NOTE3 A way to achieve the target contamination levels canbefoundinAnnexD.

c.

Whenthedesignbaselineisincompatiblewithcleanlinessrequirements, the design changes shall be identified and corrective actions shall be takeninclosecooperationwithalllevelsinvolved.

5.2.1.2
a.

Materials selection

Whentheoffgassingeffectofamaterialisaselectioncriteria,thesupplier shallapplyECSSQST7029. NOTE For modelling the molecular contamination during onground activities, when outgassing data are too conservative,offgassingdataareadvisable.

b. c. d. e. f.

For the particulate contamination, the supplier shall apply ECSSQST 7050. Whenthemicrobiologicalcontaminationeffectisaselectioncriteria,the suppliershallapplyECSSQST7055. When sterilization and material compatibility is a selection criteria, the suppliershallapplyECSSQST7053. Fortheoutgassingscreeningofmaterials,thesuppliershallapplyECSS QST7002. The outgassing requirements shall be based on the quantity of material concerned,andthespecificenvironmentalconditions. NOTE Specific environmental conditions can be available volumesandtemperatures.

g.

Whencontaminationsensitiveitemsareinvolvedorformaterialsinthe vicinityofcryogenicsurfaces,morestringentrequirementsshallapply. NOTE Those more stringent requirements are specified in clauses5.2.1.2hto5.2.1.2j.

h.

The outgassing criteria for materials in the vicinity of sensitive items aroundRTshallconformtoTable51.

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i. j. k. The outgassing criteria for materials in the vicinity of sensitive items at temperaturebelowRTshallconformtoTable52. Theoutgassingcriteriaformaterialsinthevicinityofcryogenicsurfaces shallconformtoTable53. Volatilemetalsshallnotbeused. NOTE1 This is especially the case when the temperatures areaboveroomtemperatures. NOTE2 Somemetalssuchascadmiumandzinchavehigh vapour pressures and deposit metallic films can occuronadjacentsurfaces.

Table51:Outgassingcriteriaformaterialsinthevicinityof sensitiveitemsaroundRT
Massofmaterialconcerned (g)
>100 10100 <10

CVCM(%)
<0,01 <0,05 <0,1

RML(%)
<1 <1 <1

Table52:Outgassingcriteriaformaterialsinthevicinityof sensitiveitemsattemperaturebelowRT
Massofmaterialconcerned (g)
>100 10100 <10

CVCM(%)
<0,01 <0,05 <0,1

RML(%)
<0,1 <1 <1

Table53:Outgassingcriteriaformaterialsinthevicinityof cryogenicsurfaces
Massofmaterialconcerned (g)
>100 10100 <10

CVCM(%)
<0,01 <0,05 <0,1

TML(%)
<0,1 <1 <1

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5.2.2
5.2.2.1
a. b.

MAIT
Manufacturing

Personnel involved in the manufacturing of sensitive items shall be trainedwithrespecttothecleanlinesscontrolpolicy. All elements manufactured in noncontrolled areas or under nonclean conditions shall be the object of a cleaning process until the cleanliness requirementsaremet,beforetheyarepackagedfordelivery. Cleaning and packaging operations for all elements shall be processed according to procedures approved by the customer for the specific application/product. Elementsthatcanbecleanedaftermanufacturingshallbecleanedtillthe cleanlinessrequirementsaremet. For elements that cannot be cleaned after manufacturing, then manufacturing and assembling areas shall meet the cleanliness level requirementsspecification. The conformity of the manufacturing facilities shall be verified during MRRorTRR. Anauditofthemanufacturingfacilitiesshallbeperformedaccordingto ECSSQST10clause5.2.3criteria. Anauditsshallbeheldafterproblemshavealreadyoccurredoraspart ofaplantoestablishiffacilitiesandpersonnelareadequate.

c.

d. e.

f. g. h.

5.2.2.2
a. b.

Assembly and Integration

Involvedpersonnelshallbetrainedwithrespecttothecleanlinesspolicy. Criticalandsensitiveelementsshallonlybeexposedwhennecessary. NOTE Expositionofsensitiveandcriticalelementsduring opticalcalibrationoralignmentcannotbeavoided.

c. d. e. f.

When an exposure of sensitive and critical elements cannot be avoided, theexposuretimeandconditionsshallberecorded. Asetofassemblytoolsandequipmentforassemblyandintegrationshall beusedandmaintainedincleanconditions. Procedures for assembly and integration shall be established for critical itemassembly. For the selection of the cleanroom, the allocated contamination budget andthedurationoftheintegrationshallbeknown. NOTE Thecorrelationbetweentheairbornecontamination and the particle fallout for normal cleanrooms is basically known (see clause 5.3.1), and so a rough estimate can be made of the type of cleanroom required. A practical contamination level for the cleanroom can be measured with representative activitiesandarepresentativenumberofoperators. The expected contamination levels depend on the

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typeofprotectionappliedtocriticalhardware(e.g. covers,shieldsandpurging). g. h. i. TheconformityofthefacilitiesshallbeverifiedduringMRRorTRR. An audit of the integration facilities shall be performed according to ECSSQST10clause5.2.3criteria. Anauditshallbeheldafterproblemshavealreadyoccurredoraspartof aplantoestablishiffacilitiesandpersonnelareadequate.

5.2.2.3
a. b. c. d. e.

Testing

Involvedpersonnelshallbetrainedwithrespecttothecleanlinesspolicy. Fortestcentres,ECSSQST2007shallapply. TheconformityofthefacilitiesshallbeverifiedduringMRRorTRR. AnauditofthetestfacilitiesshallbeperformedaccordingtoECSSQST10 clause5.2.3criteria. Anauditshallbeheldafterproblemshavealreadyoccurredoraspartof aplantoestablishiffacilitiesandpersonnelareadequate.

5.2.3
5.2.3.1
a. b. c.

pre-launch and launch


General

Personnel involved in prelaunchactivities shall be trained withrespect tothecleanlinesspolicy. The space system shall be shipped to the launch base under clean conditionsasdefinedintheCRSandcontrolledbytheC&CCP. The potential contamination during launch preparation shall be also controlled. NOTE This can be done through the C&CCP or through specific launch base procedures approved by the project.

d.

Contamination during launch shall be controlled through preventive actionsandspecificdesignprovisions. NOTE Preventive actions can consist of cleaning and purging of the fairing. Specific design provisions can consist of shields controlling the depressurization.

5.2.3.2
a.

Specific design provisions

Launcher parts, shall be clean in order to avoid contamination of the cleanitemsofthespacesystem. NOTE Launcher parts can be fairings and mechanical systemsfordoubleormultiplelaunches.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
b. The materials of the hardware in the vicinity of the space system shall meet the same outgassing and surfacecleanliness requirements as the spacesystemitself. The building environment in which the spacecraft is put inside the fairingshallbecompatiblewiththespacecraftcharacteristics. NOTE1 Specific spacecraft design provisions can be protection mechanisms used to limit the launch contaminants, especially the unknown figure of particletransferduringlaunch. NOTE2 A second design aspect is the location of the contaminationsensitive items with respect to the position of thrusters and of pyrotechnics or other contaminationsources. NOTE3 The reflection by atmospheric molecules (i.e. atmospheric scattering) or by outgassing molecules (i.e. selfscattering) can take place and someformofmodellingisofinterest.

c.

5.2.4
a.

Mission

External contamination control during mission shall be done through preventiveactions,specificdesignprovisionsandoperations. NOTE1 Preventive actions include materials selection (see clause 5.5.3 in ECSSQST7002), bakeout (see clause5.4.3.2)andpurging(seeclause5.4.3.3). NOTE2 Specific design provisions include the implementation of heaters for decontamination of sensitivesurfaces,ofshuttersandbaffles. NOTE3 Operations include shielding during dumping, thrusters firing or venting,, decontamination of sensitivesurfacesthroughexposuretotheSun.

b.

Fluids that can emerge to the exterior by leakage or intentional use of valvesshallbeconsideredinthedesignandoperationalrequirementsof systemandequipmenthardware. A specific analysis shall be performed to ensure an optimum level of detection,locationandisolationtechniques. NOTE These fluids are originating from thermal, environmental or life support systems or subsystems or released due to crew activities (nutrients, wastes), during maintenance and repair and from experiments or payloads as well as the propellantsystems.

c.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

5.3

Environments
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
a. b. c. d. e. f.

Cleanrooms
Design of cleanroom: shell, entrances and anterooms

Cleanroomshell,floors,wallsandceilingshallbelowsheddingandthe finishreadilycleanable. Thecoveringfloorshallconsistofonepieceor,ifthisisnotfeasible,shall haveaminimumnumberofjoints. The floor shall be resistant to withstand wear by personnel and operationswithintheroom. The room shall be designed such that only one door or entrance can be openedatonetime,exceptincaseofemergency. Entrancesshallprovideanairlocktoallowamaintainedpressurisation ofthearea. Anteroomsshallbeequippedforthechangingofclothesandthestorage ofclothing,personalbelongingsandcleaningequipment.

5.3.1.2
a.

Air supply

Air supply and filtration equipment shall have the capacity to filter all newandrecirculatedairenteringtheroomtoguaranteethedefinedISO class. Air conditioning equipment for prefiltering (particular and molecular), cooling, heating, humidification and dehumidification of the cleanroom airsupplyshallbesuppliedtoguaranteetheenvironmentalconditions. NOTE Seeclauses5.3.1.8,5.3.1.9,5.3.1.10and5.3.1.11.

b.

c.

In laminar flow cleanrooms, the air flow velocity through the cross section of the room shall be maintained at 27m/min with a uniformity within20%throughouttheundisturbedroom. Airflowpatternsshallbeuniformwithminimumturbulence.

d.

5.3.1.3
a.

Filters

In laminar flow cleanrooms, (HEPA) filters shall cover either one entire wall or the entire ceiling, except when diffusion ceiling or wall systems areusedorwhenbuiltinbenchesareincludedintheincomingairendof theroom. Monitoringshallbedoneandanyworkwithhighlysensitiveequipment shallnotbeperformedbeforethedefinedISOclassforthehardwarehas beenreached.asspecifiedintheC&CCPforthefollowingsituations: 1. 2. 3. aftertheinstallationofnewfilters, afteratrestperiod, afterstandbyperiod.

b.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
NOTE Due to the transitory pressure gradients, contaminationpreviouslytrappedbyHEPAfilters, togetherwithareductionintheoperatinglifeofthe filtersthemselvescanbereleased.

c.

