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You are on page 1of 34

Objectives

(1) Extend the basic principles of mass and momentum to flows with non-uniform velocity

and pressure.

(2) Extend the continuity principle to time-varying flows.

(3) Apply continuity and Bernoulli’s eqn for flow measurement and tank-emptying problems.

(4) Learn methods for quantifying losses.

Contents

0.1 Notation

0.2 Dimensionless parameters

0.3 Definitions

0.4 Basic principles of fluid mechanics

0.5 Physical constants

0.6 Properties of common fluids

1.1 Mass and volume fluxes

1.2 Flows with non-uniform velocity

1.3 Time-dependent flow

2.1 Control-volume formulation of the momentum principle

2.2 Fluid forces

2.3 Boundary layers and flow separation

2.4 Drag and lift coefficients

2.5 Calculation of momentum flux

2.6 Calculation of pressure forces

2.7 The wake-traverse method for measurement of drag

3. Energy

3.1 Bernoulli’s equation

3.2 Fluid head

3.3 Static and stagnation pressure

3.4 Flow measurement

3.5 Tank emptying

3.6 Summary of methods for incorporating losses

References

Hamill (2001) – Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 7

Chadwick and Morfett (2004) – Chapters 1, 2, 3

Massey (1998) – Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4

White (2002) – Chapters 1, 2, 3

0. REVISION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

0.1 Notation

Geometry

x ≡ (x, y, z) position; (z is usually vertical)

t time

Field Variables

u ≡ (u, v, w) velocity (also use V for average velocity in a pipe or conduit)

p pressure

p – patm is the gauge pressure

p* = p + gz is the piezometric pressure

T temperature

Fluid Properties

density

dynamic (or absolute) viscosity

≡ /

kinematic viscosity

≡ g specific weight (weight per unit volume)

s.g. ≡ / ref specific gravity (or relative density);

“ref” = water (for liquids) or air (for gases)

surface tension (force per unit length)

K bulk modulus (pressure change divided by volumetric strain)

c speed of sound

k conductivity (heat flux per unit area divided by temperature gradient)

UL UL

Re ≡ ≡ Reynolds1 number (viscous flow)

U

Fr ≡ Froude2 number (open-channel hydraulics)

gL

U

Ma ≡ Mach3 number (compressible flow)

c

U 2L

We ≡ Weber4 number (surface tension)

fL

St = Strouhal5 number (vortex shedding; f = shedding frequency)

U

Here, U is a representative velocity scale and L is a representative length scale. There are

many other important dimensionless combinations (see Topic T3: “Dimensional Analysis”).

1

Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912); appointed first Professor of Engineering at Owens College (precursor of the

University of Manchester).

2

William Froude (1810-1879), British naval architect; developed scaling laws for the model testing of ships.

3

Ernst Mach (1838-1916), Austrian physicist and philosopher.

4

Moritz Weber (1871-1951), developed modern dimensional analysis; actually named the Re and Fr numbers.

5

Vincenz Strouhal (1850-1922), Czech physicist; investigated the “singing” of wires.

0.3 Definitions

A fluid is a substance that continuously deforms under a shear stress, no matter how small.

A solid will reach equilibrium under such a stress.

Fluids may be liquids (definite volume; free surface) or gases (expand to fill any container).

Hydrodynamics is the study of fluids in motion.

Aerodynamics is the study of the flow of gases (usually air).

All fluids are compressible to some degree, but their flow can be approximated as

incompressible (that is, hydrodynamic pressure changes don’t give rise to density changes)

for velocities much less than the speed of sound (∼ 1480 m s–1 in water, 340 m s–1 in air).

An ideal fluid is one with no viscosity. It doesn’t exist, but it can be a good approximation.

A Newtonian fluid is one for which viscous stress is proportional to velocity gradient (rate of

strain):

du

=

dy

where is the viscosity. Most fluids of interest in hydraulics (including air and water) are

Newtonian, but there are some important non-Newtonian fluids (e.g. mud, blood, paint).

Real flows may be laminar (adjacent layers slide smoothly over each other) or turbulent

(subject to random fluctuations about a mean flow). If the viscosity is too small to maintain a

smooth, orderly flow, then a laminar flow undergoes transition and becomes turbulent.

Although transition to turbulence is dependent on a number of factors, including surface

roughness, the primary determinant is the Reynolds number

UL UL

Re ≡ ≡ (1)

U and L are typical velocity and length scales of the flow. In general:

“high” Re turbulent

“low” Re laminar

pipe flow: ReD ≈ 2300;

circular cylinder: ReD ≈ 3×105;

flat plate: Rex ≈ 5×105 – 3×106.

Important. The Reynolds number and its critical value depend on which velocity and length

scale are used to define it – which should be stated. For example, you could choose to use

either radius or diameter for flow in a pipe, and they would obviously give a factor-of-2

difference in Reynolds number even though the flow is the same. (Why are the values quoted

for circular cylinder and flat plate above so much larger than that for pipe flow?)

The vast majority of civil-engineering and environmental flows have high Reynolds numbers

and are fully turbulent.

0.4 Basic Principles of Fluid Mechanics

Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Principle

dp

p=− g z or =− g (2)

dz

The same equation holds in a moving fluid if there is no vertical component of acceleration.

p + gz = constant

p + gz is called the piezometric pressure, p*. It represents the combined effect of pressure

and weight.

Thermodynamics

For compressible fluids thermodynamics and heat input are important and one requires, in

addition, an equation of state; e.g.

p = RT (3)

The gas constant R is a constant for any particular gas and is given by R = R0 / m, where R0 is

the universal gas constant and m is the mass of one mole. For dry air, R = 287 J kg–1 K–1.

