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Introduction

In this lab we will investigate the performance of NACA 4412 wing section. NACA 4412 airfoil

was widely used in early days of aviation and has been studied extensively experimentally in

NACA reports ( e.g. 460, 563, 646, 824) .

The airfoil was used as recently as 1996 on BAe ATP airliner.

Fig 1. BAe ATP airliner. Wing root: NACA 23018; tip: NACA 4412

• Wing area: 78.30 m2

• SMC: 2.6m

• Cruise speed: 496 km/h (137 m/s)

• Cruise: Mach ~0.4, Cruise Reynolds(based on smc): ~24m

Most of the experiments were done at a lower speed and lower Reynolds number. Our key

comparison data is from the NACA TR563 report conducted at NACA variable density

windtunnel. The windtunnel data approximately corresponds to the following setup:

• Reynolds ~3m

• Pressure (tank) ~20.8 atm

• Density (tank) ~26 kg/m3

• Uinf ~21 m/s

• Typical airfoil chord ~ 12.7cm

• Mach ~0.06

We will use the panel method XFOIL code developed at MIT by Mark Drela

(http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/xfoil/) and compare our results with the experimental

data for Cp and Cl polar.

Note:

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E. Shapiro, Cranfield University, SoE/FMaCS

• Experimental data for Cp and lift polar is available on Blackboard in Excel format and

plain text for Tecplot.

• In NACA reports, the angle of attack corresponds to uncorrected angle in the

windtunnel. Table II of report TR-563 gives the correlation between corrected angle

and nominal angle.

Open the terminal and start XFOIL by typing “xfoil”. XFOIL is a text driven code. In each level

of the menu “? <enter>” lists possible options and “<enter>” brings you up one level if you

are in a sub-menu.

• Start xfoil.

• You are in the main menu. Select 4412 naca airfoil geometry: “naca 4412 <enter>”

• Display the airfoil by going into the menu for geometry design: “gdes <enter>”

• Enter the operations menu: “oper <enter>”

• Set angle and solve: “a 0 <enter>”

• Cp will be displayed. Note Cl,Cd (0.508,-0.00109)

Inviscid Simulations

Effect of the number of panels for fixed angle of attack. Say 4 degrees

nominal (2.9 corrected)

• Set the angle of attack to 2.9 degrees in the “oper” menu. Note: default number of

panels - 160

• Note Cl, Cd (0.8592,-0.00111)

• Store the cp to a file “cpwr <enter>”

• Return to main menu

• Go to the panelling menu: “ppar <enter>”

• Change the number of panels to 200, and compute the case. Note Cl, Cd (0.8595,

-0.00105)

• Store Cp and repeat the computations for the number of panels 250 and 300.

• Is there convergence with respect to number of panels in terms of Cp distribution and

lift?

• How does the Cp distribution compare with the experiment?

• Note experimental Cl at this angle of attack: ~0.677

• Change the number of panels back to 200

• in “oper” menu specify Mach number: “m 0.06”

• Start accumulating the polar file: “pacc <enter>” and give the name of the polar file.

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E. Shapiro, Cranfield University, SoE/FMaCS

• Compute polar: “aseq <enter>”

• Turn polar accumulation off: “pacc <enter>”

• Compare the polar with the experimental data from Blackboard

Viscous Simulations

Compute viscous Cp at 2.9 degrees

• Leave the number of panels at 200

• Change the number of iterations in the “oper” menu to 500: “iter 500”

• In “oper” menu specify Mach number: “m 0.06”

• In “oper” menu specify Reynolds number: “visc r” (3,000,000)

• Compute the case: “a 2.9”

• Note the value of Cl (0.8039,0.005), is there an improvement in Cl prediction?

• Store the Cp distribution to a file: “cpwr”

• Set the trip for the boundary layer at 0.1. on both sides: “vpar <enter>”; “xtr”

• Compute the case, compare Cp with experimental data, inviscid case and case

without trip. (Cl=0.7806) Is there an improvement in Cl?

• Leave the number of panels at 200.

• Leave trip at 0.1

• Start accumulating the polar file: “pacc <enter>” and give the name of the polar file.

No dump file needed.

• Compute polar: “aseq <enter>”

• Compare the polar with the experiment and inviscid polar. Is there an improvement?.

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