TheairflowinsidecleanroomsandindependentHEPAfilteringsystems shallbemaintainedduringatrestperiods,exceptforthemaintenance operations. NOTE1 Forexample,duringfiltersreplacement. NOTE2 Independent HEPA filtering systems can be like thoseusedforthelaminarflowtentsandbenches. NOTE3 This is to avoid the risk of redistribution of particlesatrestartoftheflow. NOTE4 Exception can be made for independent HEPA filteringsystemsthatcanworkwithareducedair flowrateduringstandbyperiods.

d.

In cases where a uniform and controlled molecular environment is required,thefilteringsystemshallbeequippedwithadditionalcharcoal filterspositionedbeforetheHEPAfilters. When charcoals filters are used, the initial charge shall be assessed on installationandanalysedregularly. NOTE It can be useful to evaluate the charge in contaminants of the filtering system which can releaseitschargeincontaminantstrapped.inorder to be able to monitor the evolution and when a failureoccurs.

e.

5.3.1.4
a.

Particle levels and cleanroom classification

AnyairbornecontrolledenvironmentshallbeclassifiedaccordingtoISO 146441:1999. NOTE1 Thenumberofparticlesperm3asafunctionofthe diameterfrom0,1mto5masclassesisreported inFigure51(derivedfromISO146441:1999).This classificationdepends upon the ideal numbersize distributionandisgivengraphicallyinFigure51. NOTE2 Table 54 presents selected airborne particulate cleanliness classes and the corresponding particle concentrations for particles equal to and larger thantheconsideredsizesshown. NOTE3 The maximum permitted concentration of particles, Cn, for each considered particle size, D, isdeterminedfromtheequation: Cn=10N(0,1/D)2.08 where: Cn is the maximum permitted concentration (in particles per cubic metre of air) of airborne particles that are equal to or

26

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
largerthantheconsideredparticlesize.Cn is rounded to the nearest whole number, using no more than three significant figures. N is the ISO classification number, which doesnotexceedavalueof9.Intermediate ISO classification numbers can be specified, with 0,1 the smallest permitted incrementofN. is the considered particle size, in micrometres.

0,1 is a constant, with a dimension of micrometres. NOTE4 From the particle point of view, the number of 5m particles per given volume of air is much morecriticalthanthenumberofsmallerparticles, sincethefalloutismainlydeterminedbyparticles of 5m or larger. The cleanliness level of a cleanroomcanonlybeselectedwhenthespecified obscuration factors for critical spacecraft surfaces areknown.Theparticlesize5misoftenusedasa criterion, because for optical surfaces particles larger than 5m are critical, whereas for bearings and gears, particles in the range 10m to 40 m aremoreharmful.

Figure51:GraphicalrepresentationofISOclassconcentrationlimitsforselected ISOclasses

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Table54:Selectedairborneparticulatecleanlinessclassesforcleanrooms andothercontrolledenvironment

5.3.1.5
a. b. c. d.

Monitoring of cleanroom air

Thecleanroomairshallbemonitoredwithdustcounters. Accuracyandrepeatabilityofinstrumentationshallbedemonstrated. Particle counts shall be acquired continuously for the monitoring of the cleanroomitself. Aminimumoftwoparticlescountersshallbeinstalled,oneclosetothe airinletandoneormoreaccordingtothesurfaceextentofthecleanroom byusingthefollowinglaw: N=log10(S) where N is the number of particle counters and S is the surface of the cleanroominm. NOTE Thepurposeofthelocationclosetotheairinletisto checkthequalityoftheincomingair.

e. f. g. h. i.

For any sensitive hardware, sampling frequency and locations shall be definedintheC&CCP. Monitoring techniques and routines shall be established to meet the requirementsofaspecificcategoryofcleanroomorcleanworkstation. Samplingairvolumeforthecleanroomclassificationshallbeestablished onthebasisoftheISO146441,AnnexB. Compliance with particles concentration limits shall be done with a frequencyasspecifiedperISO146442,Clause4.2.1. Determiningtheextenttowhichparticlesaredepositedonsurfacesshall beachieved.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
NOTE This can be done through the exposure of test surfaces or samples to the environment and counting the settled particles by appropriate methods.

j. k.

AirmonitoringofclassISO8orbettershallbeachievedbymeansoflight scatteringequipment. Testsshallbeperformedtodetermineifleaksexceedthespecifiedlimits, accordingtothefiltercharacteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. inthefiltermediathemselves, in the bond between filter media and the interior of the filter frame, betweenfilterframegasketandfilterbanksupportingframes, betweensupportingframesandwallsorceilings.

l. m.

The cleanrooms shall have a monitoring function of the contamination levelsandtheenvironmentalparameters. The cleanroom shall have an alarm function activated when warning levelsareexceeded. NOTE1 Those warning levels are usually defined well below the out of specification limits in order to preventtheirexceedence. NOTE2 Environmental parameters are temperature, relativehumidityanddifferentialpressure.

n.

Planned corrective actions shall be initiated to reestablish the nominal conditionsintheshortestpossibletimeandtopreventrecurrence.

5.3.1.6
a. b.

Surface particulate levels

For a preliminary budget only, i.e. for SRR, the correlation between the airborneandPFOshallbeestablishedonthebasisoftheTable55. The budget, during the different project phases, shall be consolidated withinsitumeasurements.

Table55:CorrelationairborneandPFOforcleanrooms
ISOclass
5 6 7 8
NOTE

PFO (mm2/m2/24h)
2,0 10 52 275

Thedatacontainedinthistablearebasedonseveral measurementsperformedindifferentcleanrooms. Theyarerepresentedbythisapproximatelaw: PFO=0,06910(0,72M2.16) whereMistheISOclass(e.g.ISOclass5)

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

5.3.1.7
a. b. c. d. e.

Surface molecular levels

Moleculardepositsshallbemonitoredbyexposurewitnessplates. For actual measurements at least, two different witness plates shall be placedintwodifferentlocations. Foreachlocation,oneofthetwowitnessplatesshallbeanalyzedatleast oncemonth. The other witness plate is cumulative and shall be analyzed after more thanonemonth. These locations shall be selected in order to measure molecules in significant points of the environment with at least one representative of theemptycleanroom. Molecular contamination in controlled environments shall not exceed 0,5107g/cm2duringacontinuousperiodofoneweek. NOTE1 In case of contamination sensitive equipment, a lower level can be required, based on the contaminationbudget(includingexposuretime). NOTE2 In a normal cleanroom (without charcoal filters) levels can be achieved that are 10 to 100 times better.

f.

g.

Forthosehardwareitemswheretheaccumulationfromtheairbecomesa major issue, the use of charcoal filters as molecular contamination trap shouldbeconsidered. NOTE Exampleofsuchahardwarearecoatedmirrors.

5.3.1.8
a.

Temperature control

Cleanroom temperature shall be maintained at nominally 22C3C andshallbemonitoredcontinuously. NOTE Temperaturevariationsof3Catthecontrolpoint are acceptable for most operations, but more stringent conditions can be imposed in case of criticaloperations.

b.

The temperature distribution inside a cleanroom shall be controlled at representativelocationsforthehardwareitems. NOTE1 In order to ensure that a nominal temperature is achievedthroughouttheroom.Automaticdevices canbeusedfortemperaturemonitoring. NOTE2 Ifitemsbeingworkedonareextremelysensitiveto temperature changes, automatic devices with a warningsystemthatcomesintooperationwhena temperaturechangeoccurscanbeused.

5.3.1.9
a.

Pressure control

A positive pressure differential shall be maintained between the cleanroomandtheoutside.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
b. c. Pressure shall decrease successively between the cleanroom, entrance lock,anteroomandthesurroundings. Thepositiveminimumpressuredeltatobemaintainedshallbe: 1. 2. d. Betweencleanroomandsurroundingarea;1,2mmH2O(12Pa). Betweencleanroomandentrancelock;0,5mmH2O(5Pa).

Pressureinallareasshallbemonitoredcontinuously NOTE Inordertotaketimelycorrectiveactionsincaseofa pressuredrop.

5.3.1.10
a.

Humidity control

The relative humidity shall be maintained at (55 10) % for general applicationsandshallbemonitoredcontinuously. NOTE Humidity becomes detrimental due to electrostatic chargingorsurfacecorrosion(seeAnnexL).

5.3.1.11
a.

Bioburden control

ECSSQST7058shallapplyforthecontrolofbioburdenincleanroom.

5.3.1.12
a. b. c.

Maintenance and cleaning

Allmaintenanceandcleaningactivitiesshallbereportedinalogbook. A maintenance and cleaning procedure or document shall be available, alongwithaplanning. Maintenance shall comprise regular inspections of the cleanroom, its controlfacilitiesanditsoperatingequipment,includingcalibrationofall inspectionandmonitoringdevicesasspecifiedinECSSQST20. Inspections of the cleanroom shall be performed at specified frequency, dependingontheISOclass. NOTE Those inspections assess the quality of the clean facilityanddescribeanycontaminationproduction or events that are detrimental to the cleanroom cleanliness (e.g. repairs, system modifications, replacements, filter resistance measurements, leak checksorairspeedmeasurements).

d.

e.

The frequency of inspections and cleaning processes for a cleanroom shallbeoptimized. NOTE Theinspectionsandcleaningcanthemselvesbethe sourceofcontamination.

f. g. h.

Datashallberecordedinalogbook. RegularcleaningshallbeperformeddependingontheISOclass. Proceduresshallcoverthecleaningofthecleanroomincludingpersonnel airlock;equipmentairlock,walls,floors,furniture,craneliftingdevices andGSE.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
i. j. k. The cleanliness after the cleaning operations shall be verified by inspectionbymeansofUVorhighintensitywhitelight. Any personnel involved in cleaning operations shall be trained and informedaboutthecriticalityofacleaningoperationwithinacleanroom. Cleaning tools, solvents and gases that are used for cleaning purposes shallbechosennottohaveadetrimentaleffectonthehardwarewithin thecleanroom. NOTE Cleanroom air of better than class ISO 8 is transported in a close loop. Since only a limited percentage of fresh air is fed to the loop, excessive use of solvents offgassing into the air, even if not flammableortoxic,cancausehealthproblems.

l.

When the level of contamination exceeds the cleanliness requirements specification,correctiveactionsshallbetaken. NOTE Thedecisionastowhetherornottocleandepends on the integration flow of the unit within the cleanroom.