T (K ) = T (°C) + 273.15 (4)

Fluid Dynamics

Mass is neither created nor destroyed.

For steady flow, flow in = flow out

Momentum Principle

Force = rate of change of momentum.

For steady flow, force = (momentum flux)out – (momentum flux)in

Energy

Change in energy = heat supplied + work done

For incompressible flow, change of kinetic energy = work done

The Energy Equation

For incompressible fluids the energy equation is a purely mechanical equation, equivalent to,

and directly derivable from, the Momentum Principle.

Bernoulli’s Equation

p

+ gz + 12 U 2 = constant along a streamline

p

( + gz + 12 U 2 ) = work done on fluid (5)

Here, ( ) means “change in” and the RHS of (5) represents the energy (per unit mass) input

by pumps or removed by turbines or friction.

For compressible fluids the energy equation involves thermodynamics. The energy per unit

mass is supplemented by the internal energy e and energy can also be transferred to the fluid

as heat. (5) becomes

p

(e + + gz + 12 U 2 ) = heat supplied to fluid + work done on fluid (6)

Universal gas constant: R0 = 8314 J kg–1 K–1

Standard atmospheric pressure: 1 atmosphere = 1.01325×105 Pa = 1.01325 bar

IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry): 0° C (273.15 K) and 105 Pa.

ISO (International Standards Organisation): 0° C (273.15 K) and 1 atm (1.01325×105 Pa).

Since two major international organisations can’t agree it’s probably better to specify

reference conditions explicitly.

0.6 Properties of Common Fluids

Properties are given at 1 atmosphere and 20 ºC unless otherwise specified.

Air

Density: = 1.20 kg m–3 ( = 1.29 kg m–3 at 0 ºC)

Specific weight: = 11.8 N m–3

Dynamic viscosity: = 1.80×10–5 kg m–1 s–1 (or Pa s)

Kinematic viscosity: = 1.50×10–5 m2 s–1

Specific heat capacity at constant volume: cv = 718 J kg–1 K–1

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure: cp = 1005 J kg–1 K–1

Gas constant: R = 287 J kg–1 K–1

Speed of sound: c = 343 m s–1

Water

Density: = 998 kg m–3 ( = 1000 kg m–3 at 0 ºC)

Specific weight: = 9790 N m–3

Dynamic viscosity: = 1.003×10–3 kg m–1 s–1 (or Pa s)

Kinematic viscosity: = 1.005×10–6 m2 s–1

Surface tension: = 0.0728 N m–1

Speed of sound: c = 1482 m s–1

Mercury

Density: = 13550 kg m–3

Ethanol

Density: = 789 kg m–3

Water Air

T (°C) (kg m–3) (Pa s) (m2 s–1) (kg m–3) (Pa s) (m2 s–1)

0 1000 1.788×10–3 1.788×10–6 1.29 1.71×10–5 1.33×10–5

20 998 1.003×10–3 1.005×10–6 1.20 1.80×10–5 1.50×10–5

50 988 0.548×10–3 0.555×10–6 1.09 1.95×10–5 1.79×10–5

100 958 0.283×10–3 0.295×10–6 0.946 2.17×10–5 2.30×10–5

As temperature increases:

viscosities of liquids decrease;

viscosities of gases increase.

(Explain why.)

3/ 2

T T0 + S

= (7)

0 T0 T +S

For air: T0 = 273 K,

0 = 1.71×10–5 Pa s, S = 110.4 K.

1. CONTINUITY (CONSERVATION OF MASS) mout

The rate at which something crosses a surface is called its flux. “Mass flux”

(or “mass flow rate”) is the mass crossing a given surface per unit time. m

Conservation of mass can be applied to the fluid in or passing through the

surface of an arbitrary control volume: min

d

Unsteady flow: (mass ) = (mass flux) in − (mass flux) out

dt

A

Volume flux: Q = uA (m3 s–1) u

Mass flux: m = Q = uA (kg s–1)

For an incompressible flow, is constant along a streamline and mass conservation implies

volume conservation; i.e.:

Q1 = Q 2 1

2 u2

u1

If u is uniform over the cross-section then

u1 A1 = u 2 A2

total flow in = total flow out

Q in = Q out

and the total volume flux or mass flux must be obtained by summation or, for continuously-

varying quantities, by integration.

Example.

The figure shows a converging two-dimensional duct in which flow enters in two layers. A

fluid of specific gravity 0.8 flows as the top layer at a velocity of 2 m s–1 and water flows

along the bottom layer at a velocity of 4 m s–1. The two layers are each of thickness 0.5 m.

The two flows mix thoroughly in the duct and the mixture exits to atmosphere with the

velocity uniform across the section of depth 0.5 m.

0.5 m 2 m/s

0.5 m

0.5 m 4 m/s

p1=15 kN/m2

(b) Determine the density of the mixture at the exit.

(c) If the pressure p1 at the upstream section is 15 kPa, what is the force per unit width

exerted on the duct? (Do this part after Section 2 on the Momentum Principle).

The continuity principle may be extended to cases where u varies over a cross-section (e.g.

flow in pipes or flow in a boundary layer) by considering the flow to be broken down into

infinitesimal areas dA, across each of which the velocity is approximately constant:

dQ = u dA

The total quantity of flow is found by summation or, in the limit of small areas, integration:

The average velocity (sometimes called the bulk velocity) is that constant velocity which

would give the same total flow rate; i.e. Q = u av A or

Q

Average velocity: u av = (9)

A

In other words, to find the average velocity from a non-uniform velocity profile you will first

have to find Q.

b

1.2.1 Two-Dimensional Flow

u(y)

dy

Velocity is a function of height:

u ≡ u(y)

This is often the case in a wide rectangular channel.