5.3.1.13
a. b. c.

Access control requirements

An access control system shall be available independently for cleanrooms,storageareaandequipmentairlock. The access to the areas shall be controlled by a permanently operating accesscontrolordoorlocksystem. Onlyauthorizedpersonnelshallhaveaccesstothecleanroom. NOTE Access control areas have a security lock at the entrance.

d. e.

Visitorsandpersonnelwithoutaworkordershallnotbeallowedtoenter thecleanroom. Visitorsworkinginthecleanroom,shall: 1. 2. 3. wearthecompleteclothing, beidentifiable, beinstructedaboutthebehaviourinacleanroom.

f. g.

Racks or cabinets for street clothing shall be separated from those used forcleanroomclothing. Barriersorsimilarmeansseparatingcleanandnotcleanzonesinsidethe airlockshallbeplaced. NOTE Similarmeanscanbetackymats.

h. i. j.

Lintfree clothing shall be available and worn by all personnel within cleanroomarea. Head covers or other garments shall be used as required to trap loose particlesofhairorskinflakes. Gloves, approved finger cots, tweezers or clean handling methods and equipmentshallbeusedwhileworkingwithorhandlingsensitiveparts.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
NOTE k. This is to avoid contamination of those parts by looseskinornaturalskinoils.

Allequipmentshallbecleanedbydusting,vacuumsuction,washing,or othermeanssuitedtotheequipmentinvolvedbeforebeingbroughtinto thearea. Exhaustsystemsforgrinding,weldingorsoldering,machiningorrelated operationsshallbeinstalled. Actionsrelatedtoequipmentsitemswithcoolingfansshallbeidentified andmitigatedinordertoavoidcontaminationofcriticalhardware. NOTE Equipments items with cooling fans are potential contaminationsources.

l. m.

n. o. p. q.

Personnelshallbeinstructedaboutthebehaviourinacleanroom. Personnel movements to and from the cleanroom shall be kept to a minimum. Smoking, eating and drinking shall not be permitted in the cleanroom, includingtheenteringareasandairlocks. Local cleanroom instructions shall specify the amount of protective clothing to be worn and shall reduce to the minimum the contaminant transfer. Ifairshowersareused,onlysuitablyclothedpersonnelshallbeallowed toenter. Paper, pencils or erasers shall be kept outside the clean facilities. Only specialnonsheddingpapersandballpointsshallbeused. Cosmeticsandmedicamentsthatcanproducecontaminationshallnotbe usedbyanypersonnel. NOTE Inparticular,eyemakeup,rouge,facepowderand hairspray.

r. s. t.

u. v. w.

Fingernailpolishshallnotbepermittedinthearea. Before entering a cleanroom, hand lotions, creams or soap containing lanolintotightenskinparticlesshallbeused. Contactofhandswithsolventsshallbeavoided. NOTE Many solvents remove natural oils and cause excessiveskinpeelingorflaking.

5.3.2
a. 1. 2.

Vacuum facilities
Thecleaningofthetestfacilities. NOTE Handlingofsolventsandrunningabakeout The pumpdown and recovery sequences with respect to contaminationredistribution. NOTE Agoodsolution,forchamberrepressurization,isto add an HEPA filter to the repressurization piping

Proceduresshallbeavailablefor:

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
andtocollecttheairforrepressurizationinaclean area(preferablyISOclass5). 3. Theregenerationofsorptionpumps. NOTE 4. b. c. Sorptionpumpscanbee.g.cryopumps,zeolites,or charcoal.

Thecleaningofcoldtrap.

Foratestinavacuumfacility,itshallbeensuredthattheitemundertest doesnotposeanyriskofcontaminationofthefacility. An approved declared material list (DML) of the hardware under test, includingthetestadapterandallconnectionsshallbeprovided. NOTE Including, for example mechanical and electrical connexions.

d. e. f.

Apretestshallbeperformedtoprovethecleanlinessofthefacility. Duringthepretest,testequipmentandcablingshallbeincludedinthe facility. Duringthepretest,pumpdownandrepressurizationsequencesshallbe similartotheactualtest. NOTE In typical clean vacuum systems, a sensor (or a critical surface) is not contaminated by more than 1107 g/cm2 during a blank test of 24 hours duration. The sensor is normally at room temperature, but, more stringent requirements can beimposed,dependinguponthebudgetallocation fortheequipment.Infact,forsensitive equipment, 0,3107 g/cm2, 24 hours (or 0,5107 g/cm2, week) forablanktestisoftenspecified.

5.3.3
a.

Other facilities

TheCRSandtheC&CCPshalladdressthecleanlinessandcontamination control policy for any other facilities such as anechoic chamber, EMC chamber.

5.4

Activities
5.4.1
5.4.1.1
a.

Cleaning of hardware
General aspects

Cleaning shall be performed in order to ensure that the required cleanliness levels, expected in the contamination budget, and the final productcleanlinesslevelareachieved. NOTE In order to meet the BOL requirements, a final cleaning of external surfaces can take place just

34

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
beforetheentryofthespacesystemintothefairing, orevenjustbeforeclosingthefairing. b. Thechoiceofthecleaningmethodshallbedeterminedbythefollowing criteria: 1. 2. 3. Thetypeofcontaminantstoberemoved. Thephysicalorchemicalnatureoftheitemtobecleaned. Theactualongroundphase. NOTE1 ExamplesareprovidedinAnnexMforremovalof bothparticulateandmolecularcontamination. NOTE2 The cleaning of some parts is particularly important during the course of manufacture or before processing (e.g. prior to bonding, painting, vacuum,coating,weldingandsoldering). NOTE3 Any detrimental effect of cleaning is evaluated as wellastheorderofthedefinedcleaningmethods. NOTE4 For those items that are too delicate to withstand cleaning, preventive contamination control is of theutmostimportance. c. d. Thecleaningproceduresshallbementionedintheprocessspecification. The cleaning procedures shall be validated by tests on representative samples, or by experience from previous and similar projects, in which theywerevalidated.

5.4.1.2
5.4.1.2.1
a. b. c. d.

Cleaning tools
Cleaning aids

Cleaningaidsshallnotincreasethecontaminantlevelsoftheitemstobe cleaned. Aids, such as wipe tissues, papers, cloths, brushes and foams shall be nonfluffing,lintfreeanddustfree. Damagetosurfacesasscratchesshallbeminimal. NVR of cleaning wipe materials shall be less than 0,01g/m2 for wiping extremelycleansurfaceswhenextractedwithIPA. NOTE DifferentexamplesofNVRforcommontissuesare giveninAnnexK.

e. f.

When wipe materials are selected for cleaning, measurements shall be takentodeterminetheircontaminantcontent. Allwipematerialsshouldbeprecleanedtoachievethespecifiedlevelof cleanliness. NOTE Extractionbysolventsisthewayforprecleaningthe wipesmaterials.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 5.4.1.2.2


a.

Cleaning fluids

The cleaning solvent shall be selected on the basis of its compatibility with the material or item to be cleaned and its efficiency in removing contaminants. NOTE A compatibility table between materials and solventsisgiveninAnnexI.

b. c. d.

Toxicityandflammabilityofsolventsshallbeevaluated(seeMILHDBK 406)andbecomplianttothelocallaw. Forprecisioncleaning,solventsofhighpurityshallbeused(seeAnnexJ). The cleaning gas shall be free of oil and filtered to remove particulate contaminationaccordingtotheneeds.

5.4.2
5.4.2.1
a.

Cleanliness monitoring of space hardware


General

Particulate and molecular contamination shall be monitored during all theongroundphases. NOTE For specific missions, particulate and molecular contaminationcanbemonitoredduringlaunchand inspace.

5.4.2.2
a. b.

Particulate contamination monitoring

Particulate contamination shall be monitored through visual inspection andshallbequantifiedthroughopticalmonitoringofsurfaces. Surfaces shall be examined with the naked eye or with the aid of magnification devices under grazing incident light level of, at least, 1000lux. NOTE1 Different kinds of lights can be used: portable diving light or white light is often used for standardinspection. Inaddition, ultraviolet lamp or black light (365 nm) can be used for inspectionoforganicresiduesanddustparticlesas itincreasestheirvisibility. NOTE2 Typical methods are the measurement of transmission or reflection loss and nephelometry (i.e.scatteringoflight).Thesemethodscanbeused for all types of contaminants, both organic and inorganic. Photographic determination of dust particles on surfaces is also possible, as is automaticcounting. NOTE3 Therearecommerciallyavailableinstruments(e.g. PFO photometers) that automatically measure the particle fallout level on sensor plates, exposed duringphasesofinterest. NOTE4 The method for measuring of the PFO level is described in the ECSSQST7050 but another

36

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
method for the determination of the particle contamination can also be microscopic counting (manualorwiththeaidofanimagingrecognition software). NOTE5 Extractionmethodscanbeperformedby: tapelift,usingstickytapes(accordingtoECSS QST7050); blowingandsuctionofair; washingofthesurfaceofinterestandcounting theparticlesinthewashingfluideitherdirectly using a commercial instrument, or on a filter afterfiltrationoftheliquid. NOTE6 The visibly clean level roughly corresponds to anobscurationfactorsmallerthan300mm2/m2. c. Whenusingultravioletorblacklight(365nm)lampsforinspectionof organic residues, the induced thermal and health effects shall be assessed.

5.4.2.3
a.

Molecular contamination monitoring

Molecular contamination shall be monitored through visual inspection andquantitativemethodsdirectlyonthesurface(includingwitnesses)or indirectlyaftertransferofcontaminants. NOTE1 Surfaces can be examined by the same visual inspection methods as for particulate contamination. Experience with MicroVCM tests has shown that, generally, levels of organic contamination above 1106 g/cm2 can already be visible to the naked eye. By wet wiping of a portion of the surface or after evaporation of a droplet of a substrate compatible solvent, a contaminationcanberevealedbycontrast. NOTE2 A surface of a known area is wiped with a clean tissue, the tissue is subjected to extraction with chloroform of spectral grade, and the residue of the chloroform is analysed by infrared techniques inaccordancewithECSSQST7005.Thismethod, applied to a wiped area of 100cm2, permits detectionoforganiccontaminationlevelsdownto 3109 g/cm2. The results of this method depend verymuchonthesurfaceroughness,onthetypeof tissueandonthesolventused.Particularattention is paid to the compatibility between solvent and surface. NOTE3 Asurfaceofaknownareaisrinsedwithasolvent and the residue is weighed after evaporation accordingtoASTME1235M95..Theaccuracyand detectionlimitofthismethoddependgreatlyupon the sensitivity of the balance, the substrate water

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
absorption,thewashingefficiencyandthesolvent background. The NVR measurement is expressed inmassperunitareaandtheresiduecanbeused for further analyses). Direct measurements can be made in situ using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). NOTE4 Furtheranalysescanbeperformedtocharacterize molecular contamination (e.g. gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet degradation,SEM).

5.4.2.4
a.

Contamination monitoring in vacuum facility

Monitoring of molecular and particulate contaminants in vacuum facilities shall be achieved using the witness or the QCM method, or a combinationofboth. When using the witness method the temperature and location of witnessesshallberepresentativeoftheitem. NOTE1 Witnesses (for both molecular and particulate contamination) can be placed on or near suspect places for a specified time and then subjected to oneofthestandardanalyses. NOTE2 AQCMcanbeusedtodetectcontaminationlevels down to 1109g/cm2, and to measure condensationrates.SuchQCMscanoperatedown toliquidnitrogentemperatures. NOTE3 A mass spectrometer is not sufficient to monitor the condensable contaminants but in combination with a QCM, it can help describing the different condensed species during a controlled reevaporationfromtheQCM. NOTE4 A cryopanel can be used to collect all molecular contaminantsforfurtheranalyses.

b.

5.4.2.5
a.

Contamination monitoring during launch


NOTE1 TheQCMscanbeinstalledonthelauncherandthe measuring time is limited to a few minutes; if the QCMs are installed on the space system, the measurementscancontinueduringmission. NOTE2 The temperature of QCM can be either uncontrolledorkeptconstant. NOTE3 For the interpretation, the thermal fluxes and the solar fluxes can affect the QCM readings and correctionscanthenbenecessary. NOTE4 For the monitoring of particles during launch, no specificmethodisestablishedatpresenttime.

QCMshallbeusedtomonitormolecularcontamination.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

5.4.2.6
a.

Contamination monitoring in space


NOTE1 particulate contamination can be measured by lightscattering(e.g.usingtheSunoralaserasthe a light source) or using QCMs with a crystal havingasurfacetowhichparticlesstick. NOTE2 Molecular contamination can be measured using QCMlocatednearasensitiveitemandmaintained at the same temperature as the item or using a massspectrometer. NOTE3 Measurements of contamination in space are not often made because the policy of cleanliness control is based upon the basic principle of achievingthelowestpossiblecontaminationlevels with existing knowledge and within the allocated financial budgets. However, it is advisable to implement an in space contamination monitoring as part of the spacecraft housekeeping. When appropriate sensor elements are applied it is possible to predict design lifetimes at system, subsystem, component or equipmentlevels.

Contaminationofexternalsurfacesshouldbemonitored.

b.

For internal environments monitoring of particulate, molecular and microbiologicalcontaminationshallbeassessed.

5.4.3
5.4.3.1
a. b.

Cleanliness verification
General

ThecleanlinessverificationactivitiesshallbespecifiedintheC&CCP. The cleanliness verification shall include all the activities intended to ensure that the actual cleanliness conditions of the space system, the cleanroomsorthevacuumchambersconformtotheapplicablestandards ortheapplicableCRS(specifictoacertainproject). Thecleanlinessverificationshallmakeuseofrecognizedmethodsforthe determinationorthemonitoringofthecontaminationlevels. The cleanliness verification of cleanrooms shall also include the verification of the environmental parameters such as temperature, relativehumidityandtheoverpressure. The cleanliness verification shall take place under one or more of the followingconditions: 1. Atpredeterminedintervals,independentlyofthecurrentactivity, to confirm the efficiency of the established cleanliness control measures. After the occurrence of an incident or anomaly that can have influenced the cleanliness conditions of the space system or cleanroom.

c. d.

e.

2.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
3. Beforethebeginningoftheground(e.g.testcampaign)orlaunch activities,toconfirmthatthefacilitiesandcleanroomsareconform totherelevantC&CCP. Beforeandafteratestinavacuumchamber.

4. f. g.

A cleanliness declaration of conformity shall be delivered for space hardware. Incaseofnonconformanceofanitem,correctiveactionsshallbeapplied andECSSQST1009shallapply.

5.4.3.2
a.

Bakeout

When contamination predictions exceed the allocated contamination budget,abakeoutshallbeperformed. NOTE1 Theaimofthebakeoutis: To improve the outgassing behaviour of a material/item. To reduce the level of surface contamination collectedduringprocessingortesting. NOTE2 Typicalmaterialsonwhichbakeoutcanbeapplied are: Harness MLI Carbonandglassfibrecomponents Glued,coatedorpottedmaterials.

b.

The bakeout conditions (temperature, time, pressure) shall not have a detrimental effect on the functionality of the material/item under bakeout. NOTE It is more efficient to perform a bakeout at the lowest possible product level to allow reaching higher bakeout temperature (i.e. to avoid temperatureconstraintsathigherassemblylevel)

c.

Theeffectivenessofthebakeoutshallbemonitoredbymeansofonethe followingmethods: 1. ByusingaQCM. NOTE Eventually also a Residual Gas Analysis (RGA), as already described in NOTE 3 of 5.4.2.3 Molecular contaminationmonitoring.

2.

By outgassing testing the material/item before and after the bakeout. NOTE1 Thesecondmethodisingeneralonlypracticalfor materials and items containing a limited number ofmaterials. NOTE2 Other analytical methods can be considered but theireffectivenessisnotyetbeproven(e.g.insitu opticalmethods).

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
d. e. Independentlyofthechosenmethod,successcriteriashallbeestablished andapprovedbeforestartingthebakeout. When the QCM monitoring or other in situ analytical methods are chosen,astoppingcriterionshallbedefined. NOTE Thisstoppingcriterionisalsoawaytodetermine if going further with the bakeout is worth or not. For instance, this criterion can be based on the change of the mass rate (i.e. on the second derivativeoftheQCMfrequency).

f.

When outgassing testing methods are chosen, a verification criterion shallbedefined. NOTE For instance, the verification criterion can be basedonthereductionoftheoutgassingpotential.

g.

Thedifferentoutgassingmechanismsshallbeusedintheelaborationof thestoppingandverificationcriteria. NOTE1 Desorption and diffusion are examples of outgassingmechanisms). NOTE2 In case of outgassing testing after the bakeout, a certain time is necessary for reconditioning of the material/item to consider the diffusion phenomenon.

h.

Thebackgroundofthebakingfacilityshallbedeterminedbeforestarting thebakeout. NOTE This can be done by using a QCM or molecular witnesses. The use of QCM is preferred because it providesthebackgroundofthechamberinfunction oftimewhereaswitnessplatescanonlyprovidethe integratedvalue.

i. j.

Independently of any stopping and verification criteria, the minimum bakeoutdurationshallbe72hours. Bakingtimeshallstartwhenthematerial/itemunderbakinghasreached thepredefinedbakeouttemperature.

5.4.3.3
a.

Purging

The purging shall be performed inside a cavity to maintain a constant exchangeofthegaspresentinthecavity. NOTE1 This exchange depends on the entry flow rate of thegasandthetotalsurfaceleaks. NOTE2 The aim of the purging is not only to protect the critical hardware such as optics from contamination by injecting a nonionized highpuritydrygasinsideacavitybutalsoaway for decontamination (e.g. removal of water for dimensionalstabilityofcomposite). NOTE3 Thepurgingcanbeimplementedatinstrumentor spacecraftlevelduringfunctionalandperformance

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
tests at ambient conditions, during repressurization after TB/TV and TV tests, during all the phases without activities and during storage,transportandprelaunchphasesuptothe final close of the fairing. (In case of an aborted launch,purgingcanbenotreinstalled). b. c. d. Thepurityofthegasandthecleanlinessofallthepipesshallbeverified beforethefirstuseofthepurgingsystem. Filteringsystems(bothforMOCandPAC)shallbeprovidedbeforethe gascomesintocontactwiththehardware. Thefilteringcapabilitiesshallbecompatiblewiththerelevantcleanliness requirements.

5.4.4
a.

Packaging, containerization, transportation, storage

Provisions shall be takenfor packaging, containerization, transportation andstorage. NOTE Inordertomaintainthecleanlinesslevelsachieved at any point from initial precision cleaning to deliverytothelaunchsite.

b. c. d. e. f.

Cleanliness protection shall be provided prior to leaving the controlled areas,orwheneverastorageperiodisplanned. Thecontainerforcleanitemshallmaintainthecleanlinesslevelsspecified fortheproduct. Storage areas shall provide adequate protection to the package and the productfortheintendedstorageperiod. Transportandstoragecontainersshallbemadeoflowparticleshedding materialsthatdonotevolvecontaminants. Containers carrying sensitive items shall be pressurized with gaseous nitrogen. NOTE Optical units and payloads are examples of sensitiveunits

g. h.

Containers carrying sensitive items shall also have as rigorous cleaning scheduleasthepartsthemselves. Itshallbeensuredthatcontainersusedfortransportationofcleanparts do not transfer contamination from surface to surface within the cleanroomitself. NOTE Witnessplatescanbeplacedinsidecontainers.

i.

When sensitive items are packaged, containers for longterm storage or transportation, shall include provision for internal flushing with dry highpurity nitrogen and overpressurization of 100hPa minimum, exceptifunitsareputinsealedbags. For long term storage of sensitive items, containers shall be equipped withaninletvalveandanoutletvalveclearlyidentified.

j.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. Thedesignofthecontainershallfacilitateeasycleaningandinspectionof itssurfaces,avoidinganykindofdirttraps. Small clean parts shall be double bagged in airtight envelopes during storageortransportationoutsidecontrolledcleanareas. Bagsforcontaminationsensitiveitemsshallbeflushedwithdrynitrogen ordrycleanairandthensealed. Only approved materials that were procured as cleaned films shall be used. Staticsensitiveitemsshallusemetallizedfilms. Outerbagsshallnotentercontrolledcleanareas. Whenused,desiccantsshallbeinbagsthatarecleananddonotproduce particulatecontamination. Desiccants and humidity indicators shall be placed in the external envelope. Procedures shall be provided for packaging, containerization, transportationandstorage.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Annex A (normative) Cleanliness requirement specification (CRS) - DRD


A.1 DRD identification
A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document

TheCRSiscalledbytheECSSQST7001,requirement5.1.2.1a.