A small element of area over which the velocity is uniform has the form of a rectangle, width

b and height dy:

dA = b dy

or:

Example.

The distribution of velocity in a rectangular channel of width b = 800 mm and depth h = 200

mm is given by

1

y 7

u = u0

h

–1

where u0 = 8 m s . What is (a) the quantity of flow; (b) the average velocity?

Solution.

(a)

h

y

Q= u dA = b u 0 ( )1 / 7 dy (b = 0.8 m, h = 0.2 m, u0 = 8 m s–1)

0 h

Simplify the integral with a change of variables Y = y / h, dY = dy / h :

1 1

7 8/7 7

Q = u 0 bh Y 1 / 7 dY = u 0 bh × Y = u 0 bh

0 8 0 8

−1

= 1.12 m s

3

(b)

flow rate Q

u av = =

area bh

7

= u0

8

= 7 m s −1

u(r)

1.2.2 Axisymmetric Flow

r dr

Velocity is a function of radius:

u ≡ u (r )

Examples include pipes and jets.

A small element of area over which the velocity is uniform has the form of an infinitesimal

hoop of radius r, thickness dr:

dA = 2 r dr (12)

Quantity of flow: Q= u 2 r dr

(13)

Example.

Fully-developed laminar flow in a pipe of radius R has velocity profile:

u = u 0 (1 − r 2 /R 2 )

Find the average velocity in terms of u0.

Solution.

The average velocity can be found by dividing the flow rate by the area. For the flow rate,

R R

Q= u 2 r dr = 2

u 0 (1 − r 2 / R 2 )r dr

0 0

Substitute s = r / R, ds = dr / R for convenience:

1 1 1

s2 s4

Q = 2 R u0

2

(1 − s ) s ds = 2 R u 0

2

2

( s − s ) ds = 2 R u 0

3

2

−

0 0 2 4 0

1 2

= R u0

2

Hence,

Q

u av =

R2

1

= u0

2

Note. For velocity profiles measured in an experiment (where the integral must usually be

evaluated graphically), it is unnatural and inaccurate to have the integrand vanishing at the

centre (since this is where velocity is highest) and (13) can be rewritten as

Q=

u dr 2 (14)

i.e.

Quantity of flow =

See, for example, the pipe-flow laboratory experiment and the Example Sheet.

1.3 Time-Dependent Flow

• fluid oscillations; e.g. pressure transients in pipes, vortex shedding, waves;

• moving-boundary problems; e.g. pistons, rotating machinery.

The mass of fluid (m) inside a control volume can vary if either the density of fluid or the size

of the control volume changes. To balance this there must be a net mass flux through the

boundaries of the control volume. Thus, in any time interval

change of mass = mass that has flowed in – mass that has flowed out

or, in rate form,

dm

= (mass flux ) in − (mass flux) out (15)

dt

dV

= Qin − Qout (16)

dt

Example. (White, 2002) An incompressible fluid is being squeezed outwards between two

large circular discs by the uniform downward motion V0 of the upper disc. Assuming 1-

dimensional radial outflow, derive an expression for V(r).

V0

r

h(t) V(r)

Hence, using a control volume consisting of a cylinder of height h and radius r:

dV

= Qin − Qout

dt

d

( r 2 h) = 0 − (2 rh)V

dt

dh

r2 = −2 rhV

dt

r dh

V =−

2 h dt

dh

But = −V0 . Hence,

dt

Vr

V= 0

2h

2. FORCES AND MOMENTUM

Momentum Principle

Force = rate of change of momentum (17)

In principle this is a vector equation, but, in practice, often only one direction is relevant.

An ideal fluid is one without viscosity. Ideal fluids don’t exist, but can be a useful

approximation. The momentum equation for an ideal fluid is often called the Euler equation6.

The momentum equation for a real fluid is often called the Navier7-Stokes8 equation.

The equation of motion (17) can be expressed mathematically in many ways, including partial

differential equations, velocity potential (a bit like gravitational potential), vorticity (related to

local angular momentum), or even in terms of complex variables (see White, 2002).

u out

Fortunately, in hydraulics it is usually adequate to work from first principles

by considering the momentum balance for a control volume (CV).

force = rate of change of momentum u in

mass × change in velocity

=

time

= Q(u out − uin )

This is OK if the velocity at inflow and outflow are uniform, but not very useful if they vary.

Instead we define

= (rate at which momentum leaves CV) – (rate at which momentum enters CV)

6

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), Swiss mathematician, later Professor of Physics at the St Petersburg Academy;

tackled many problems in fluid mechanics and mathematical physics.

7

Claude Navier (1785-1836), French civil engineer; also known for his strong political views, including

opposition to Napoleon’s military aggression.

8

George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903), Irish mathematician and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at

Cambridge; many important works in hydrodynamics.

Example.

A jet of fluid flows smoothly onto a stationary curved vane which turns it through 45°. The

initial jet has diameter 40 mm and uniform velocity 25 m s–1. The exit jet may be assumed to

have uniform velocity 20 m s–1. Calculate the net force on the vane.

20 m/s

45

40 mm

25 m/s

Solution.

Gauge pressures are zero at inlet, outlet and free surface so that there is no net pressure force.

Let the force on the vane be F = ( Fx , Fy ) . Then the reaction of the vane on the fluid is

− F = (− Fx ,− Fy ) . A suitable control volume cuts incident and deflected jets where the flow is

uniform.