A.1.2

Purpose and objective

The purpose of the cleanliness requirement specification (CRS) is to establish cleanliness and contamination levels to be achieved at different MAIT, launch andmissionstages. Basedonsystemorsubsystemcontaminationbudget,aCRSisestablishedand agreedbyallpartiesinvolved. The CRS defines and identifies the spacecraft items and the environmental areas that are sensitive to contamination; and describes the effects of contaminantsontheirperformance. Specifying the spacecraft performance requirements to be met is the responsibility of the customer. The spacecraft performances specification is a majorinputparametertodefinetheacceptablecontaminationlevels. TheCRSprovidestheacceptablecontaminationlevelsforallongroundandin flightphasestoguaranteethatthementionedspacecraftperformancesaremet. Ongroundsurfacecleanlinesslevelsarealsounivocallydefined. NOTE ByusingISO14644orIESTSTDCC1246D.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

A.2

Expected response
A.2.1
<1>
a.

Scope and content


Introduction

The CRS shall give a general overview of the item to which the CRS refers, describing sensitive items and contamination sources, in considerationof: 1. 2. 3. possible impacts of contaminants on their physical or functional characteristics; possibleeffectsofcontaminationontheperformance; theirimpactaspotentialsourcesofcontamination.

b.

The CRS shall specify the pressures (or other molecular fluxes) that can be reached in connection with voltage breakdown, arcing, corona discharges, multipaction, opening time of shutters and ejection time of covers.

<2>
a.

Environmentalfactors
TheCRSshallbasicallyspecifymajorongroundactivitiestobeanalysed for their impact on contamination and the relevant onground contaminationenvironment. NOTE Usually,thepreparationofaflowchart,thatcanbe added as appendix to the CRS, helps in the description(seeAnnexC).

b.

The CRS shall specify the flight environmental factors (natural and induced) that affect the contamination phenomena, such as solar radiation, electron, proton and AO fluxes, together with the planned missionprofile/duration. The CRS shall specify sensitive item temperatures to be used for the analysesduringgroundandinflightoperations. NOTE The expected temperatures and temperature profiles of these items can be important for condensation and the residence times of the contaminants.

c.

<3>
a.

Contaminants
TheCRSshalldescribeallpossiblecontaminationsourcestobeanalysed andthemaximumacceptableemissions. NOTE For example: Materials outgassing, lubricants escapingfrombearings,wearparticlesfrommoving parts, terrestrial contaminants such as dust, plume contaminants from thrusters and engines, leaks from fuel systems and from hermetically sealed components, dumps and EVA, copassengers, fairingandequipmentbayitemsofthelauncher.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
b. The CRS shall specify the chemical nature of the contaminants listed under <3>a. with their vapour pressures or relevant condensation conditions. The CRS shall specify the transport mechanisms of the potential contaminantsfromthesourcesunder<3>a.tothecontaminationsensitive itemsorareastobeconsideredinthecontaminationanalysis. NOTE d. For example: direct flux, reflected flux, ambient scatter,selfscatterandcreeping.

c.

The CRS shall specify the contamination environment to be applied for design. NOTE Forexample, molecularcolumndensity,maximum moleculardepositiononthesensitiveitems.

<4>
a. b.

Contaminationbudget
TheCRSshallspecifyallcleanlinessrequirementsallocatedtothemajor integrationandtestingphases. TheCRSshallspecifyacceptablecontaminationlevelsofMOCandPAC forallongroundandinflightphases.

A.2.2
None.

Special remarks

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Annex B (normative) Cleanliness and contamination control plan (C&CCP) - DRD


B.1 DRD identification
B.1.1 Requirement identification and source document

TheC&CCPiscalledbytheECSSQST7001,requirement5.1.2.2a.

B.1.2

Purpose and objective

ThepurposeoftheCleanlinessandcontaminationcontrolplan(C&CCP)isto establish the data content requirements for the cleanliness and contamination control plan. This DRD does not define format, presentation or delivery requirements for the cleanliness and contamination control plan (C&CCP), which can vary depending on product level (i.e. equipment, subsystem, system),andspecificcontractualrequirements. Acleanlinessandcontaminationcontrolplanispreparedinordertosetoutthe ways in which the required cleanliness levels are achieved and maintained duringthelifeoftheprogramme,fromdesigntoendoflife. As it is of fundamental importance for the space systems performance, the C&CCP is established as early as possible in the programme, in order to properlyaddressthedesign. The C&CCP is prepared for all levels of configuration items defined in the projectatthefollowinglevels: System Subsystem Equipment

The C&CCP is based on the requirements defined by the cleanliness requirementsspecification(CRS). Thesupplierisresponsibleforthisdocument. TheC&CCPispreparedincollaborationwithexperimentersandengineers.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

B.2

Expected response
B.2.1
<1>
a.

Scope and content


Introduction

The C&CCP shall contain description of the purpose, objective, content andthereasonpromptingitspreparation.

<2>
a.

Applicableandreferencedocuments
TheC&CCPshalllisttheapplicableandreferencedocumentstosupport thegenerationofthedocument.

<3>
a.

Terms,definitionsandabbreviatedterms
The C&CCP shall include any additional terms, definitions or abbreviatedtermsused.

<4>
a. b.

Descriptionof[insertitemname
The C&CCP shall give a general overview of the item to which the C&CCPisrefers. The C&CCP shall describe sensitive items and contamination sources, listingthosesurfaces/itemstobestrictlycontrolledorprotectedfromthe cleanlinesspointofviewdueto: 1. 2. The possible impacts of contaminants on their physical or functionalcharacteristics. Theirimpactaspotentialsourcesofcontamination.

<5>
<5.1>
a.

Cleanlinessrequirements
RequirementsinCRS

The C&CCP shall contain: a summary of cleanliness requirements, relevant for the system or hardware and eventual sub assemblies, as giveninCRSordedicatedanalysis. NOTE ExampleofsuchrequirementsareMOC,PAC,and duringthedifferentphasesongroundandinflight.

<5.2>
a.

Contaminationbudgets

TheC&CCPshalllcontaintheallocationofcontaminationlevelsthrough thesplittingofcleanlinessrequirementsduringthemajorintegrationand testingphases. NOTE In case the outgassing contribution to the performance loss is large with respect to other contributions(mainlyforsensitiveinstrumentswith tight requirements), more detailed modelling are performed.

48

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 <5.3>


a.

Selectionofmaterialsandprocesses

TheC&CCPshalldefinetherequirementsthathavedesignimpactslike PMP selection criteria (see ECSSQST70), venting, purging and thrusters locations, in accordance with the mission cleanliness and outgassingrequirementsandtheoutcomeoftheclauses5.1and5.2.

<5.4>
a.

Mitigationandcorrectiveactions

The C&CCP shall describe the measures for the coordination and resolution of cleanliness and contamination control issues among the partiesinvolvedintheproject. The C&CCP shall describe the corrective actions in terms of design, shielding,purging,bakeoutincasethepredictionsareoutsideacceptance limits and in cases where corrective actions are necessary because of deviationfromtheoriginalcleanlinesspolicy. NOTE In general, the organization of regular workshops dedicated to cleanliness and contamination control foraspecificprogrammeisagoodpractice.

b.

<6>
a. b. c.

Environmentsandfacilities
The C&CCP shall contain a brief description of MAIT areas, their classification,facilitylocationandtoolsforcontaminationcontrol. References for internal procedures dedicated to area or facilities verification,controlandmaintenanceshallbeincluded. The C&CCP shall contain a list (or brief description) of internal procedures for personnel training and rules to operate under contaminationcontrolconditions.

<7>
<7.1>
a.

MAITactivities
Contaminationprediction

The C&CCP shall detail the splitting of cleanliness prediction during MAITphases,accordingtoplannedduration,environmentclass,typeof operation,anddedicatedprovisionsadopted. The C&CCP shall list all phases where contamination can be expected andwherethelevelscanexceedtheallocatedlevels.

b.

<7.2>
a.

Contaminationcontrol

TheC&CCPshalldescribeselectedmethods,proceduresandinstruments to control contamination levels during MAIT activities on systems or equipmentandrelevantdocumentation;inparticular: 1. 2. 3. 4. Contaminationmonitoringmethodsandtools. Inspectionproceduresandtools. Verificationoftoolsorhardware. DedicatedcautionsforcriticalAIVoperations.

49

ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 <7.3>


a.

Cleaninganddecontaminationmethodsandtools

The C&CCP shall define the cleaning and decontamination methods, procedures and tools, also making reference to their applicability and eventualprocessparameters. NOTE List of items and process parameters (e.g. for a bakeout: temperature, pressure and minimum durations,stopcriteriaarepartoftheinformationof thisclause.

<7.4>
a. b.

Packaging,storageandtransportation

TheC&CCPshalldescribetheprovisionsforthetransportationofcritical items. TheC&CCPshallinclude: 1. 2. 3. 4. Adescriptionofcontainersandpackagingtoolstobeusedduring hardwaretransportation. Thewaytheyarestored. Thewaytheyarehandled. Thewaytheyaremonitoredandcleaned.

<7.5>
a. 1. 2. 3. b.

Contaminationcontrolflow
thesamplingplanforPACandMOC, cleaningoperations(whenplanned),and inspectionpoints.

TheC&CCPshalldefine:

Acleanlinesscontrolflowchartshallbeestablished,showingthestages at which specific cleanliness controls are undertaken, reported in an annextotheC&CCP.

<7.6>
a. b.

Responsibilities

Responsibilityandauthorityshallbeassignedfortheimplementationof thecleanlinessandcontaminationcontroltasks. TheC&CCPshalldescriberesponsibilitiesfor: 1. 2. 3. Hardwareinspections Cleanroomsandfacilities Contaminationmonitoring(hardware).

<8>
a. b.

Forms
The C&CCP shall define the forms that are used to document the cleanlinessandcontaminationcontrolactivitiesdefinedbytheC&CCP. Asminimum,thefollowingformsshallbedefined: 1. 2. PACandMOCmeasurementreport. Cleanlinessdeclarationofconformity(seeECSSQST20).

B.2.2
None.