Mass flux:

D2

Q = u1

4

× 0.04 2

= 1000 × 25 × = 31.42 kg s -1

4

Momentum in x direction:

− Fx = Q(u 2 cos 45° − u1 )

1

= 31.42 × (20 × − 25) = −341.2 N

2

Momentum in y direction:

− F y = Q(u 2 sin 45° − 0)

1

= 31.42 × (20 × ) = 444.3 N

2

Net force on the vane, (Fx,Fy) = (341, – 444) N, or 560 N at angle 52.5° to the horizontal.

If there is more than one inflow or outflow then the net momentum flux must be obtained by

summation. In particular, for non-uniform flows it is necessary to work out momentum fluxes

(Section 2.5) and fluid forces (Section 2.6) by summation or integration.

2.2 Fluid Forces

• body forces (proportional to amount of fluid); e.g.

– weight;

• surface forces (proportional to area); e.g.

– pressure forces;

– viscous forces;

• reactions from solid boundaries.

(Note that weight acts irrespective of whether the fluid is moving or not and would be

balanced by a reaction, or, internally, by a hydrostatic pressure distribution. It can, therefore,

be excluded from the analysis if we consider only departures from this hydrostatic state.)

These are the only forces we shall consider here. However, other fluid forces exist; e.g.

– Coriolis forces in a rotating frame (e.g in meteorology);

– surface tension.

force

stress = (20)

area

or

force = stress × area

the control volume shown the net pressure force in the x direction

from pressures on the left (l) and right (r) faces is p lA prA

pl A − p r A A

Since the net effect of a uniform pressure on all boundaries is

∆x

zero it does not matter whether absolute, gauge or other relative

pressure is used, provided that one is consistent.

volume shown the net force in the x direction from shear stresses on A τt A

the top (t) and bottom (b) faces is

tA− bA ∆y

What we have called above is strictly xy: for complex flows other τ A

b

components ( xz, xx, yy, …) may be important. By convention, xy is

the force per unit area in the x direction that the fluid on the upper (greater y) side of the

interface exerts on the fluid on the lower (smaller y) side.

Shear stresses arise from two sources: viscous forces and, in turbulent flow, the net transfer

of momentum across an interface by turbulent fluctuations (which, as far as the mean flow is

concerned, has the same effect as a force).

For Newtonian fluids, viscous stress is proportional to velocity gradient. If y

velocity u is a function of y only then, in laminar flow:

du τ

= (21)

dy

This defines the dynamic viscosity, . (In more complex flow fields a more

u

In turbulent flow one is usually only interested in the mean velocity u . Since momentum

transfer between fast- and slow-moving fluid is dominated by the net effect of turbulent

fluctuations rather than viscous stresses the mean shear stress is not equal to du /dy .

effect on the flow. The most important example is boundary-layer separation.

In real fluids velocity vanishes at solid boundaries; (the no-slip condition). This gives rise to a

boundary layer close to walls where velocity changes rapidly from its value in the free

stream to zero at the boundary. At high Reynolds numbers boundary layer are usually

extremely thin.

In an adverse pressure gradient (where pressure increases and velocity decreases in the

direction of flow; for example, in an expanding channel) the net force in the opposite

direction to flow actually causes the more-slowly-moving fluid near the boundary to reverse

direction. This backflow leads to flow separation.

ers

e

gra pres

die sure

nt

bac

kflo

w

flow separation

Turbulence in the boundary layer helps to prevent or delay flow separation because it readily

transports fast-moving fluid from the free stream into the near-wall region, maintaining

forward motion.

at all but the smallest Reynolds numbers and causes a large

increase in pressure (or form) drag. For more streamlined

bodies with convex boundaries separation may or may not

occur.

lift F

The force on a body in a flow can be

resolved into streamwise and cross-stream U0 drag

components.

Lift = component of force perpendicular to the approach flow.

dynamic pressure ( 12 U 02 ) × area:

Drag Coefficient

drag

cD = (22)

1

2

U 02 A

A is a “representative” area which depends on the body geometry and the nature of the flow

(see below). Like the Reynolds number it should always be specified when defining cD.

• force is predominantly pressure drag U0

• A is the projected area (normal to the flow) A

• cD = O(1)

• force is predominantly viscous drag U0

• A is the plan area (parallel to the flow) A

• cD << 1

2.5 Calculation of Momentum Flux

The momentum principle for steady flow may be written for a general control volume:

Force = (momentum flux) out − (momentum flux) in

where

momentum flux = mass flux × velocity

= ( Q)u (23)

= ( uA)u

If velocity is not constant then the momentum flux can be calculated (as for mass flux) by

breaking the surface into small areas over each of which the velocity is uniform. In particular,

if the velocity varies continuously over a cross-section then the sum of contributions from

infinitesimal areas can be obtained by integration; e.g. for the x-component:

momentum flux = u 2 dA (24)

Special Cases

(i) Uniform

U 2A

Area A

b

(ii) 2-dimensional u(y)

dy

b u 2 dy

dA = b dy

r dr

u 2 2 r dr

dA = 2 r dr

Note. As for the mass flux, for experimental measurements and graphical integration rather

than theoretical work it is usually more appropriate (and accurate) to write the last of these as

Axisymmetric flow momentum flux =

u 2 dr 2

Example. (Examination, January 2003)

A two-dimensional beam of height h = 100 mm completely spans a square air-conditioning

duct of height D = 400 mm (see Figure). The approach flow is uniform (u1 = 0.6 m s–1),

whilst the downstream velocity profile is 2-dimensional and may be represented by:

3 1 y

u 2 ( − cos ) ( y < 2h )

u= 4 4 2h

u2 ( y ≥ 2h )

The pressure is uniform over the height of the duct at both sections. Neglecting drag on the

walls of the duct find:

(a) the value of u2;

(b) the difference between pressures at inlet and downstream sections, assuming that

Bernoulli’s equation holds outside the wake region;

(c) the force on the beam.

Also,

(d) define a suitable drag coefficient for the beam and calculate its value.

0.6 m/s

400 mm

100 mm

Solution.

(a) Continuity (per unit width):

2h D

3 1 y

u1 D = u dy = u 2 ( − cos ) dy + u 2 dy

0 4 4 2h 2h

wake

2h

3 1 2h y 3

= u2 y− sin + D − 2h = u 2 ( h + D − 2 h )

4 4 2h 0 2

1

= u 2 ( D − h)

2

Hence

D 400

u 2 = u1 = 0 .6 × = 0.6857 m s −1

D − 12 h 350

(b) By Bernoulli’s equation:

p1 + 12 u12 = p 2 + 12 u 22

p1 − p 2 = 1

2

force = rate of change of momentum = (momentum flux)out – (momentum flux)in

p1 D 2 − p 2 D 2 − F = D u 2 dy − u12 D 2

wake

1

F = D 2 p1 − p 2 + (u12 −

u 2 dy )

D

wake

Now

2h D

3 1 y

u 2

dy = u ( − cos ) 2 dy +

2

2 u 22 dy

0 4 4 2h 2h

wake

2h

1 y

y

=u 2

2 (9 − 6 cos + cos 2 ) dy + D − 2h

16 0 2h 2h

2h

1

y 1 1 y

= u 22 (9 − 6 cos + + cos ) dy + D − 2h

16 0 2h 2 2 h

2h

1 19 2h y 1h y

=u 2

2 y − 6 sin + sin + D − 2h

16 2 2h 2

h

19

= u 22 ( h + D − 2h)

16

13

= u 22 ( D − h)

16

Hence

13 h

F = D 2 p1 − p 2 + [u12 − u 22 (1 − )]

16 D

13 1

= 0.4 2 0.06611 + 1.2 0.6 2 − 0.6857 2 (1 − × ) = 0.007759 N

16 4

F 0.007759

cD = 1 2 = = 0.90

2 u1 Dh

1

2 × 1.2 × 0.6 2 × 0.4 × 0.1

Example. (Examination, January 2004)

A long T-shaped element, of depth h / 4 and oriented symmetrically as shown below,

completely spans a wind-tunnel duct of depth 2h, where h = 0.2 m. The velocity upstream is

uniform: U0 = 40 m s–1. The velocity distribution is measured at a position downstream and is

found to be

2

1 y2

U ( y ) = U max 1− 1− 2

2 h

where y is the distance from the centreline.

y

h

U0 U(y)

(a) Sketch the expected pattern of flow around the T-shaped element, indicating, in

particular, separation and reattachment points, recirculating flow regions and the

direction of flow.

(b) Calculate Umax.

(c) If the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream section is 200 Pa, find the

force per unit span on the T-shaped element.

(d) Define a suitable drag coefficient for the element and calculate its value.

Water enters a horizontal pipe of diameter 20 mm with uniform velocity 0.1 m s–1 at point A.

At point B some distance downstream the velocity profile becomes fully-developed and

varies with radius r according to:

u = u 0 (1 − r 2 /R 2 )

where R is the radius of the pipe. The pressure drop between A and B is 32 Pa.

(b) Calculate the total drag on the wall of the pipe between A and B.

(c) Beyond point B the pipe undergoes a smooth contraction to a new diameter DC.

Estimate the diameter DC at which the flow would cease to be laminar.

[The critical Reynolds number for transition in a circular pipe, based on average velocity and

diameter is 2300. Take the density and kinematic viscosity of water as = 1000 kg m–3 and

= 1.1×10–6 m2 s–1 respectively.]

2.6 Calculation of Pressure Forces

p

When pressure changes with position the total pressure force can also be

found by summing over small contributions dA

p dA

Be very careful about direction in specific situations.

Example.

Find the hydrostatic force per unit width and the centre of

y s

pressure on a plane wall inclined at to the vertical.

h

Solution. L

The water depth is h and the total inclined length is L. Local

depth y and inclined distance s are defined in the diagram: θ

y = s cos

p = gy = gs cos

The total pressure force can be found by summing over contributions from small inclined

areas dA = ds × 1 . The force per unit width f is then

f = p dA

L

=

gs cos ds

s =0

= 1

gL2 cos

f ×s = s × p dA

L

1

2 gL2 cos × s = gs 2 cos ds

s =0

= 1

3 gL3 cos

s = 23 L

Notes.

(i) All pressures are relative to a convenient reference – here, atmospheric pressure.

f = ( 12 gL cos ) × L

= 1

2

gh × L

= average pressure × area ( per unit width)

(iii) The x component of total force (per unit width) is

f cos = 12 gh × h = average pressure × depth

The y component of total force is

f sin = 12 gh × L sin = ( 12 hL sin ) g = weight of water above

These are general results, even for curved surfaces, as can be seen by balancing forces

on the volume of fluid above the plate.

(iv) The centre of pressure, on the line of action of the resultant, is at 2/3 of total depth.