Special remarks

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Annex C (informative) Cleanliness and contamination control process overview

FigureC1:Cleanlinessandcontaminationcontrolprocessoverview

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Annex D (informative) Guidelines for general cleanliness and contamination control


D.1 General
Contaminationcontrolcannotbeappliedeffectivelywithoutanunderstanding ofthecontaminant,thecontaminantsourceandthedetrimentaleffectthatthe contaminanthas. The known causes of failure and degraded performance of space elements attributedtocontamination,includingtheirsources,aregiveninthisStandard. Whentheyarenotknown,testsandanalysescanbeperformed(e.g.outgassing rates as a function of time, chemical composition of outgassing products, condensationratesordegradationasresultofradiation). The results of these tests and analyses can be used to calculate expected contamination levels and their subsequent effects if other relevant parameters areknown. Preventive cleanliness control is becoming more important as space systems becomemoresophisticatedandmissiondurationsareextended. A problem frequently encountered in space technology is the lack of data enabling a good correlation between contaminant levels and mission performancerequirements. NOTE This kind of information can be available in the mass production areas of electronics and precision mechanicaldevices.

D.2

Contamination attributes
D.2.1
D.2.1.1.
D.2.1.1.1

Typical contaminants and their sources


On ground
Particulate contaminants

Many particulate contaminants, such as dirt, sand, industrial fumes, can, to a large extent, be excluded from cleanrooms by filtering, and the space system

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
can therefore be protected from them right up to the final preparation at the launchsite. Nevertheless,aconsiderablequantityofparticulatecontaminantsareproduced orreleasedduringallongroundphasesofthespacesystem,especiallyduring testingactivities. NOTE Test facilities can be inside cleanrooms, but are basically not clean and can loosen particles and causetheirredistribution

Forexample: Humansources

Haircosmetics,deadhumanskincells. Fibresandlintfromclothing,dustcarriedinonhairandclothes.

MAIT

Chipsandburrsfrommachinedsurfaces,solderandweldspatters. Particlesproducedbywearorshedding,corrosionproducts,flakes fromcoatingsandairfilters. Particlesreleasedfromanechoicwallsduringthetest. Redistribution of particles during pumping down and repressurization of vacuum chambers, vibration test, transportation

Othersources

Bacteria,fungi,virusesandsecondaryproducts

D.2.1.1.2

Molecular contaminants

Aconsiderablequantityofmolecularcontaminantsareproducedduringallon groundphasesofthespacesystem,especiallyduringtestingactivities. NOTE Test facilities even if inside cleanrooms can be sourceofmolecularcontaminantsthetesteditems.

Molecularcontaminantscanbefoundindifferentchemicalphases,suchas: Gasesandvapours

Atmospheric gases, desorbed water, leaks in sealed units (e.g. freon,hydrazine,helium,neonandkrypton) Outgassing products from organic materials (e.g. monomers, plasticizers,additivesandsolvents) Vapoursfrompackagingmaterialsandtestfacilities(e.g.vacuum pumpoils) Vapoursfromsubstancesusedincleanrooms(e.g.plasticizersand cleaningfluids) Secondaryproductscomingfrommicroorganisms.

Liquids

Residuesfromcleaningagents

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008

Residuesfromadhesivemaskingtapes Machineoils Coolants Lubricants Solderfluxes Cosmetics Greasefromhumanskin Secondaryproductscomingfrommicroorganisms.

Othercontaminants

salt acid alkaline corrosionproducts oxidationproducts fingerprints stains.

D.2.1.2.
D.2.1.2.1

On launch
Particulate contamination

Launch contaminants can come from the acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations. The contamination source is then the space system itself and the fairingandstructuralpartsduringthefirstminutesofthelaunch. Redistribution of the released particles can occur so that clean surfaces are coveredbyparticles. Also the copassengers can be the source of contamination in the case of multiplelaunches. Duringtheinitialliftoff,thepressureinsidethefairingdropsfromatmospheric pressure to high vacuum within a few minutes, and the turbulence of the air canalsoredistributetheparticles. The contamination environment during launch can be severe and there is basicallynocontrolofthecontaminationduringthisperiod.

D.2.1.2.2

Molecular contamination

Next to the particle contamination, the molecular contamination is of importance, especially the outgassing of the materials, the release of contaminants by mechanisms, separation mechanisms, such as pyrotechnics andthermalknives,motorsandthrusters. The mechanism of molecular contamination is based upon outgassing under high vacuum; however, the period for which the space system is under high vacuumwithotherneighbouringhardwareisveryshort.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
Predictions of the molecular transfer during this period can be estimated: this type of estimation can be made for copassengers when the outgassing requirementsarelessstringentthanthoseforthespacesystemofinterest.

D.2.1.3.
D.2.1.3.1

During mission
Overview

Evenwithagoodcontaminationandcleanlinesscontrolpolicy,contamination during mission can not be completely avoided. Indeed, lessons learned from spacesystemsreturnedtoEarthafterquitealongexposuretospacee.g.LDEF, EURECA and solar arrays from the Hubble Space Telescope, indicated visible contamination especially near venting holes and at locations where photodeposition and photopolymerization occurred due to solar radiation, or whereatomicoxygenhasconvertedthevolatilecontaminantsintononvolatile contaminants. Natural environments and induced environment are normally taken into consideration.

D.2.1.3.2

Natural environment

The natural environments described here affect the contaminants in the environmentoronsurfacesoraffectthedepositionofcontaminantsonsurfaces. Most of the natural environments mentioned in the following clauses are describedindetailinECSSEST1004. a. Vacuumandtypeofgases Thepressureofnaturalgasesaroundthespacesystemcausesreflection of the outgassing molecules originating from the space system. This reflection is called ambient scatter and can result in a return of the spacesystemproducedcontaminantstothespacesystemitself. Thistypeofreflectiondependsonthelevelofvacuumandthusuponthe orbital altitude. For low Earth orbits the ambient scatter can result in a returncontaminationfluxofafewpercent. The gas composition of the Earth environment is such that only in cryogenic space system applications are contamination problems to be expected. b. Radiation(solarandotherelectromagneticradiation) Solar radiation and especially the ultraviolet part can have effects such aspolymerizationanddecompositionofalreadydepositedcontaminants. Photoninduceddeposition. The generally observed effects are a reduction in reflection and transmission of light for optical experiments and solar arrays. Another observed effect is the increase of solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces,whichresultsinatemperatureincreaseforthosesurfaces. Solarradiationcanalsoaffectthecontaminationdepositionmechanisms, andalthoughthiscombinedeffectofcontaminationandelectromagnetic radiation is theoretically difficult to describe, this phenomenon is well known.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
Radiationionizestheoutgassedmoleculesinspaceandsocaninfluence theamountofionizedparticles. Also, the ionized molecules are attracted by a negative charged space systemandthuscontaminateit. c. Thermalaspects(thermalcycling) Solar radiation, rotating space systems and planetary shieldings cause temperaturecyclingsandthesetemperaturecyclingshaveeffectsonthe outgassing of materials and on the condensation and evaporation of contaminantsonsurfaceswhosetemperaturesvary. d. Atomicoxygen(AO)(speedeffects) AO is the main constituent of the residual atmosphere in Earth orbit at between200kmand700kmaltitude.Thedensityisafunctionofaltitude andofotherparameterssuchassolarradiation.Inmostcasestheeffectof thermalAOondepositedcontaminantscanbeneglected.However,due totherelativevelocitybetweenAOandthespacesystem(approx8km/s) thecollisionalenergyintheramdirectionisaround5eV. The items and surfaces in the ram direction of the space system can be attackedbyAO,whereastheitemsandsurfacesinthewakedirectionare hardlyattacked. TheeffectofAOcanbedescribedasanoxidationandsomematerialscan becomeresistanttoAO,e.g.nonvolatileoxidescanbeformedonsome metals. Organic materials can be oxidized to volatile products such as CO and H2O. The presence of silica contaminants on space system surfaces can beexplainedbytheattackofcondensedsiliconespeciesbyAOandthe formationofSiOx. e. Chargedparticles(electrons,ions) Theeffectofchargedparticlesonoutgassingandonalreadycondensed contaminants is probably small, but no exact data are known at this moment. f. Micrometeoroids(debris) Micrometeoroids have no direct effect on outgassing and on condensed contaminants. Micrometeoroids can pierce some materials and can also result in partly destruction of some materials, which causes release ofa large amount of new particles which escape into space or affect neighbouring items. Impacts can also cause evaporation of the micrometeoroidandoftheimpactedsurface. Redistributionofparticles,whichwerealreadyonspacesystemsurfaces bymicrometeoroidcollisions,havebeenreported,buttheeffectsarevery small. g. Speedeffectsofspacesystemsw.r.t.molecularspeeds The speed of a space system has no direct effect on the outgassing of materialsoronthedepositionmechanismsofcontaminantsonsurfaces.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
However,thereturncontaminationfluxviatheambientscatterishighly affected by the local pressure around the space system. This local pressuredependsupontheactualspacesystemspeedwithrespecttothe speed of the natural species. Because of the speed effects, the ram direction pressure can be orders of magnitude higher than the normal pressure for that orbit and the ambient scatter is then also orders of magnitudehigherthanthenormalambientscatter. The same can be expected for the wake directions, i.e. orders of magnitudelowerpressuresandthusordersofmagnitudelowerambient scatterthanexpected.