The pressure force on a small element is directed normal to that element. The pressure force

on the 2-d element of length ds shown has individual x and y components

df x = ( p ds ) cos

= p dy θ

= pressure × projected area normal to the x direction ds dy

df y = ( p ds ) sin

= p dx

dx

= pressure × projected area normal to the y direction

Thus, for inclined surfaces, one can find components of force by either:

calculating the force, then taking components in x and y directions;

or

multiplying pressure by x and y components of area.

pU(x)

aerofoil sections the pressure force (per unit span) in the

upward y direction is

p L ( x) dx − pU ( x) dx = ( p L − pU ) dx

pL(x)

lower surface upper surface

x

This can be used to calculate the lift force.

hydrodynamic force. If the fluid

exerts a force F on the body then

F

F

the body exerts a reaction force

–F on the fluid. By measuring

the change in momentum and

pressure one can use the momentum principle to deduce the force on the body.

Suitable control volumes for constrained (e.g. wind tunnel) and unconstrained flow are shown

below. Upper and lower boundaries are streamlines, across which there is no mass or

momentum flux.

(i) constrained (change in free-stream velocity)

body

wake of low-velocity downstream. If

inflow wake the flow is constrained by boundaries

then the velocity outside the wake

must increase slightly, with a

compensating fall in pressure. In the

unconstrained case, upper and lower

boundaries should be sufficiently far

(ii) unconstrained (no change in free-stream velocity)

away that pressure is equal to that in

the free stream.

body

inflow wake

streamline

force = (momentum flux)out – (momentum flux)in

−F + Pin dA − p dA = u 2 dA − U in2 dA (25)

in out out in

Since the inflow velocity is uniform (Uin) the last term can be converted to an integral over

the outflow by using continuity:

U in2 dA = U in U in dA = U in u dA = U in u dA

in in out out

Substituting in (25) and rearranging gives

F= [ u (U in − u ) + ( Pin − p)] dA (26)

out

For unconstrained flows, pressures upstream and downstream are equal, as are the free-

stream velocities: Uin = Uout. In the constrained case, it can be shown that, provided the wake

is narrow (so that the difference in free-stream velocities is small), any pressure difference

approximately9 compensates for the change in free-stream velocity U . In both cases, then,

F= u (U ∞ − u ) dA (27)

out

Thus, hydrodynamic forces may be deduced indirectly by measuring momentum deficit in the

wake, rather than directly using a force balance. This is called the wake traverse method and

you will have an opportunity to use it in the wind-tunnel laboratory experiment.

9

By Bernoulli, Pin − Pout = 1

2

2

(U out − U in2 ) ; the error in (27) is 1

2

order in the (small) free-stream velocity difference Uin – Uout.

3. ENERGY

A. In the absence of thermal effects the energy of fluid passing 2

u1 u2

through it is changed by the work done by pressure and

viscous forces from the adjacent fluid and energy supplied or

removed by external agents (e.g. pumps and turbines).

Since the sides are locally parallel to the flow, energy only flows in or out of the control

volume through ends 1 and 2. Hence, for steady flow,

(rate of energy passing 2) − (rate of energy passing 1) = rate of doing work (28)

The mechanical energy consists of kinetic energy (½mU2) and potential energy (mgz).

The rate at which forces do work (i.e. power) is given by force × velocity (in direction of

force). The rate of working of pressure at end 1 is therefore (pAU)1 and at end 2 is –(pAU)2.

where U is flow speed. Pressure does no work on the sides because force and velocity are

perpendicular there.

Q( 12 U 2 + gz ) 2 − Q( 12 U 2 + gz )1 = ( pAU )1 − ( pAU ) 2 + W

where W consists of the rate of working of friction forces (i.e. losses) and pumps/turbines

etc. Q = AU is the mass flow rate, which must be constant along the stream tube. Dividing

by Q = AU gives

p p W

( 12 U 2 + gz ) 2 − ( 12 U 2 + gz )1 = ( )1 − ( ) 2 +

Q

or, rearranging,

p

( + 12 U 2 + gz ) = (29)

∆ means “change in” and is the work done per unit mass of fluid passing through this

length of stream tube.

Notes.

(i) represents all non-pressure work done on the system. It is composed of frictional

losses (due to viscosity) and any work done on or by the flow via pumps, turbines etc.

(ii) Each term in the equation represents some form of energy or work done per unit

mass.

(iii) (29) can easily be extended to thermal flows (boilers, condensers, refrigerators, ...) by

adding the internal energy e to the LHS and the rate of heat input QH to the RHS.

(iv) If there are no losses and no external sources of energy then (29) reduces to

Bernoulli’s equation10:

p 1 2

+ 2 U + gz = constant (along a streamline) (30)

For incompressible flows, is also constant along a streamline and hence this

equation is often applied as

p + 12 U 2 + gz = constant (along a streamline) (31)

Note the assumptions:

• inviscid (no losses)

• incompressible

• steady

• along a streamline (different streamlines may have a different “constant”)

Example. Water is emptied from a tank through a horizontal pipe with centreline h below the

level of water in the tank. The pipe has a severe constriction where the diameter is D1 and the

water exits to the atmosphere through a nozzle of diameter D2 (> D1).

h

D1 D2

(1) (2)

(a) Assuming no losses, formulate an expression for the gauge pressure at the constricted

section (1) in terms of diameters D1 and D2 and the tank level h.

(b) Cavitation (i.e. the formation of bubbles of vapour) will occur if the absolute pressure

falls below the vapour pressure for water (2.3 kPa at 20 °C). If the tank level h = 2 m

and the constriction diameter D1 = 25 mm, calculate the exit diameter D2 at which this

begins to occur. To avoid cavitation should you increase or decrease D2?

D2 4

Answer: (a) p1 − p atm = ρgh[1 − ( ) ] ; (b) 39 mm; decrease D2.

D1

10

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) Swiss-Dutch mathematician, a member of an illustrious family of well-known

mathematicians.

3.2 Fluid Head

In Bernoulli’s equation:

( p + gz + 12 U 2 ) = energy change per unit volume

Each term has dimensions of pressure, or of energy per unit volume. If one divides by the

specific weight g these become energies per unit weight:

p U2

( +z+ ) = change in fluid head

g 2g (32)

= energy change per unit weight

Energy per unit weight has dimensions of length and is called fluid head.

p

= pressure head

g

U2

= dynamic head

2g

p U2

+z+ = total (or available) head

g 2g

In hydraulics, energy and pressure are both often expressed in length units; e.g. “metres of

water” or “millimetres of mercury”.

Losses due to friction and the capabilities of pumps are typically specified in terms of head;

that is, work done per unit weight. For the latter the rate of working (i.e. power) is given by

power = gQH

(33)

where Q is the quantity of flow and H is the change in head. These will be examined further

in Topic 2 (Pipe flow) and Topic 4 (Pumps).

stagnation point

A stagnation point is a point on a streamline where the P0 = P + 12 ρU 2 (highest pressure)

U=0

velocity is reduced to zero. In general, any non-rotating P = P0

solid obstacle in a stream produces a stagnation point

next to its upstream surface, where the flow streamlines

must split to pass around the obstacle.

pressure which would arise if the flow were brought instantaneously to rest. By Bernoulli’s

equation it is given (for incompressible fluids) by p + 12 U 2 . We define:

stagnation pressure p + 12 U 2

static pressure p

dynamic pressure 1

2

U2

The dynamic pressure (and hence the flow velocity) is found by the difference between

stagnation and static pressures (see the wind-tunnel laboratory experiment).

3.4 Flow Measurement

(1) Same fluid, same height same pressure

(2) Same fluid, different height p=− g z

A B

U-Tube Manometer y

By rule (1) the pressure at level C is the same in both arms of the manometer.

By rules (2) and (3) it can be found from pA and pB respectively by summing h

the changes in pressure over the heights of columns of fluid:

left arm right arm C

p A + g (h + y ) = pC = p B + gy + m gh

Differential Manometer Equation

p=(

m − ) gh

(34)

p = m gh

(35)

Inclined Manometer

)

arge

L (l

Differences in head may be small and difficult to measure h (small)

accurately. The movement of the manometer fluid may be θ

amplified by inclining the manometer. It is the vertical difference

in height which is proportional to pressure differences: this is given in terms of the much

larger length L by

h = L sin

(36)

3.4.2 Measurement of Velocity

Basic idea: bring the fluid to rest at one point and measure the difference between static and

stagnation (Pitot) pressures:

p0 − p = 1

2

U2

Pitot static dynamic

pressure pressure pressure

Examples.

2

U /2g

(1) Open channel flow. free surface

stagnation point

2g

(3) Pitot-static tube – measures both stagnation and static pressures in the same instrument.

static head tube

static holes

stagnation point

3.4.3 Measurement of Quantity of Flow

Venturi Flowmeter 1

2

A venturi is a localised smooth constriction in a duct.

U increases (by continuity)

p decreases (by Bernoulli)

The difference in pressure between the main flow and

the throat can be measured by a differential manometer and converted to quantity of flow.

Bernoulli: p1 + 12 U 12 = p 2 +

1

2

U 22

p1 − p 2 = 12 (U 22 − U 12 )

There are two unknowns on the RHS but this can be reduced to one (the velocity U1 which is

required) by using continuity:

U 1 A1 = U 2 A2

A

U 2 = U1 1

A2

Hence, substituting for U2 in Bernoulli’s equation:

A

p = 12 U 12 ( 1 ) 2 − 1

A2

Rearranging for U1 and taking Q = U1A1,

1/ 2

2 A12

p

Q=

(37)

( A1 /A2 ) 2 − 1

Q = constant × ( p)1 / 2

(38)

Thus, the flow rate can be found by measuring the pressure difference p.

non-ideality. cd is the ratio of the actual flow rate to the ideal flow rate which would be

computed from Bernoulli’s equation and continuity:

Q = c d Qideal (39)

Design Features

• A large convergence angle is advantageous as it tends to make the flow more uniform.

• A small divergence angle is necessary to prevent flow separation.

• The throat must be long enough for parallel flow to be established.

• For a well-designed flowmeter a typical value of the coefficient of discharge is ~ 0.98.

Orifice Flowmeter

which fluid passes. vena contracta

The fluid cannot turn immediately, so that the emerging stream tube

continues to contract up to the vena contracta – the section of

minimum area.

duct by measuing the differential pressure across an orifice.

divergent region omitted. The basic premise is that the pressure

throughout the recirculating eddy is essentially equal to that at

the vena contracta.

Advantage: cheap.

Disadvantage: considerable loss of energy.

By the same process as that for the venturi meter one obtains:

1/ 2

2 A12

p

Q=

( A1 /Av ) 2 − 1

where Av is the area of the vena contracta. Av is not obvious from the geometry. If Av is

replaced by the area of the orifice then this may be compensated for by a coefficient of

discharge, but, in practice, theory is simply used to deduce the form of relationship between

Q = constant × ( p)1 / 2

(40)

with the constant of proportionality determined by calibration.