D.2.1.3.3

Induced environment

Thespacesystemenvironmentcanbeseenasbeingcreatedbythespacesystem itselforbyitsoperation. a. Gasandfluidleakagefrompressurizedsystems In space systems one can expect sealed pressurized units, such as batteriesandgyros;fortheseunitsleakrateshavebeenspecifiedwhich do not result in unacceptable performance losses of those units. However,theleveloftheirleakrateortheirlocationinthespacesystem canbesuchthattheperformancesofsensitiveitemscanbeaffected.Also the leaks from pressurized units such as containers holding propulsion gasesorfluids(e.g.hydrazine)canaffectcontaminationsensitiveitems. Within longterm space (station) programmes a number of fluids are used, which potentially emerge from containments such as tanks, lines andpressureshellstotheexteriorbyleakage,ventingorpurging. Allfluidscontributetocontamination. b. Contaminantsfromreleasemechanismsandmovingmechanisms Release mechanisms such as cable cutters and mechanisms based upon sealedunitswithexplosives,releaseparticlesfromadjacentsurfacesdue tothemechanicalshocks. Mechanismsthat are based upon cutting of cablesusing thermal knives releasebothmolecularandparticulatecontaminants. c. Contaminantsfromoperatingthrusters,enginesorotherpropulsion systems Solid booster engines produce particles as well as molecular contaminants, liquid gas rockets produce mainly gaseous contaminants, and hydrazine thrusters produce gaseous reaction products and some unburned fuels. Ion thrusters mainly produce not fully neutralized gaseousproductssuchasxenonandasmallamountofsputteredmetal fromtheneutralizinggridmaterial. d. Releaseofcontaminantsthatwerecollectedduringgroundactivities During the ground life of the space system, both molecular and particulate contaminants can be deposited, mainly on the external surfaces.Duringlaunchespeciallyparticulatecontaminantsarereleased and during the mission itself their release is mainly caused by shocks. The release of these particulate contaminants from external surfaces by

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
impingement of micrometeoroids and debris is small compared to the amount of particles released from the surface materials by the same impingements. For molecular contaminants that collected on surfaces during ground activities, the same outgassing effect can be expected as from material outgassing. e. Secondaryproducts Secondaryproductsaregeneratedbyvariousintermolecularinteractions and chemical or physical processes due to payload or experiment operations or interactions of the natural and induced environment constituentsandthespace

D.2.2
D.2.2.1.

Transport mechanisms
Overview

Most of the effects of contamination occur in space, especially when solar radiationisinvolved.

D.2.2.2.
D.2.2.2.1

Contaminants transport on ground


Overview

Surfaces can become contaminated by particles during all on ground phases (e.g.MAIT,prelaunch,andtransportation).

D.2.2.2.2

Particle transport

For particles transport, the main mechanisms are fallout and air transport, especiallycausedbyairturbulences(e.g.humanactivitiesandpumpingdown andairinletinvacuumfacilities)andvibrations(e.g.vibrationtestandacoustic test).

D.2.2.2.3

Molecular contaminants transport

For molecular contaminants transport, the main mechanisms are due to diffusionofairbornecontaminantsandcreepingofliquids. During vacuum tests, the mechanisms are basically the same as in space (see nextclause).

D.2.2.3.
D.2.2.3.1

Contaminants transport in space


Particle transport

Only the surfaces in direct view of other surfaces can be contaminated by particlesoriginatingfromtheothersurface.Returnofreleasedparticlestothe space system, for example return of charged particles to a charged spacecraft (depending on their mass), can occur but such mechanisms are not often modelled..

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 D.2.2.3.2

Molecular contaminants transport

Creeping Liquidcontaminantsandalsolubricantscancontaminateadjacentitems by the liquid creeping over surfaces, and silicone fluids especially are knowntohaveahighcreepingeffect. Inordertoreducethecreepingeffect,anticreepbarriersmadeofspecial materialsaregenerallyapplied.

Directflux Contaminantsinspacemoveinstraightlinesfromthespacesysteminto deep space and can sometimes contaminate items located in the direct view. Inordertomitigatethiseffect,designprovisionaregenerallyasolution.

Indirectflux Contaminants from space systems can impinge on a surface and after reflection(specular)orreevaporation(diffusive)thesecontaminantscan affectotheritemsorareas.

Collisionwithnaturalgases Contaminantscomingfromthespacesystemcancollidewiththenatural gasesaroundthespacesystemandaftercollisioncanreturntothespace system. This phenomenon is known as ambient atmospheric scattering anddependsuponthedensity(andthusuponthealtitude)ofthenatural gas.

Collisionwithotheroutgassedmolecules Molecules released from space systems (e.g. outgassing via venting holes) can collide with other molecules from the same origin or from other origins (e.g. plumes). After the collisions, some molecules can returntothespacesystem.Thisphenomenoniscalledselfscatteringand the return flux strongly depends upon the intensities of the fluxes from thecontaminantsources.

Ionizationofgaseouscontaminantsandthereattractionbythenegative chargedspacesystem Contaminantsemittedfromthespacesystemcanbeionizedinspaceby solar radiation (especially ultraviolet radiation, electrons, protons and ions) and these ions can be reattracted by a negative charged space system.Thisphenomenoniswellknown,buthasnotyetbeenquantified. Oneofthesimplerulesisthatinstrumentsthathavedeployableshutters or ejectable covers can be deployed or ejected when the outgassing has droppedtoacertainlevelorafterapredeterminedtimeafterthelaunch.

D.2.3

Main effects of contamination on space systems

Themaineffectsofcontaminationare: Failureofprecisionmechanismsduetoparticulatematter.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008
Lightscatteringbyparticleandmolecularcontaminants. Electrical discharge or arcing in high voltage equipment due to high outgassingandothercontamination. Noiseonslipringsandelectricalcontacts. Results of certain experiments obscured by excessive molecular contamination(e.g.massspectrometersandioncounters). Degradation of optical elements (e.g. lenses, mirrors and windows) due tomolecularcontamination,especiallyXrayandUVequipmentandlow temperatureIRdetectors. Degradation of thermal control surfaces (absorptivity/emissivity ration, /) especially in the case of molecular contamination on optical solar reflectorsatlowtemperatures. Lossofefficiencyinheatpipes. Effects on conductive and nonconductive surfaces (leak paths in electronics). Lossofefficiencyinsolarcellgenerators. Corrosionofelectricalcontactsduetothepresenceofhalogenatedsolder fluxes. Spacechargeanddischargeeffectsrelatedtocontaminants. Thermalradiationfromparticles. Disorientation due to erroneous reaction of star trackers to luminous particles. Multipactioninwaveguides. Badclosingofavalve. Explosionofacryotechnicmotor(Oil+O2). HFforamotor. Disturbanceofgasfluxandcombustionwithinthrusters. DisturbanceandpropagationwithinRFwaveguides. For the space environment around the space system, the column density,localgaspressuresandgascompositioncanbelimitingfactors forsomeexperiments.

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Annex E (informative) Cleanliness-oriented design


The lowest contamination levels can be achieved by applying the following rules: a. b. Locate contamination sensitive items far away from the contaminant sources. Position the sensitive items so that the view factors with respect to contaminantsources(e.g.solararrays,antennasandthrusters)areaslow aspossible. 1. 2. 3. 4. Locate the vent holes of the space system and the instruments awayfromthesensitiveitems(=backdoorventing). Manufacture the hardware in such a way that venting (of, for example,thermalblankets)isdirectedtowardsthebackdoor. Design baffles or shields for the sensitive items or even for the contaminantsources. Design temporary covers (redtag covers) or hoods to reduce contamination during ground life. (Optically transparent covers can be used for calibration, alignment or functional testing of opticalinstrumentswithoutremovingthecovers) Design deployable covers for very sensitive instruments, that are operatedonlyinspace. Designcleaningmechanismsfortheremovingofcontaminantsby, forexample,heatingthesensitivehardware,manoeuvrethespace system in such a way that in low orbit the AO can perform a cleaning. Selection of materials, processes, mechanisms and components with low particulate and molecular, and bio contamination potential. In this respect low outgassing materials should be chosen,andzincandcadmium(orcadmiumplating)shouldnotbe used because of the relatively high vapour pressures of these materials. Ifthecontaminationpotentialofselectedmaterialsisstilltoohigh, bakeoutofthehardwareshouldbeconsideredbeforeassemblyor evenduringtests. The design, manufacturing order and assembly should be such that bakeout can still be performed (sometimes baking is carried out before further assembly is done because of the temperature

5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

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limitations of certain hardware or because the products released duringthebakeoutcanhaveeffectsonotheritems). 10. Wheresensitiveitemsareexpected,thedesignoftheinstruments or space system should be such that purging is feasible in the periodsofassembly,integration,testsandlaunchpreparationsor evenuptolaunch. Basedupontheseeffects,theventingholesandothercontaminant sourcesshouldbelocatedinthewakesideofthespacesystem.

11. c.

On the other hand, the wake side of a space system can be used for specialexperimentsforwhichextremelylowpressuresinrelativelylow Earthorbitarerequired. Cleaning aptitude of materials and mechanical parts, e.g. in case hardware cannot be cleaned after manufacturing temporary protection devicesareneeded. Measurement of contamination, e.g. adaptations for contamination sensors. Verification of the compatibility of the surface treatment with the cleanlinesslevel. Ground support equipment, packaging, containerization, transportation andstorage. Any other design provisions according to the specificity of the mission (e.g.planetarymissions).

d.

e. f. g. h.

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Annex F (informative) Modelling guidelines


Outgassing and plume characterisation are essential for the modelling of contaminationinanenvironmentaroundthespacesystem. Knowledge of the outgassing fluxes as a function of time, the surface temperatures,thegeometricviewfactorsandtheresidencetimes(asafunction of surface temperature) of the contaminants on the surface of interest are indispensableforthemodellingofthecontaminantsonsurfaces. Most modelling methodologies are based upon outgassing data obtained duringoutgassingkinetictests. Foraworstcasesurfacemodelling,theMicroVCMdata(seeECSSQST7002) canbetaken. First, it is assumed that all the contaminants released during the MicroVCM testof24hoursat125C,arereleasedduringtheactuallifetime Thesecondassumptionisthatallthecontaminantsthatimpingeasurfacewill stickonit;thegeometricviewfactor(Vf)isthenutilized. ThethirdassumptionisthatalltheTMLforsurfacesat100Corlower,allthe RML for surfaces between 100 C and +25 C or all the CVCM for surfaces at 25C,isdepositedpermanentlyonthesurfaceofinterest(seeTable51toTable 53inECSSQST7001) Knowledgeoftheplumeshape,theeffluencecomposition,thetemperature,the speedanddirection,thedischargefrequencyareindispensableformodellingof theplumecontamination. DetailedinformationonmodellingapproachesandtoolsisgiveninECSSEST 1004. For sensitive instruments, such as optical instruments, modelling methodologies are used to make an estimate of the superficial density of contaminants(g/cm2)condensedonthesurfacesasafunctionoftime. Complementary experimental tests on the outgassed materials should be proposed to evaluate the transmittance losses induced by the molecular contaminants in the spectral bands of the instrument. The molecular levels calculatedinthemodellinginpoint1arethenassociatedtothesetransmittance losses

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Annex G (informative) Airborne particulate cleanliness classes equivalence


TableG1:Classificationsystem Classificationsystem FederalStandard209E English(ft3)
(0,01) (0,1) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 M1 M1.5 M2 M2.5 M3 M3.5 M4 M4.5 M5 M5.5 M6 M6.5 M7

ISO146441 SI(m3)
ISOclass1 ISOclass2 ISOclass3 ISOclass4 ISOclass5 ISOclass6 ISOclass7 ISOclass8 ISOclass9

SI(m3)

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Annex H (informative) Particulate levels on surfaces


H.1 Standard method 1: Particle distribution
ThiscanbedoneasperIESTSTDCC1246DandISO146449. These documents give the sizenumber distribution function for particles on surfaces. Levels are measured by counting the number and sizes of the particles on a knownsurfacearea.