Example (Massey). A vertical venturi meter carries a liquid of

relative density 0.8 and has inlet and throat diameter of

150 mm and 75 mm respectively. The pressure connection at

the throat is 150 mm above that at the inlet. If the actual rate

of flow is 40 L s–1 and the coefficient of discharge is 0.96 B

0.075 m

calculate (a) the pressure difference between inlet and throat;

(b) the difference in levels in a vertical U-tube manometer

connected between these points, the tubes above the mercury A

being full of the liquid. (Relative density of mercury = 13.56) 0.15 m

C 0.04 m3/s

Solution.

(a) The difference in static pressure comes from Bernoulli’s equation under ideal conditions:

( p + 12 lV 2 + l gz ) A = ( p + 12 lV 2 + l gz ) B

The velocities to be used in (*) come from the ideal flow rate, which is derived from the

actual flow rate via the coefficient of discharge CD = Q/Qideal:

Q Q/C D

V = ideal 2

=

D /4 D 2/4

3 –1

With Q = 0.04 m s , CD = 0.96, DA = 0.15 m, DB = 0.075 m, this gives

VA = 2.358 m s–1

VB = 9.431 m s–1

The density of the liquid is

−3

l = 0.8 × 1000 = 800 kg m

l (VB − VA ) = 2 × 800 × (9.431 − 2.358 ) = 33350 Pa

2 2 1 2 2

And hence

p A − p B = 33350 + 1 177

= 34527 Pa

(b) The height difference h in the U-tube manometer can be established by equating at the

common height C the pressures found by applying the hydrostatic law in the two arms of the

manometer:

p B + l g ( z B − z C − h) + Hg gh = pC = p A + l g ( z A − z C )

Hence,

( Hg − l ) gh = ( p B + l gz B ) − ( p A + l gz A )

= 1

2

l (VB2 − V A2 )

= 33350 Pa

Then,

33350 33350

h= =

( Hg − l ) g (13560 − 800) × 9.81

= 0.266 m

3.5 Tank Emptying

surface at a distance h above the discharging fluid, apply

Bernoulli’s equation between the free surface and the jet:

h

p1 + 12 U 12 + gz1 = p 2 + 12 U 22 + gz 2

Here, p1 = p 2 = p atm , U 1 = 0, z1 − z 2 = h , so that

2

1

2 U 22 = g ( z1 − z 2 ) = gh

Hence, we have

Torricelli’s Formula11

U exit = 2 gh (41)

If the aperture is large (compared with the height to the free surface), then this value will be

different for each streamline passing through the orifice (because each will have a different

value of h). The total discharge would then have to be found by integration.

Qideal = 2 gh × (area of orifice) (42)

This is not true in practice because of

(i) frictional effects (small for a sharp-edged orifice)

(ii) contraction (area of vena contract < area of orifice).

If these are significant then a coefficient of discharge cd may be introduced to compensate:

Q = c d Qideal

cd must be measured experimentally. For a sharp-edged orifice, cd ≈ 0.6 – 0.65.

Contraction effects can be reduced by using a bellmouth exit to minimise rapid changes in

direction. However, frictional losses are then greater.

Submerged Orifice

same fluid it is called a submerged orifice. In Bernoulli’s

h1 formula p2 is not then atmospheric, but given by p 2 = gh2 .

h2

Torricelli’s formula then reads

U exit = 2 g (h1 − h2 ) (43)

changes rapidly (since it is then time-dependent). If, however, the tank cross section is much

larger than that of the orifice, then a quasi-steady approximation is OK and, by equating the

11

Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647); Italian mathematician of barometer fame; served as secretary to Galileo.

rate at which the volume of fluid in the tank decreases to the rate of discharge from the

orifice,

dV

= −Q (44)

dt

we can find how long it takes to drain the tank.

Example.

A cylindrical tank of base diameter 0.5 m is used to store water. A rupture at the base of the

tank allows water to escape through an aperture of area 8 cm2. A discharge coefficient of 0.6

can be assumed for this orifice. If the depth of water in the tank is initially 0.8 m, how long

does it take to empty the tank?

Solution.

The volume of water in the tank is that of a cylinder of base diameter D = 0.5 m and

(variable) height h. Its volume is, therefore,

D2

V= h

4

This volume is reduced at a rate equal to the flow rate through the aperture, i.e.

Q = c d Qideal = c d U ideal Aexit

where cd = 0.6, Aexit = 8×10-4 m2 and U ideal = 2 gh by Torricelli’s formula.

Hence,

dV

= −Q

dt

d D2

( h) = −c d Aexit 2 gh

dt 4

D 2 dh

= − 2 gh

4c d Aexit dt

D2

h −1 / 2 dh = − dt

4c d Aexit 2 g

Integrating between t = 0 (where h = h0 = 0.8 m) and emptying time T (where h = 0):

0 T

D2

2h 1/ 2

=− t

4c d Aexit 2 g h0 0

2

D h0

− = −T

2c d Aexit 2g

Hence,

D2 h0

× 0.5 2 0.8

T= = −4

×

2c d Aexit 2g 2 × 0.6 × 8 × 10 2 × 9.81

= 165 s

3.6 Summary of Methods For Incorporating Losses

Many theoretical results are derived for ideal fluids, assuming no frictional losses, simplified

geometry and uniform velocity profiles.

In practice, compensation is necessary for non-ideal flow. These include the following

Discharge coefficients

Correct the quantity of flow deduced by Bernoulli’s equation:

Q = c d Qideal

Loss coefficients

Quantify energy or pressure losses in conduits:

V2

H = −K

2g

or, equivalently (and with the same K):

P = − K ( 12 V 2 )

L

(e.g. pipe friction: K = , where is the friction factor).

Account for non-uniform velocity profiles when computing total flux.

u 2 dA = ( u av2 A)

momentum flux,

energy flux,

u 3 dA = ( u av

3

A)

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