H.2

Standard method 2: Obscuration factor


H.2.1 Overview

The obscuration factor (OF) is the ratioof the projected area of all particles to thetotalsurfaceareaonwhichtheyrest. This OF is in principle independent of the numbersize distribution of the particles and even independent of the shape and colour of the particles. In general the levels are expressed in parts per million (mm2/m2) and acceptable valuesareroughlybetween10mm2/m2and10000mm2/m2. The OF has the advantage that a number of performance loss parameters are directlyrelatedtotheparticlecoverageofthecriticalitem.

H.2.2

Correlation for particles on surfaces

AcorrelationforparticlesonsurfacebetweenlevelsofIESTSTD1246Dandthe obscurationfactorisgiveninTableH1. NOTE This correlation is theoretically based on ideal distribution of IEST STDCC1246D (i.e. the slope factor of 0,926) and considering only particles between1mand10m.

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TableH1:CorrelationbetweenidealclassofIESTSTDCC1246Dand obscurationfactor IESTSTDCC1246D(class)


50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Obscurationfactor(mm2/m2)
0,3 3,3 54 329 1274 3814 9619 21469 43707 82799 148025

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Annex I (informative) Compatibility of various solvents with listed materials


Table I1 shows examples of compatibility of various solvents with listed materials.

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ECSSQST7001C 15November2008 TableI1:Examplesofcompatibilityofvarioussolventswithlistedmaterials


Typeofmaterial polymer Actal(polyoxymethylene) epoxy Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer(HALAR) Ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (TEFZEL) TEFLON(Fluoroethylene propylene) TEFLONtetrafluoroethylene TEFLON perfluoroalkoxy Polyamide(NYLON ) polycarbonates LowdensityPolyethylene HighdensityPolyethylene Polyimide(Kapton ) Polymethylmethacrylate polyketone Polystyrene polysulfone Polyethyleneterephthalate (MYLAR) polypropylene polyurethane Polyvinylidenefluoride (KYNAR) silicone Vinylidenefluoride hexafluoropropylene (VITONA) metal aluminum Copper 316Stainlesssteel Titanium miscellaneous Carbongraphite(e.g.CFRP) Al2O3 SiC

abbreviation ACL ECTFE ETFE FEP TFE PFA PC LDPE HDPE PMMA PK(PEEK) PS PSF PET PP PUR PVDF

methanol A B A A A A A D B A A B D A B A A A C A A C A B A B A A A

ethanol A A A A A A A D A B A B D A A A A A C A C A B A A A A A A

IPA A A A A A A A D A A A B D A A B A A C A A A B B B B A A A

acetone A B B B A A A A D D D B D A D D C B D D D D A A A A A A A

MEK C C A A A A A A D D D B D D D A B D D D D B A A A A A A

dichloromethane C B A A A B D D C B D D D D C D A D

chloroform A C A A A A A C D C C B D C D D D D D A D A B A A A A A A

Ratingsonchemicaleffects@20C: A:excellentnodamageafter30daysofconstantexposure B:resistantlittleornodamageafter30daysofconstantexposure C:fairtopoorsomeeffectafter7daysofconstantexposure D:notrecommendedimmediatedamagecanoccur Blank:Nodataavailable Sources: http://www.nalgenelabware.com http://www.coleparmer.com/techinfo/chemcomp.asp

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Annex J (informative) evaporation residue of commercially available solvents


TableJ1:Commerciallyavailablesolventsevaporationresidue Evaporationresidue(%) Solvent*
acetone chloroform (withethanolas stabilizer) dichloromethane ethanol isopropylalcohol methanol methylethylketone
*Source:SigmaAldrich

Purity
99,5% 99,8% 99,5% absolute denatured 99,5% 99,8% 99%

ACSreagentgrade
0,001% 0,001% 0,002% 0,001% 0,001% 0,001% 0,0025%

ACSspectrophotometric grade
<0,001% <0,001% 0,002% 0,0005% 0,001% 0,001% <0,0005%

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Annex K (informative) Molecular contaminant content of some wipe materials


TableK1:Molecularcontaminantcontentofsomewipematerials Wipematerial
Vectraalpha10 absorbond

Cleanroomclass
ISOclass34 ISOclass67

NVR(g/m) IPA
0,05 0,01 0,01 0,01

DIW
0,02 0,005 0,03 0,03

KimtechpureCL5 ISOclass5 KimtechpureCL6 ISOclass6

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Annex L (informative) Effects of humidity on materials and components


TableL1:Effectofhumidityonmaterialsandcomponents %RH Range
030 3050 5065 6580 80100 Seriousstaticchargeproblems Safeforhighlypolishedmetalsurfacesorclosedcomponents MarginallysafeforhumiditysensitiveproductsContaminatedmetal surfacesstarttocorrode Corrosionrateincreaseslargely Someplasticsswell Rapidcorrosion Reducedelectricalresistivity
NOTEForsomematerials,humidityhasaneffectonthematerialdimensionalstability

Effect

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Annex M (informative) Cleaning methods


M.1 Removal of particulate contamination
M.1.1 Overview

The removal of particulate contamination can be performed with, but not limitedto,themethodsdescribedinM.1.2toM.1.4

M.1.2

Vacuum cleaning and wiping

Dust can be removed with the aid of an ordinary vacuum cleaner, combinedwithagoodbrush.Havingtheexhaustofthevacuumcleaner outside the cleanroom is preferred to avoid recontamination. Clean air supplytotheitemtobecleanedisused,otherwisethecontaminationof items to be cleaned can be increased by the relative dirty air which is extracted from the environment (e.g. when electrostatic attraction can occur).OnlyvacuumcleanersequippedwithHEPAfiltersareusedina cleanroomandcheckedwithaUVlampwhileworking. Wiping is performed with extreme care, otherwise surfaces can be scratchedanddustcansimplybewipedontoothercleanitemsinthe vicinity.

Since, in any case, solvent leads particles to the bottom of cleaned part, those particlesshouldberecoveredwithavacuumcleanerattheend. Aneffectiveformofwipingcanbeusedoftissuesdippedinmethanol.

M.1.3

Gas jet cleaning

Anothermethodofremovalofparticlesistheverycarefuluseofajetof compressed gas, since contamination of the other clean items in the vicinity can result. Cleaning agents, such as brushes, wipe tissues or compressedgas,canthemselvescontaminatetheitemtobecleanedand can lead to dust scratching the surface during cleaning. Ionized air is a goodapproachintheremovalofparticlesbyairblowing. Cleaningwithdryice(e.g.CO2jetspray)canbeveryeffective.

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M.1.4

Tapes and films trapping

Larger particles can be removed by means of polyimide adhesive tape, eventuallyrolledaroundametalorotherappropriatetool(e.g.swabs). Thehardwaretobecleanedcanbecoatedwithshrinkablepolymerfilm and,afterdrying,thefilmcanberemovedwiththecontaminants.Useof this type of cleaning method needs to be carefully evaluated as it is knowntohavedetrimentaleffectsonsomematerials(e.g.goldcoatings).

M.2 Removal of molecular contamination


M.2.1 Overview

The removal of molecular contamination can be performed with, but not limitedto,themethodsdescribedinM.2.2toM.2.8.

M.2.2

Mechanical cleaning

Drywiping:cleanlintfreeclothorlenspaperisused,however,ithasthe disadvantagethatitcanscratchthesurfaces. Wet wiping: a clean cloth or paper is used in conjunction with organic solvents. Othermechanicalcleaningaregrinding,brushingandblasting.

M.2.3

Solvent and detergent cleaning

Solvent cleaning: examples are washing, dipping, spraying, vapour cleaningandultrasoniccleaning. Detergent cleaning or soap cleaning: Detergent cleaning (or soap cleaning) for, for example, glass, rubbers, plastics, polyamides, PTFE, polypropylene and acrylates and all ferrous metals, including stainless steel. Such detergents also clean nonferrous metals, such as aluminium and brass, but have an oxidizing effect on their surface. A detergent or soapcleaningisfollowedupbyafinalcleaningwithsolventtoremove alltracesofdetergent. Chemical or electrochemical cleaning with, for example, acids, alkalines andsaltsforsmoothingmetalsurfaces

M.2.4

Films trapping

Use of shrinkable polymer film, peeled after drying, can also be very effectivefortheremovalofmolecules(notforopticalsurfaces).

M.2.5

Gas jet cleaning

Cleaning with dry ice (CO2 jet spray): this is very effective for the removalofmolecularlayers.

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M.2.6

Plasma cleaning

Cleaning with ionized inert low pressure gas: This is very effective for theremovalofpolymerizedproducts.

M.2.7

Bakeout

Volatilizing under vacuum is especially successful for cleaning assembledunits,orwhensolventcleaningistoodelicateanoperation.

M.2.8

Ultra-violet-ozone cleaning

Molecules of an organic nature are activated by ultraviolet light, resultingindissociation,afterwhichtheyreactwiththeozoneproduced intheairbyultravioletlight.

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Bibliography

ECSSSST00 ECSSQST10 ECSSQST7005 ECSSEST1004 ASTME121687(1992) ASTME1235M95

ECSSsystemDescription,implementationand generalrequirements SpaceproductassuranceProductassurance management SpaceproductassuranceDetectionoforganic contaminationofsurfacesbyinfraredspectroscopy SpaceengineeringSpaceenvironment StandardPracticeforSamplingforSurfaceParticulate ContaminationbyTapeLift StandardTestMethodforGravimetricDetermination ofNonvolatileResidue(NVR)inEnvironmentally ControlledAreasforSpacecraft StandardTestMethodforContaminationOutgassing CharacteristicsofSpacecraftMaterials ContaminationandCleanlinessControl Contaminationcontrolhandbook Contaminationcontroltechnologycleaningmaterials forprecisionprecleaninganduseincleanroomsand cleanwork

ASTME155993 ISO15388 NASASP5076 MILHDBK406

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